PANJI, TRI -
INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

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Formulasi bioinsektisida Bacillus thuringiensis isolat indigenos untuk pengendalian Hyposidra talaca pada tanaman teh (Formulation of indigenous isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis bioinsecticide to control Hyposidra talaca on tea) WIDIASTUTI, Happy; PANJI, TRI -; YUSUP, Ciptadi Achmad; RUSMANA, Iman; WAHYONO, Tri Eko
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 87, No 1 (2019): April, 2019
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (425.322 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v87i1.329

Abstract

A study has been conducted to develop indigenousBacillusthuringiensisbioinsecticide. Preliminary study has been conducted to explore B. thuringiensisfrom sample of soil, leaf, and infected larvae from selected tea area as well as another area such as cocoa, and acasia. The result showed that based on the colony morphology, it was found 10 isolateswith the characteristics of B. thuringiensis colony.  Assessed of the ability to formed crystal using phase contrast microscope and staining revealed that 4 isolates as crystal protein forming isolates. The four isolates used as active coumpound of bioinsecticide. The best formula based on the viability of bacteria was the one withwhite clay as a carrier. While the best liquid formula based on the similar characteristic was using maltosa as osmoprotectant. Theassessment ofthetoxisity B. thuringiensistowards Hyposidra talacalarvae showed that B. thuringiensiscould control H. talacalarvaeup to 37.5%. However, the toxicity need longer periode compared to that commercial B. thuringiensisbioinsecticide. [Keywords:Bt insecticide, cypermethrine, integrated pest management, Tea looper].AbstrakPenelitian telah dilakukan untuk mengembangkan bioinsektisida berbahan aktif B. thuringiensisdari isolat asli Indonesia. Eksplorasi B. thuringiensisdari contoh berupa tanah, daun, dan ulat dari kebun teh telah dilakukan demikian pula dari habitat lain seperti kebun kakao dan akasia.  Berdasarkan morfologi koloni diperoleh 10 isolat yang menunjukkan ciri-ciri koloni B. thuringiensis. Selanjutnyaisolat yang diperoleh diuji kemampuan pembentukan kristal protein dengan pewarnaan dan pengamatan mikroskop phase kontras dan menghasilkan 4 isolat yang mampu membentuk kristal protein. Selanjutnya keempat isolat yang diperoleh digunakan sebagai bahan aktif dalam formulasi bioinsektisida. Formula terbaik berdasarkan kriteria viabilitas bakteri adalah formula yang menggunakan bahan pembawa berupa white clay. Formula terbaik untuk bioinsektida cair berdasarkan kriteria viabilitas B. thuringiensisdan kejernihan bioinsektisida adalah menggunakan maltosesebagai osmoprotektan.Pada pengujian toksisitas isolat B. thuringiensisterhadap larvaulat jengkal(Hyposidra talaca)menunjukkan bahwa B. thuringiensishasil percobaan dapat mengen-dalikan larva ulat jengkalhingga 37,5%. Namun demikian toksisitasnya memerlukan waktu yang lebih lama dibandingkan dengan bioinsektisida berbahan aktif B. thuringiensiskomersial. [Kata kuci: Bioinsektisida Bt, pengendalian hama terpadu, sipermetrin, ulat jengkal teh].
Sintesis karboksimetil selulosa dari sisa baglog jamur tiram (Pleurotus ostreatus) (Synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose from ex-baglog of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)) DIMAWARNITA, Firda; PANJI, TRI -
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 86, No 2 (2018): Oktober 2018
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1688.107 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v86i2.304

Abstract

Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) contain high organic materials that can be used as medium for growing white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus).Cellulose content in the OPEFB is high (33%), enabling it to be converted to carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). This study determined the characteristics of the CMC produced from the waste of growth media of oyster mushrooms (baglog). The composition of the baglog consists of 70.3% OPEFB; 23.4% sawdust; 4.5% bran; 1.3% CaCO3; and 0.4% TSP. The CMC was prepared from the ex-baglog of the mushrooms including delignification, alkalization, carboxylation, and characterization of the product using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Difraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis (SEM). The results showed that the raw material after treatment contained 80.20% a cellulose, 12.32% hemicellulose, and no lignin was found. FTIR-based functional group analysis of the CMC and the commercial CMC was found to be present at 1091,37 cm-1and 1016,84 cm-1for the C-O bond. SEM analysis of the sample with no chemical bleaching for further delignification showed that small impurities were still present. The CMC treated with 10% sodium hydroxide exhibited 0.64 degree of substitution, 43 cP viscosity, and 73.40% purity. Based on these results, ex-baglog of white oyster mushroom can be extracted into CMC.[Keywords:OPEFB, CMC, delignification,  Pleurotus ostreatus, XRD, SEM]. Abstrak Tandan kosong kelapa sawit (TKKS) mengandung bahan organik tinggi yang bisa dijadikan sebagai media pertumbuhan jamur tiram putih (Pleurotus ostreatus). Kandungan selulosa dalam TKKS (33%) yang mungkin dikonversi menjadi karboksimetil selulosa (CMC). Penelitian ini bertujuan mencirikan CMC yang dihasilkan dari limbah media pertumbuhan jamur tiram (baglog). Komposisi baglog sebagai media pertumbuhan jamur tersebut terdiri atas TKKS 70,3%; serbuk gergaji 23,4%; dedak 4,5%; CaCO31,3%; dan TSP 0,4%. Penyiapan CMC dari ex-baglog jamur meliputi delignifikasi, alkalisasi, karboksilasi, dan karakterisasi produk CMC dengan analisis Fourier Transform Infrared Spetroscopy(FTIR), X-Ray Difraction(XRD) dan Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ex-baglog setelah perlakuan mengandung ɑ-selulosa sebanyak 80,20%, hemiselulosa 12,32%, lignin 0%, dan sisanya merupakan impurities(b/b). Gugus fungsi CMC dari TKKS dan CMC komersial memperlihatkan serapan inframerah pada 1091 cm-1dan 1017 cm-1untuk ikatan C-O. Analisis dengan mikroskop elektron menunjukkan bahwa tanpa delignifikasi lebih lanjut, masih ditemukan kotoran. Karakteristik CMC yang diolah dengan natrium hidroksida 10% memiliki derajat substitusi 0,64, viskositas 43 cP, dan kemurnian 73,40%. Hasil tersebut menunjukkan bahwa sisa baglog perumbuhan jamur tiram dapat diekstraksi menjadi CMC.  [Kata kunci:TKKS,  CMC,  delignifikasi,  Pleurotus ostreatus, XRD, SEM].
Gliserolisis enzimatik CPO dengan lipase amobil untuk produksi diasil dan monoasil gliserol (Enzymatic glicerolysis of CPO using immobilized lipase for production of diacyl- and monoacyl glycerol) PANJI, TRI -; DIMAWARNITA, Firda; KRESNAWATY, Irma; SAADAH, Susy; AMININGSIH, Tri; MIRANTI, Mira
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 87, No 1 (2019): April, 2019
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (425.001 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v87i1.321

Abstract

 CPO is one of the largest plantation commodities that has a lot of derrivative products, among others are DiAcyl Glycerol (DAG) and MonoAcyl Glycerol (MAG). These derivative products have much higher added value because these can serve as healthy oil that able to prevent fat accumulation  in human body.The industry of the derivative products is not yet developed in Indonesia, among others are caused by underdeveloped technology of specific lipase enzyme for the production of DAG 1.3- glycerides, the stability and the activity of lipase enzyme need to be improved. This research was conducted with the aim to develop the production technology for 1.3-glycerides, developthe technology forlipase immobilization, develop the technology for CPO glycerolysis with immobilized lipase, and obtain the data composition of glycerolysis products. Lipase-producing fungi were isolated from tempeh, then cultured in a growth medium containing CPO. Lipase was then immobilized on severall solid support. Glycerolysis product composition was analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography. The research results showed that the immobilization of lipases from Rhyzopus oryzae with adsorption techniques can be performed using zeolite, CaCO3, silica gel, and cow bones. The highest activity of immobilized lipase is on CaCO3as much as 99.46%, then on cow bones (91.56%), on zeolite (90.69%), andsilica gel (59.63%). The optimum condition of non immobillized lipase is pH 7 and temperature 30 °C, while immobilized lipase on CaCO3 is at  pH 8 and temperature35 ° C. Lipase immobilized on zeolite is at pH 8 and temperature of 30 ° C, on cow bone is at pH 7 and temperature of 30° C, andon silica gel is at pH 8 and temperature of 30° C. The all immobilized lipases are more stable than the free enzyme since the first week of storage. The optimum time of DAG production by immobilized lipase on CaCO3 is 18 hours to produce DAG level of 34.49% of the substrate.[Keywords: enzymatic glycerolysis, lipase, DAG, MAG, enzyme immobilization] AbstrakCPO merupakan komoditas perkebunan  yang memiliki banyak produk turunan, di antaranya Diasil Gliserol (DAG) dan Monoasil Gliserol(MAG). Produk turunan  tersebut memiliki nilai jual yang  tinggi karena dapat berfungsi sebagai minyak sehat dengan kemampuannya mencegah akumulasi lemak dalam tubuh. Industri produk turunan ini belum banyak berkembang di Indonesia karena belum berkembangnya teknologi produksienzim lipase spesifik 1,3 gliserida untuk produksi DAG, serta stabilitas dan aktivitas enzim lipase yang masih perlu ditingkatkan.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan teknologi produksi lipase spesifik 1,3-gliserida, teknologi amobilisasi lipase, teknologi gliserolisis CPO dengan lipase amobil, dan memperoleh data komposisi produk gliserolisis. Fungi penghasil lipase diisolasi dari tempe atau oncom, kemudian dibiakkan dalam media tumbuh mengandung CPO. Lipase kemudian diamobilisasi dalam beebrapa padatan pendukung. Komposisi produk gliserolisis dianalisis dengan metode Kromatografi Lapis Tipis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa amobilisasi enzim lipase Rhyzopus oryzaedengan teknik adsorpsi dapat dilakukan menggunakanzeolit, CaCO3, silika gel, dan tulang sapi. Aktivitas enzim  tertinggi terdapat pada enzim yang diamobilisasi CaCO3sebesar 99,46%, kemudiantulang sapi 91,56%, zeolit 90,69%, dan silika gel 59,63%. Kondisi optimum lipase bebas ialah pH 7 dan temperatur 30 °C, sedangkan lipase teramobilpada CaCO3ialah pH 8temperatur 35 °C,lipase teramobil zeolit ialah pH 8 temperatur 30°C, lipase teramobil tulang sapi ialahpada  pH 7 temperatur 30°C, dan lipase teramobilsilika gel ialah pH 8 temperatur 30 °C. Seluruh lipase teramobil lebih stabil dibandingkan enzim bebas sejak penyimpanan pada minggu pertama.Waktu optimum produksi DAG dengan lipase teramobil pada CaCO3ialah selama 18 jam menghasilkan kadar DAG sebesar 34,49%  dan MAG 29,22% dari substratnya.[Kata kunci: gliserolisis enzimatik, lipase, DAG, MAG, amobilisasi enzim
Sintesis karboksimetil selulosa dari sisa baglog jamur tiram (Pleurotus ostreatus) (Synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose from ex-baglog of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)) DIMAWARNITA, Firda; PANJI, TRI -
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 86, No 2 (2018): Oktober 2018
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1688.107 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v86i2.304

Abstract

Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) contain high organic materials that can be used as medium for growing white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus).Cellulose content in the OPEFB is high (33%), enabling it to be converted to carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). This study determined the characteristics of the CMC produced from the waste of growth media of oyster mushrooms (baglog). The composition of the baglog consists of 70.3% OPEFB; 23.4% sawdust; 4.5% bran; 1.3% CaCO3; and 0.4% TSP. The CMC was prepared from the ex-baglog of the mushrooms including delignification, alkalization, carboxylation, and characterization of the product using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Difraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis (SEM). The results showed that the raw material after treatment contained 80.20% a cellulose, 12.32% hemicellulose, and no lignin was found. FTIR-based functional group analysis of the CMC and the commercial CMC was found to be present at 1091,37 cm-1and 1016,84 cm-1for the C-O bond. SEM analysis of the sample with no chemical bleaching for further delignification showed that small impurities were still present. The CMC treated with 10% sodium hydroxide exhibited 0.64 degree of substitution, 43 cP viscosity, and 73.40% purity. Based on these results, ex-baglog of white oyster mushroom can be extracted into CMC.[Keywords:OPEFB, CMC, delignification,  Pleurotus ostreatus, XRD, SEM]. Abstrak Tandan kosong kelapa sawit (TKKS) mengandung bahan organik tinggi yang bisa dijadikan sebagai media pertumbuhan jamur tiram putih (Pleurotus ostreatus). Kandungan selulosa dalam TKKS (33%) yang mungkin dikonversi menjadi karboksimetil selulosa (CMC). Penelitian ini bertujuan mencirikan CMC yang dihasilkan dari limbah media pertumbuhan jamur tiram (baglog). Komposisi baglog sebagai media pertumbuhan jamur tersebut terdiri atas TKKS 70,3%; serbuk gergaji 23,4%; dedak 4,5%; CaCO31,3%; dan TSP 0,4%. Penyiapan CMC dari ex-baglog jamur meliputi delignifikasi, alkalisasi, karboksilasi, dan karakterisasi produk CMC dengan analisis Fourier Transform Infrared Spetroscopy(FTIR), X-Ray Difraction(XRD) dan Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ex-baglog setelah perlakuan mengandung ɑ-selulosa sebanyak 80,20%, hemiselulosa 12,32%, lignin 0%, dan sisanya merupakan impurities(b/b). Gugus fungsi CMC dari TKKS dan CMC komersial memperlihatkan serapan inframerah pada 1091 cm-1dan 1017 cm-1untuk ikatan C-O. Analisis dengan mikroskop elektron menunjukkan bahwa tanpa delignifikasi lebih lanjut, masih ditemukan kotoran. Karakteristik CMC yang diolah dengan natrium hidroksida 10% memiliki derajat substitusi 0,64, viskositas 43 cP, dan kemurnian 73,40%. Hasil tersebut menunjukkan bahwa sisa baglog perumbuhan jamur tiram dapat diekstraksi menjadi CMC.  [Kata kunci:TKKS,  CMC,  delignifikasi,  Pleurotus ostreatus, XRD, SEM].
Pemurnian alfa-selulosa dari baglog bekas jamur tiram putih (Pleurotus ostreatus) menggunakan NaOH dan hidrolisis sulfat (Purification of alpha-cellulose from ex-baglog of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) using NaOH and sulfate hydrolysis) HANIF, Hyakansa; PANJI, TRI -; DIMAWARNITA, Firda; ARTIKA, I Made
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 87, No 1 (2019): April, 2019
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (413.898 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v87i1.325

Abstract

Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches (OPEFB) are the largest cellulose waste produced by oil palm plantations. Each processing of one ton of Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) will produce OPEFB as much as 22-23% or 220-230 kg. OPEFB waste has not been utilized optimally by most palm oil mills and communities. It was reported that OPEFB contains 32.57% cellulose, 27.70% hemicellulose, and 26.49% lignin. The purity of cellulose component in OPEFB can be increased by delignification and hydrolysis of OPEFB. This research aims to produce alpha-cellulose from OPEFB with the highest purity level. The stages of the process include biologically delignification using white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), chemical delignification using 17,5% NaOH solution, and combination of treatment using solution of 17,5% NaOH and hydrolysis using 10% H2SO4solution. The analysis was carried out using the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The best result of alpha-cellulose purity was by the treatment of delignified NaOH baglog resulting in 97.43% alpha-cellulose content, 4.47% pentosan hemicellulose level, and undetectable lignin levels.The results of FT-IR spectrum from alpha-cellulose obtained from OPEFB has shown functional groups contained in alpha-cellulose polymers including O-H groups at wave number 3289 cm-1, C-H groups at wave number 2901 cm-1, and functional groups C-O at wave number 1372 cm-1.[Key words: hydrolysis, FT-IR, mushroom, bleaching, waste]  Abstrak Tandan kosong kelapa sawit (TKKS) adalah limbah terbesar yang dihasilkan oleh perkebunan kelapa sawit. Setiap pengolahan satu ton tandan buah segar (TBS) akan dihasilkan TKKS sebanyak 22-23% atau 220-230 kg. Limbah TKKS belum dimanfaatkan secara optimaloleh sebagian besar pabrik kelapa sawit (PKS) dan masyarakat. Dari hasil analisis kimiakomposisi selulosa, hemiselulosa, dan lignin pada TKKSsecara berturut-turut ialah ; 32,57%, 27,70%, 26,49%. Kandungan komponen selulosa dalam TKKSdapat ditingkatkan kemurniannya dengan cara delignifikasi dan hidrolisis. Penelitian ini bertujuan pemurnian alfa–selulosa dari TKKS dengan tingkat kemurnian tertinggi.Tahapan pembuatan alfa-selulosameliputi delignifikasi secara biologis menggunakan jamur tiramputih(Pleurotus ostreatus), delignifikasi secara kimia menggunakan larutan NaOH 17,5%, dan kombinasi perlakuan menggunakan NaOH 17,5% dan larutanH2SO410%. Analisis dilakukan menggunakanFourier Transform Infrared Spektroscopy (FT-IR). Hasil pemurnian alfa-selulosa terbaik ialah melalui sisa baglog terdelignifikasi NaOH menghasilkan kadar alfa-selulosa 97.43%, kadar pentosan hemiselulosa 4.47%, serta kadar lignin tidak terdeteksi. Hasil spektrumFT-IR darialfa–selulosayang diperoleh dari TKKStelahmenunjukkan gugus-gugus fungsi yangterdapat di dalam polimeralfa–selulosadiantaranyagugus O-H pada bilangan gelombang 3289 cm-1,  gugus C-H pada bilangangelombang2901cm-1, dan gugus fungsi C-O pada bilangan gelombang 1372 cm-1. [Kata kunci: hidrolisis, FT-IR, jamur, pemutihan, limbah]
Formulasi bioinsektisida Bacillus thuringiensis isolat indigenos untuk pengendalian Hyposidra talaca pada tanaman teh (Formulation of indigenous isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis bioinsecticide to control Hyposidra talaca on tea) WIDIASTUTI, Happy; PANJI, TRI -; YUSUP, Ciptadi Achmad; RUSMANA, Iman; WAHYONO, Tri Eko
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 87, No 1 (2019): April, 2019
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (425.322 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v87i1.329

Abstract

A study has been conducted to develop indigenousBacillusthuringiensisbioinsecticide. Preliminary study has been conducted to explore B. thuringiensisfrom sample of soil, leaf, and infected larvae from selected tea area as well as another area such as cocoa, and acasia. The result showed that based on the colony morphology, it was found 10 isolateswith the characteristics of B. thuringiensis colony.  Assessed of the ability to formed crystal using phase contrast microscope and staining revealed that 4 isolates as crystal protein forming isolates. The four isolates used as active coumpound of bioinsecticide. The best formula based on the viability of bacteria was the one withwhite clay as a carrier. While the best liquid formula based on the similar characteristic was using maltosa as osmoprotectant. Theassessment ofthetoxisity B. thuringiensistowards Hyposidra talacalarvae showed that B. thuringiensiscould control H. talacalarvaeup to 37.5%. However, the toxicity need longer periode compared to that commercial B. thuringiensisbioinsecticide. [Keywords:Bt insecticide, cypermethrine, integrated pest management, Tea looper].AbstrakPenelitian telah dilakukan untuk mengembangkan bioinsektisida berbahan aktif B. thuringiensisdari isolat asli Indonesia. Eksplorasi B. thuringiensisdari contoh berupa tanah, daun, dan ulat dari kebun teh telah dilakukan demikian pula dari habitat lain seperti kebun kakao dan akasia.  Berdasarkan morfologi koloni diperoleh 10 isolat yang menunjukkan ciri-ciri koloni B. thuringiensis. Selanjutnyaisolat yang diperoleh diuji kemampuan pembentukan kristal protein dengan pewarnaan dan pengamatan mikroskop phase kontras dan menghasilkan 4 isolat yang mampu membentuk kristal protein. Selanjutnya keempat isolat yang diperoleh digunakan sebagai bahan aktif dalam formulasi bioinsektisida. Formula terbaik berdasarkan kriteria viabilitas bakteri adalah formula yang menggunakan bahan pembawa berupa white clay. Formula terbaik untuk bioinsektida cair berdasarkan kriteria viabilitas B. thuringiensisdan kejernihan bioinsektisida adalah menggunakan maltosesebagai osmoprotektan.Pada pengujian toksisitas isolat B. thuringiensisterhadap larvaulat jengkal(Hyposidra talaca)menunjukkan bahwa B. thuringiensishasil percobaan dapat mengen-dalikan larva ulat jengkalhingga 37,5%. Namun demikian toksisitasnya memerlukan waktu yang lebih lama dibandingkan dengan bioinsektisida berbahan aktif B. thuringiensiskomersial. [Kata kuci: Bioinsektisida Bt, pengendalian hama terpadu, sipermetrin, ulat jengkal teh].
Gliserolisis enzimatik CPO dengan lipase amobil untuk produksi diasil dan monoasil gliserol (Enzymatic glicerolysis of CPO using immobilized lipase for production of diacyl- and monoacyl glycerol) PANJI, TRI -; DIMAWARNITA, Firda; KRESNAWATY, Irma; SAADAH, Susy; AMININGSIH, Tri; MIRANTI, Mira
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 87, No 1 (2019): April, 2019
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (425.001 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v87i1.321

Abstract

 CPO is one of the largest plantation commodities that has a lot of derrivative products, among others are DiAcyl Glycerol (DAG) and MonoAcyl Glycerol (MAG). These derivative products have much higher added value because these can serve as healthy oil that able to prevent fat accumulation  in human body.The industry of the derivative products is not yet developed in Indonesia, among others are caused by underdeveloped technology of specific lipase enzyme for the production of DAG 1.3- glycerides, the stability and the activity of lipase enzyme need to be improved. This research was conducted with the aim to develop the production technology for 1.3-glycerides, developthe technology forlipase immobilization, develop the technology for CPO glycerolysis with immobilized lipase, and obtain the data composition of glycerolysis products. Lipase-producing fungi were isolated from tempeh, then cultured in a growth medium containing CPO. Lipase was then immobilized on severall solid support. Glycerolysis product composition was analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography. The research results showed that the immobilization of lipases from Rhyzopus oryzae with adsorption techniques can be performed using zeolite, CaCO3, silica gel, and cow bones. The highest activity of immobilized lipase is on CaCO3as much as 99.46%, then on cow bones (91.56%), on zeolite (90.69%), andsilica gel (59.63%). The optimum condition of non immobillized lipase is pH 7 and temperature 30 °C, while immobilized lipase on CaCO3 is at  pH 8 and temperature35 ° C. Lipase immobilized on zeolite is at pH 8 and temperature of 30 ° C, on cow bone is at pH 7 and temperature of 30° C, andon silica gel is at pH 8 and temperature of 30° C. The all immobilized lipases are more stable than the free enzyme since the first week of storage. The optimum time of DAG production by immobilized lipase on CaCO3 is 18 hours to produce DAG level of 34.49% of the substrate.[Keywords: enzymatic glycerolysis, lipase, DAG, MAG, enzyme immobilization] AbstrakCPO merupakan komoditas perkebunan  yang memiliki banyak produk turunan, di antaranya Diasil Gliserol (DAG) dan Monoasil Gliserol(MAG). Produk turunan  tersebut memiliki nilai jual yang  tinggi karena dapat berfungsi sebagai minyak sehat dengan kemampuannya mencegah akumulasi lemak dalam tubuh. Industri produk turunan ini belum banyak berkembang di Indonesia karena belum berkembangnya teknologi produksienzim lipase spesifik 1,3 gliserida untuk produksi DAG, serta stabilitas dan aktivitas enzim lipase yang masih perlu ditingkatkan.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan teknologi produksi lipase spesifik 1,3-gliserida, teknologi amobilisasi lipase, teknologi gliserolisis CPO dengan lipase amobil, dan memperoleh data komposisi produk gliserolisis. Fungi penghasil lipase diisolasi dari tempe atau oncom, kemudian dibiakkan dalam media tumbuh mengandung CPO. Lipase kemudian diamobilisasi dalam beebrapa padatan pendukung. Komposisi produk gliserolisis dianalisis dengan metode Kromatografi Lapis Tipis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa amobilisasi enzim lipase Rhyzopus oryzaedengan teknik adsorpsi dapat dilakukan menggunakanzeolit, CaCO3, silika gel, dan tulang sapi. Aktivitas enzim  tertinggi terdapat pada enzim yang diamobilisasi CaCO3sebesar 99,46%, kemudiantulang sapi 91,56%, zeolit 90,69%, dan silika gel 59,63%. Kondisi optimum lipase bebas ialah pH 7 dan temperatur 30 °C, sedangkan lipase teramobilpada CaCO3ialah pH 8temperatur 35 °C,lipase teramobil zeolit ialah pH 8 temperatur 30°C, lipase teramobil tulang sapi ialahpada  pH 7 temperatur 30°C, dan lipase teramobilsilika gel ialah pH 8 temperatur 30 °C. Seluruh lipase teramobil lebih stabil dibandingkan enzim bebas sejak penyimpanan pada minggu pertama.Waktu optimum produksi DAG dengan lipase teramobil pada CaCO3ialah selama 18 jam menghasilkan kadar DAG sebesar 34,49%  dan MAG 29,22% dari substratnya.[Kata kunci: gliserolisis enzimatik, lipase, DAG, MAG, amobilisasi enzim
Aktivitas enzim ligninolitik Pleurotus ostreatus pada media yang mengandung TKKS dan aplikasinya untuk dekolorisasi zat warna (Activity of ligninolytic enzyme of Pleurotus ostreatus on media containing OPEFB and their application for dyes decolorization) DIMAWARNITA, Firda; PANJI, TRI -
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 87, No 1 (2019): April, 2019
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (368.544 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v87i1.328

Abstract

Ligninolytic enzymes are known as extracellular enzymes produced by the white rot fungi class of basidiomycetes. One of the most well-known fungi of the white rot fungus isPleurotus ostreatus. The aim of this study to calculate the activity of ligninolytic enzymes in the growth media of Pleurotus ostreatusand their application in decolorization of dye colour. The ligninolytic enzyme extract obtained was used to decolorize bluedyes (MethyleneBlue)and red dyes(Congo Red). The highest laccase enzyme activity was in the first month of 0.35 U/mL with E1 media composition; the highest manganese peroxidase (MnP) enzyme activity was in the fourth month at 31.818 U / mL with E4 media composition; and the highest lignin peroxidase (LiP) enzyme activity was in the fifth month at 0.269 U / mL with E1 media composition. The enzyme extract obtained was then applied to decolorize red and blue dyes. Decolorization of dyes was measured using spectrophotometry with a blue wavelength of 470 nm and red 685 nm. The highest reduction in decolorization of blue dye and red dye was 12 hours with concentration of enzyme addition of 0.5%. Based on these results, ligninolytic enzymes potentiallyto be developed as bioactive agents for detergents.[Keywords: decolorization, laccase, mangan peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, spectrofotometry] AbstrakEnzim ligninolitik dikenal sebagai enzim ekstraseluler yang dihasilkan oleh jamur pelapuk putih golongan basidiomycetes. Salah satu jamur dari golongan jamur pelapuk putih yang banyak dikenal adalah Pleurotus ostreatus. Penelitian ini bertujuan menghitung aktivitas enzim ligninolitik pada media pertumbuhan jamur tiram  (Pleurotus ostreatus) dan aplikasinya dalam dekolorisasi zat warna.  Ekstrak enzim ligninolitik yang didapatkan kemudian dimanfaatkan untuk dekolorisasi zat warna biru(Methylene Blue)dan merah (Congo Red). Aktivitas enzim lakase tertinggi ada pada bulan pertama sebesar 0,35 U/mL dengan komposisi media E1; aktivitas enzim mangan peroksidase (MnP) tertinggi ada pada bulan keempat sebesar 31,818 U/mL dengan komposisi media E4; dan aktivitas enzim lignin peroksidase (LiP) tertinggi ada pada bulan kelima sebesar 0,269 U/mL dengan komposisi media E1. Ekstrak enzim yang didapat kemudian diaplikasikan untuk dekolorisasi zat warna merah dan biru. Dekolorisasi zat warna diukur menggunakan spektrofotometri dengan panjang gelombang biru pada 470 nm dan merah pada 685 nm. Penurunan dekolorisasi zat warna birudan zat warna merahtertinggi selama 12jam dengan konsentraasi penambahan enzim sebesar 0,5%.Berdasarkan hasil tersebut, enzim ligninolitik sangat potensial untuk dikembangkan sebagai agen bioaktif untuk deterjen.[Kata kunci: dekolorisasi, lakase, mangan peroksidase, lignin peroksidase,  spektrofotometri]
Aktivitas enzim ligninolitik Pleurotus ostreatus pada media yang mengandung TKKS dan aplikasinya untuk dekolorisasi zat warna (Activity of ligninolytic enzyme of Pleurotus ostreatus on media containing OPEFB and their application for dyes decolorization) DIMAWARNITA, Firda; PANJI, TRI -
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 87, No 1 (2019): April, 2019
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (368.544 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v87i1.328

Abstract

Ligninolytic enzymes are known as extracellular enzymes produced by the white rot fungi class of basidiomycetes. One of the most well-known fungi of the white rot fungus isPleurotus ostreatus. The aim of this study to calculate the activity of ligninolytic enzymes in the growth media of Pleurotus ostreatusand their application in decolorization of dye colour. The ligninolytic enzyme extract obtained was used to decolorize bluedyes (MethyleneBlue)and red dyes(Congo Red). The highest laccase enzyme activity was in the first month of 0.35 U/mL with E1 media composition; the highest manganese peroxidase (MnP) enzyme activity was in the fourth month at 31.818 U / mL with E4 media composition; and the highest lignin peroxidase (LiP) enzyme activity was in the fifth month at 0.269 U / mL with E1 media composition. The enzyme extract obtained was then applied to decolorize red and blue dyes. Decolorization of dyes was measured using spectrophotometry with a blue wavelength of 470 nm and red 685 nm. The highest reduction in decolorization of blue dye and red dye was 12 hours with concentration of enzyme addition of 0.5%. Based on these results, ligninolytic enzymes potentiallyto be developed as bioactive agents for detergents.[Keywords: decolorization, laccase, mangan peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, spectrofotometry] AbstrakEnzim ligninolitik dikenal sebagai enzim ekstraseluler yang dihasilkan oleh jamur pelapuk putih golongan basidiomycetes. Salah satu jamur dari golongan jamur pelapuk putih yang banyak dikenal adalah Pleurotus ostreatus. Penelitian ini bertujuan menghitung aktivitas enzim ligninolitik pada media pertumbuhan jamur tiram  (Pleurotus ostreatus) dan aplikasinya dalam dekolorisasi zat warna.  Ekstrak enzim ligninolitik yang didapatkan kemudian dimanfaatkan untuk dekolorisasi zat warna biru(Methylene Blue)dan merah (Congo Red). Aktivitas enzim lakase tertinggi ada pada bulan pertama sebesar 0,35 U/mL dengan komposisi media E1; aktivitas enzim mangan peroksidase (MnP) tertinggi ada pada bulan keempat sebesar 31,818 U/mL dengan komposisi media E4; dan aktivitas enzim lignin peroksidase (LiP) tertinggi ada pada bulan kelima sebesar 0,269 U/mL dengan komposisi media E1. Ekstrak enzim yang didapat kemudian diaplikasikan untuk dekolorisasi zat warna merah dan biru. Dekolorisasi zat warna diukur menggunakan spektrofotometri dengan panjang gelombang biru pada 470 nm dan merah pada 685 nm. Penurunan dekolorisasi zat warna birudan zat warna merahtertinggi selama 12jam dengan konsentraasi penambahan enzim sebesar 0,5%.Berdasarkan hasil tersebut, enzim ligninolitik sangat potensial untuk dikembangkan sebagai agen bioaktif untuk deterjen.[Kata kunci: dekolorisasi, lakase, mangan peroksidase, lignin peroksidase,  spektrofotometri]
Pemurnian alfa-selulosa dari baglog bekas jamur tiram putih (Pleurotus ostreatus) menggunakan NaOH dan hidrolisis sulfat (Purification of alpha-cellulose from ex-baglog of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) using NaOH and sulfate hydrolysis) HANIF, Hyakansa; PANJI, TRI -; DIMAWARNITA, Firda; ARTIKA, I Made
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 87, No 1 (2019): April, 2019
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (413.898 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v87i1.325

Abstract

Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches (OPEFB) are the largest cellulose waste produced by oil palm plantations. Each processing of one ton of Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) will produce OPEFB as much as 22-23% or 220-230 kg. OPEFB waste has not been utilized optimally by most palm oil mills and communities. It was reported that OPEFB contains 32.57% cellulose, 27.70% hemicellulose, and 26.49% lignin. The purity of cellulose component in OPEFB can be increased by delignification and hydrolysis of OPEFB. This research aims to produce alpha-cellulose from OPEFB with the highest purity level. The stages of the process include biologically delignification using white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), chemical delignification using 17,5% NaOH solution, and combination of treatment using solution of 17,5% NaOH and hydrolysis using 10% H2SO4solution. The analysis was carried out using the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The best result of alpha-cellulose purity was by the treatment of delignified NaOH baglog resulting in 97.43% alpha-cellulose content, 4.47% pentosan hemicellulose level, and undetectable lignin levels.The results of FT-IR spectrum from alpha-cellulose obtained from OPEFB has shown functional groups contained in alpha-cellulose polymers including O-H groups at wave number 3289 cm-1, C-H groups at wave number 2901 cm-1, and functional groups C-O at wave number 1372 cm-1.[Key words: hydrolysis, FT-IR, mushroom, bleaching, waste]  Abstrak Tandan kosong kelapa sawit (TKKS) adalah limbah terbesar yang dihasilkan oleh perkebunan kelapa sawit. Setiap pengolahan satu ton tandan buah segar (TBS) akan dihasilkan TKKS sebanyak 22-23% atau 220-230 kg. Limbah TKKS belum dimanfaatkan secara optimaloleh sebagian besar pabrik kelapa sawit (PKS) dan masyarakat. Dari hasil analisis kimiakomposisi selulosa, hemiselulosa, dan lignin pada TKKSsecara berturut-turut ialah ; 32,57%, 27,70%, 26,49%. Kandungan komponen selulosa dalam TKKSdapat ditingkatkan kemurniannya dengan cara delignifikasi dan hidrolisis. Penelitian ini bertujuan pemurnian alfa–selulosa dari TKKS dengan tingkat kemurnian tertinggi.Tahapan pembuatan alfa-selulosameliputi delignifikasi secara biologis menggunakan jamur tiramputih(Pleurotus ostreatus), delignifikasi secara kimia menggunakan larutan NaOH 17,5%, dan kombinasi perlakuan menggunakan NaOH 17,5% dan larutanH2SO410%. Analisis dilakukan menggunakanFourier Transform Infrared Spektroscopy (FT-IR). Hasil pemurnian alfa-selulosa terbaik ialah melalui sisa baglog terdelignifikasi NaOH menghasilkan kadar alfa-selulosa 97.43%, kadar pentosan hemiselulosa 4.47%, serta kadar lignin tidak terdeteksi. Hasil spektrumFT-IR darialfa–selulosayang diperoleh dari TKKStelahmenunjukkan gugus-gugus fungsi yangterdapat di dalam polimeralfa–selulosadiantaranyagugus O-H pada bilangan gelombang 3289 cm-1,  gugus C-H pada bilangangelombang2901cm-1, dan gugus fungsi C-O pada bilangan gelombang 1372 cm-1. [Kata kunci: hidrolisis, FT-IR, jamur, pemutihan, limbah]