Giarno, G
Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

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Distribution of Accuracy of TRMM Daily Rainfall in Makassar Strait Giarno, G; Hadi, Muhammad Pramono; Suprayogi, Slamet; Murti, Sigit Heru
Forum Geografi Vol 32, No 1 (2018): July 2018
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

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Abstract

This research aims to evaluate rainfall estimates of satellite products in regions that have high variations of rainfall pattern. The surrounding area of Makassar Strait have chosen because of its distinctive rainfall pattern between the eastern and western parts of the Makassar Strait. For this purpose, spatial distribution of Pearson’s coefficient correlation and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) is used to evaluate accuracy of rainfall in the eastern part of Kalimantan Island and the western part of Sulawesi Island. Moreover, we also used the contingency table to complete the parameter accuracy of the TRMM rainfall estimates. The results show that the performance of TRMM rainfall estimates varies depending on space and time. Overall, the coefficient correlation between TRMM and rain observed from no correlation was -0.06 and 0.78 from strong correlation. The best correlation is on the eastern coast of South West Sulawesi located in line with the Java Sea. While, no variation in the correlation was related to flatland such as Kalimantan Island. On the other hand, in the mountain region, the correlation of TRMM rainfall estimates and observed rainfall tend to decrease. The RMSE distribution in this region depends on the accumulation of daily rainfall. RMSE tends to be high where there are higher fluctuations of fluctuating rainfall in a location. From contingency indicators, we found that the TRMM rainfall estimates were overestimate. Generally, the absence of rainfall during the dry season contributes to improving TRMM rainfall estimates by raising accuracy (ACC) in the contingency table.
An Experimental Analysis on Nusselt Number of Natural Circulation Flow in Transient Condition Based on the Height Differences between Heater and Cooler Juarsa, M.; Witoko, J.P.; Giarno, G; Haryanto, D.; Purba, J.H.
Atom Indonesia Vol 44, No 3 (2018): December 2018
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

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Abstract

A better understanding on the phenomenon of natural circulation flow for cooling systems is necessary prior to improving the safety of nuclear power plant, not only in normal operation but also in accident conditions. One way to understand this phenomenon is by analyzing the Nusselt number in various geometrical dimensions through experimentation. The purpose of this study is to understand natural circulation phenomenon in transient condition by varying height differences between heater and cooler. To achieve this purpose, an experiment apparatus called NC-Queen was developed and arranged to enable three variations of height differences between heater and cooler, i.e., 1.4 m, 1.0 m, and 0.3 m. It is made of a stainless steel tube with a diameter of 1 inch, arranged in rectangular shape 6.4 m in length, and uses water as coolant. The initial temperature of the heater was set at 90 °C. The Nusselt number was obtained by calculating the flow rate as a function of transient temperature. The results confirm that height differences affect thermal properties and flow region based kinetics characteristics of water. In initial condition, decreasing height difference from 1.4 m to 1.0 m resulted in flow rate reduction of 16.7 %, while decreasing height difference from 1.4 m to 0.3 m resulted in a 39.1 % flow rate reduction. In final condition, the flow rate reductions were 75 % and 82.6 %, respectively. Meanwhile, in initial condition, the Nusselt number for height difference reduction from 1.4 m to 1.0 m and from 1.4 m to 0.3 m decreased by 30.5 % and 74.6 %, respectively, while for final condition, the Nusselt number decreased by 11.9 % and 67.4 %, respectively. The new constants in relationship between Nusselt number and the height difference are a = 20.06 and   b = 0.56. The dominance of turbulent flow provides a good safety margin with indications of the large amount of heat released.