Nugrahaningsih, Dwi Aris Agung
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Detection of Polymorphism on Voltage-gated Sodium Channel Gene of Indonesian Aedes aegypti Associated with Resistance to Pyrethroids Mulyaningsih, Budi; Umniyati, Sitti Rahmah; Satoto, Tri Baskoro Tunggul; Ernaningsih, Ernaningsih; Nugrahaningsih, Dwi Aris Agung
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 10, No 3 (2018)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.18585/inabj.v10i3.425

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is a vector of several pathogens including dengue virus. Vector control is an effective way to break the transmission but unfortunately constant use of insecticides ultimately causes vector resistance. Pyrethroids have been used for about 15 years to combat Ae. aegypti in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia. Single amino acid substitutions in the voltagegated sodium channel associated with pyrethroid resistance constitute one of the main causative factors of knockdown resistance (kdr). The aim of this study is to detect resistant status to cypermetrine and polymorphism on the voltagegated sodium channel gene of Ae. aegypti from 2 dengue endemic areas in Yogyakarta Province (Yogyakarta city and Sleman district).METHODS: Pyrethroid resistance in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes was detected by using CDC Bottle Bioassay. To detect the polymorphism on the voltage-gated sodium channel gene of Ae. aegypti analyses were conducted by using PCR and direct DNA squencing with primers AaSCF1 and AaSCR4 for S989P, I1011M (or V), L1014F sites, and AaSCF7 and AaSCR7 for the F1534C site.RESULTS: According to bioassay, the results for Ae. aegypti from Yogyakarta city (93% mortality) and Sleman district (88% mortality) suggest the possibility of resistance to cypermethrin. We observed polymorphism on voltagegated sodium channel gene on site F1534C (heterozygous).CONCLUSION: The findings provide early evidence that the use of cypermethrin (pyrethroids) in Yogyakarta city and Sleman district, Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia is reducing its effectiveness to control Ae. aegypti. Recommendations include additional tests for confirmation.KEYWORDS: Aedes aegypti, dengue virus, cypermethrin, Bioassay, Yogyakarta
Insecticide resistance and mechanisms of aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Yogyakarta, Indonesia Mulyaningsih, Budi; Umniyati, Sitti Rahmah; Satoto, Tri Baskoro Tunggul; Diptyanusa, Ajib; Nugrahaningsih, Dwi Aris Agung; Selian, Yahiddin
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 50, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (344.745 KB) | DOI: 10.19106/JMedSci005001201803

Abstract

For several decades, applications of organophosphates and pyrethroids insecticides have been extensively used to control Aedes aegypti as the primary dengue vector. Hence it is important to study dengue vector resistance status and its mechanisms in relation to long term use of insecticides. This study aimed to determine the resistance status and to characterize mechanisms of Ae. aegypti to organophosphates and pyrethroids using biological, biochemical and molecular assays. Larvae and puppae of Ae. aegypti were collected in the field of Plosokuning, Minomartani, Sleman, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The biological assay was carried out using CDC Bottle Bioassay to test the resistant status to malation and cypermetrin. The biochemical assay was conducted using microplate assay with substrate α-naphthyl acetate to test the presence of esterase elevated activity, and the molecular assay was done using PCR with AaSCF7 and AaSCR7 primer to detect of point mutation at 1534 site, that located in the area of segment 6 of domain III. The biological assay showed Ae. aegypti suggests the possibility of resistance to malathion (mortality 82%) that needs to be confirmed further and already resistant to cypermetrin (mortality 76%). The biochemical assay of Ae. aegypti showed the presence of non-specific esterase elevated activity. The PCR method showed specific DNA bands were formed with the size of 748bp, and with sequencing showed there has been F1354C point mutation of voltage gated sodium chanel gene in the area of segment 6 of domain III. Long term use of insecticides did not successfully eliminate the targeted dengue vector, because Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were resistant to both insecticides. The results demonstrate the importance of designing better health policies regarding insecticide usage
Effects of Poly-herbal Tablet as Herbal Medicine on Lipid Level Pratiwi, Woro Rukmi; Sholikhah, Eti Nurwening; Nugrahaningsih, Dwi Aris Agung; Yuniyanti, Mia Munawaroh; Mustofa, Mustofa; Ngatidjan, Ngatidjan
Majalah Obat Tradisional Vol 24, No 1 (2019)
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (210.299 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/mot.43108

Abstract

Dyslipidemia is one of the high-risk factors that cause cardiovascular disease and the prevalence is increasing all the time. Garlic (Alii sativi) has been suggested to reduce serum lipid level. Poly-herbal is herbal medicine that has been widely used in Indonesia, and it contains Alii sativi, Belericae fructus, Curcumae aeroginosae, and Amomi fructus extract. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of poly-herbal tablet on lipid levels in dylipidemia subjects. The study was conducted for 6 weeks on 58 dyslipidemic subjects. The subject was divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was given Poly-herbal with the dose 2x1200 mg, and group 2 was not given anti-dyslipidemic drugs (control group). Serum lipid level (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides) were checked before the treatment (H0) and after the treatment (M6). There was a significant difference on the reduction of serum lipids level between the group that given Poly-herbal vs control group, respectively total cholesterol (-12.04±3.2 vs 8.38±4.3; p=.000),  LDL (-4.42±2.8 vs 6.93±4.7; p=.049) and HDL (-2.62+1.0 vs 3.31+1.4; p=.005). Triglyceride level on Poly-herbal group is not significantly decreased. In Poly-herbal group there was also a decrease in HDL levels which was not statistically significant (-2.62±1, p=.015). This is probably due to the HDL baseline in the control group included in the normal HDL category (57.38 ± 14.9) so that the HDL levels after being given treatment did not increase. This study suggests that using Poly-herbal in dyslipidemia subjects can reduce the level of total cholesterol and LDL.