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KAJIAN TEKNOLOGI PROSES PEMBUATAN GAS SINTETIK DARI BATUBARA DAN PROSPEK PEMANFAATAN PADA INDUSTRI HILIRNYA = TECHNOLOGY REVIEW PROCESS OF SYNTHETIC GAS FROM COAL UTILIZATION AND PROSPECT IN DOWNSTREAM INDUSTRIES Harahap, Muslim Efendi; Tjahjono, Endro Wahju
Majalah Ilmiah Pengkajian Industri Vol 10, No 1 (2016): Majalah Ilmiah Pengkajian Industri
Publisher : BPPT

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.29122/mipi.v10i1.104

Abstract

AbstractPotential coal reserves in Indonesia are very abundant, but which became the key issue is the utilization in Indonesia is still not optimal. One alternative to use the coal is by converting it into synthetic gas (syngas), containing primarily hydrogen (H2) and Carbon Monoxide (CO). To create synthetic gas from coal there are 4 kinds of process technology known in the world, i.e. Fixed-bed gasifier, Fluidized-bed gasifier, Entrained-bed gasifier and Molten bath gasifier. There are 3 types of chemical industry to take advantage of this synthetic gas as an alternative of their raw materials i.e., methanol, formic acid and ammonia industry. Currently they use natural gas as raw material. The more widespread use of natural gas for a variety of needs can disrupt the natural gas supply for these industries in the future. Therefore, this synthetic gas can be used as an alternative of raw material supply for these three types of chemical industry in the future. AbstrakPotensi cadangan batubara di Indonesia sangat melimpah, namun yang menjadi isu utama adalah pemanfaatannya di Indonesia masih belum optimal. Salah satu alternatif pemanfaatan batubara tersebut adalah dengan mengkonversi batubara tersebut menjadi gas sintetik (syngas) yang kandungan utamanya adalah Hidrogen (H2) dan Karbon Monoksida (CO). Untuk membuat gas sintetik dari batubara ini ada 4 macam teknologi proses yang telah dikenal di dunia yaitu Fixed-bed gasifier, Fluidized-bed gasifier, Entrained-bed gasifier dan Molten bath gasifier. Ada 3 jenis industri kimia yang dapat memanfaatkan gas sintetik ini sebagai alternatif bahan bakunya yaitu industri metanol, industri asam formiat dan industri amonia. Saat ini mereka menggunakan gas alam sebagai bahan bakunya. Semakin meluasnya penggunaan gas alam untuk berbagai macam kebutuhan dapat menyebabkan pasokan gas alam untuk ketiga jenis industri ini terganggu di kemudian hari. Oleh karena itu gas sintetik ini dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai alternatif pasokan bahan baku untuk ketiga jenis industri kimia tersebut kedepannya.
Synthesis and Characterizations of Hydroxyapatite from Bovine Bone Using Alkaline Hydrolysis Method Aisah, Nuning; Harahap, Muslim Efendi; Budianto, Dwi; Wibowo, Mirza; Effendi, Mohammad Dachyar; Setiawan, Jan; Roseno, Seto; Gustiono, Dwi
INSIST Vol 3, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Universitas Lampung

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23960/ins.v3i1.124

Abstract

In this research, the synthesis of hydroxyapatite compound (HAp) has been done by extracting technique from cow cortex thigh bones to eliminate organic compounds contained in bone so that it can be used as raw material of bone graft. The method used is alkaline hydrolysis method of soaking bone in NaOH solution with variation of concentration (1M, 2M, 3M) and immersion time (30 minutes, 60 minutes, 90 minutes). The extracted HAp powder was then analyzed using FTIR, XRD and SEM. The results showed that a hydroxyapatite powder with a soaking time of 30 minutes and a 2M and 3M NaOH concentration did not contain organic elements. The XRD peak pattern shows the phase formed is a hydroxyapatite with a hexagonal structure having an average crystal size of 10-12 nm.