Firdaus, Riyadh
Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

Published : 12 Documents
Articles

Found 12 Documents
Search

Manajemen Anestesia pada Carotid Endarterectomy: Pasien dengan Kinking Arteri Karotis Interna

Jurnal Neuroanestesi Indonesia Vol 4, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Prosedur Carotid Endarterectomy (CEA) adalah prosedur penting untuk pencegahan stroke karena sumbatan arteri karotis. Seorang laki-laki 71 tahun akan dilakukan operasi CEA. Pasien mengeluh pusing berputar, riwayat hipertensi diakui sejak 10 tahun dengan tekanan darah tertinggi 170/100 mmHg, riwayat stroke diakui 1 tahun yang lalu dan 1,5 bulan lalu. Gejala sisa stroke saat ini kelemahan extremitas sebelah kiri. Pasien terdapat riwayat sakit jantung, irama tidak teratur, tidak disertai sesak nafas 1 tahun yang lalu dan saat itu diberikan amiodaron tablet. Operasi dilakukan dengan anestesi umum, menggunakan pipa endotrakeal no.8.0, ventilasi kendali. Obat yang dipergunakan adalah midazolam 1 mg iv, fentanyl 150 mcg iv, propofol 70 mg iv, rocuronium 40 mg iv. Rumatan dilanjutkan dengan sevofluran, fraksi oksigen 45% dan propofol bolus jika diperlukan. Monitoring tanda vital (tekanan darah, nadi, SaO2, elektrokardiografi) dan artery line. CEA dilakukan selama 3,5 jam, tidak ditemukan stenosis tetapi terdapat kinking. Selama operasi hemodinamik relatif stabil. Pascaoperasi pasien di rawat di ruang perawatan intensif. Berbagai pendekatan bedah telah dikemukakan untuk kinking arteri karotis interna. Pilihan pendekatan dipengaruhi oleh pemilihan pasien, penilaian praoperasi & optimasi, dan manajemen perioperatif & perawatan untuk pasien yang akan menjalani CEA. Anesthetic Management for Carotid Endarterectomy:Patient with Internal Carotid Artery KinkingCarotid endarterectomy (CEA) is an important procedure for stroke prevention due to obstruction of carotid artery. A 71 years old male was scheduled for CEA surgery. The patient complained of spinning headache. He had been suffered from hypertension since 10 years ago with highest blood pressure of 170/100 mmHg, and had a two times stroke 1 year and 1.5 months ago. Sequelae symptom of stroke is weakness on the left extremity. Patient also had a history of heart disease, irregular rhythm, without shortness of breath approximatelly1year ago, treated with amiodarone tablets. The CEA operation was performed under general anesthesia using endotrachenal tube 8.0, controlled ventilation, 1 mg midazolam, 150 mcg fentanyl, 70 mg propofol and 40 mg rocuronium, given intravenously. Maintenance of anesthesia was done using sevoflurane, oxygen fraction of 45% and propofol 10 mg given intermittently as needed. Noninvasive vital signs monitoring and invasive arterial blood pressure were recorded. Hemodynamics were stable during the 3.5 hours operation. We found no plaque but a kinking on the carotid artery. Postoperatively, patients was admitted to the intensive care unit. Various surgical approaches have been done and developed to manage the internal carotid artery kinking. Options approach is influenced by patient selection, preoperative assessment and optimization, and perioperative management and care for patients undergoing CEA

Pemantauan Neurofisiologis Intraoperatif selama Anestesia untuk Operasi Meningioma Foramen Magnum

Jurnal Neuroanestesi Indonesia Vol 3, No 3 (2014)
Publisher : Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Pemantauan neurofisiologis intraoperatif (Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring/IONM) pada operasi yang rentan mencederai saraf sangat penting untuk menunjang proses keputusan medis intraoperatif dan pada akhirnya mengurangi angka morbiditas. Operasi meningioma foramen magnum sangat berisiko cedera saraf dan morbiditas sehingga menjadi kandidat yang cocok untuk penggunaan IONM. Cakupan manajemen anesthesia pada operasi yang menggunakan IONM adalah pertimbangan tentang pilihan dan dosis obat anestesia yang digunakan serta perhatian terhadap kestabilan homeostasis pasien. Pemahaman yang baik oleh dokter bedah, anestesi dan neurologi akan membuat tindakan operasi berjalan dengan lancar dan mencegah terjadinya komplikasi intra dan pascaoperasi. Seorang wanita umur 39 tahun dengan keluhan utama nyeri kepala belakang sejak 2 bulan yang lalu. Berdasarkan anamnesis, pemeriksaan fisik, dan pemeriksaan penunjang pasien di diagnosis tumor meningioma pada regio foramen magnum. Pasien dilakukan operasi kraniotomi removal tumor dengan panduan IONM dalam posisi park bench. Lama operasi kurang lebih 14 jam. Pascaoperasi pasien tidak dilakukan ekstubasi dan dirawat di ICU sehari. Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring (IONM) during Anesthesia for Meningioma Foramen Magnum SurgeryIntraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) in a surgery that is prone to neuronal injury is very useful to guide intraoperative decision makings and to reduce morbidity. Foramen magnum tumor surgerycarries a very high risk for neuronal injury, and thereforeapplication of IONM would be advantageous. The termsof anesthetic management in IONM-guided-surgery are the selection of anesthetic agents with limitation of the dosageswhileremain focusingon stability of patient’s homeostasis. A thorough understanding and communication among surgeon, neurologist and anesthesiologist are important to createan uneventful procedure and to reduce intra and postoperative complications.A 39 years old female with severe headache for 2 months was diagnosed with meningioma at foramen magnum based on history, physical examination, and advanced examination procedures. The patient was underwent tumor removal guided by IONM on park bench position. The duration of surgery was 14 hours. The patient was not extubatedpostoperatively and admitted to ICU for a day.

Penggunaan FOUR Skor dalam Manajemen Anestesi untuk Evakuasi Hematoma Epidural pada Pasien dengan Intoksikasi Alkohol

Jurnal Neuroanestesi Indonesia Vol 6, No 3 (2017)
Publisher : Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Manajemen neuroanestesia untuk cedera kepala bertujuan untuk mengoptimalkan perfusi otak, memfasilitasi pembedahan dan mencegah cedera otak sekunder. Bagi pasien cedera kepala yang mengalami toksisitas alkohol, diperlukan perhatian khusus dalam mengevaluasi dan menentukan dosis obat anestesia. Walaupun GCS dapat digunakan sebagai modalitas penilaian pasien dengan intoksikasi alkohol, penilaian menggunakan FOUR adalah alternatif yang lebih baik. FOUR lebih spesifik dalam menilai penurunan kesadaran bila ada defek neurologi, bahkan bagi pasien yang terintubasi. Selama pembiusan, dosis perlu diperhatikan karena konsumsi alkohol jangka panjang dapat meningkatkan kebutuhan dosis obat anestesia. Sebaliknya, intoksikasi alkohol memerlukan dosis obat induksi yang lebih kecil. Seorang laki-laki usia 38 tahun dibawa ke IGD dengan penurunan kesadaran pasca trauma kepala sejak 3 jam sebelum masuk rumah sakit. Pasien memiliki riwayat konsumsi alkohol. Berdasarkan anamnesis, pemeriksaan fisis dan pemeriksaan penunjang, ditegakkan diagnosis Hematom Epidural. Pasien menjalani kraniotomi evakuasi Hematom Epidural selama 4 jam. Pascaoperasi pasien tidak dilakukan ekstubasi dan dirawat di perawatan ICU selama 7 hari.Use of Four Score in Anesthesia Management for Epidural Hematoma Evacuation in Patient with Alcohol IntoxicationAbstractNeuroanesthetic management for brain trauma aims to maintain optimal cerebral perfusion and facilitate surgery while preventing secondary brain injury. For patients with brain trauma under alcohol toxicity, careful monitoring is needed to assess and determine drug dosing. Although GCS is reliable for assessing conciousness in patients with alcohol intoxication, evaluation using FOUR is a reasonable alternative. FOUR is more spesific in identifying level of conciousness in neurologic defects, even in intubated condition. Throughout anesthesia, special attention should be given, as long term alcohol consumption may increase the dose needed for general anesthesia. However, a smaller dose of induction agent is needed in alcohol intoxication. We describe a case of a 38 years old male, who was admitted to emergency department with loss of conciousness following head trauma for 3 hours prior to admission. There was history of alcohol consumption. History and physical findings were consistent with epidural hematoma. Patient underwent craniotomy for epidural hematoma evacuation. The surgery took four hours. Post surgery, patient remained intubated and stayed in ICU for seven days.

Tight Brain pada Anestesi Awake Craniotomy dengan Dexmedetomidine

Jurnal Neuroanestesi Indonesia Vol 6, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Anestesi pada awake craniotomy dilakukan dengan menggunakan salah satu atau kombinasi dari teknik scalp block, sedasi dengan propofol dan dexmedetomidine. Teknik ini memfasilitasi awake craniotomy sehingga pemetaan intraoperatif fungsi korteks elokuen yang memfasilitasi reseksi tumor secara radikal. Kebutuhan pemetaan korteks adalah untuk menggambarkan fungsi otak antara lain bicara, sensorik dan motorik dengan tujuan mempertahankan selama dilakukan reseksi. Obat yang diberikan harus dapat memberikan level sedasi dan analgesia yang adekuat untuk mengangkat tulang tetapi tidak mempengaruhi tes fungsional dan elektrokortikografi. Prosedur ini sama dengan kraniotomi standar dengan perbedaan pasien sadar penuh selama pemetaan korteks dan reseksi tumor. Dexmedetomidine adalah suatu agonis adrenoreseptor α-2 spesifik dengan efek sedatif, analgetik, anesthetic sparing effect, efek proteksi otak, tidak adiksi, tidak menekan respirasi dan pasien mudah dibangunkan. Wanita, 54 tahun dengan keluhan utama kejang berulang sejak 3 hari yang lalu. Berdasarkan anamnesis, pemeriksaan fisik, dan pemeriksaan penunjang pasien didiagnosis tumor lobus frontal kanan. Pasien dilakukan pengangkatan tumor dengan teknik awake craniotomy. Pasien dilakukan scalp block, sedasi dengan propofol dan dexmedetomidine. Saat operasi berlangsung didapatkan kondisi tight brain. Dexmedetomidine dipertimbangkan sebagai salah satu faktor yang mempengaruhi relaksasi otak selama operasi. Lama operasi kurang lebih 5 jam. Pascaoperasi pasien dirawat di HCU.Tight Brain on Awake Craniotomy Anesthesia with DexmedetomidineAnesthesia in awake craniotomy is done using scalp block, propofol sedation, dexmedetomidine sedation or a combination of the three. This technique facilitate awake craniotomy such that intraoperative mapping of eloquent cortical function can be done in radical tumor resection. The need for cortical mapping is to describe and maintain brain function such as speaking, sensoric and motoric function throughout the resection process. The drug given must be able to provide adequate sedation and analgesia for bone removal but do not interfere with the result of function test and electrocorticography. This procedure is similar to other craniotomy, however the patient is alert during cortical mapping and tumor resection and is able to speak after tumor is resected. Dexmedetomidine is an alpha 2 adrenoreceptor agonist with specific effects such as sedation, analgesia, anesthetic sparing, cerebral protection, non addictive, does not suppress respiration, comfortable and easy to recover from. A case of 54 years old female with chief complaint of recurrent seizure in the last 3 days prior to admission is described. Based on history and examination, patient is diagnosed with right frontal lobe tumor. Patient underwent tumor resection using awake craniotomy technique. Scalp block combined with propofol and dexmedetomidine sedation was done. During the surgery, tight brain was encountered. Dexmedetomidine was evaluated as one of the factors that influence the brain relaxation throughout surgery. The Surgery took 5 hours, post surgery patient is observed in HCU.

Tata Kelola Edem Paru Neurogenik

Jurnal Neuroanestesi Indonesia Vol 7, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Edem paru neurogenik merupakan salah satu komplikasi pernafasan yang dapat muncul setelah cedera/trauma susunan saraf pusat. Bervariasinya laporan epidemiologi dan patofisiologi edem paru neurogenik dapat menyebabkan misdiagnosis yang dapat memperburuk prognosis pada pasien yang mengalami edem paru neurogenik. Patofisiologi edem paru neurogenik diduga dimulai dari kerusakan pada persarafan autonom pembuluh darah pulmonal dan stimulasi berlebihan dari pusat vasomotor susunan saraf pusat, yang kemudian menyebabkan berbagai perubahan yang terjadi pada pembuluh darah pulmonal hingga disfungsi jantung. Investigasi klinis harus dilakukan hati-hati karena manifestasi klinis yang dapat menyerupai edem paru kardiogenik dan non-kardiogenik lainnya, hasil pemeriksaan yang tidak spesifik, dan tidak adanya kriteria diagnosis. Saat ini belum ada pedoman tata kelola edem paru neurogenik yang dapat diterima secara luas, namun berbagai studi dan literatur menyebutkan tata kelola edem paru neurogenik berupa tata kelola suportif airway, breathing, circulation, di samping tata kelola penyebab cedera/trauma susunan saraf pusat memiliki prognosis yang baik, oleh karena itu identifikasi, investigasi, dan tata kelola edem paru neurogenik harus dilakukan secepatnya. Edem paru neurogenik dapat beresolusi dengan baik dalam 48–72 jam setelah mendapatkan tata kelola yang adekuat.Management of Neurogenic Pulmonary EdemaNeurogenic pulmonary edema is one of respiration complication caused by injury of central nervous system. Due to the vary of neurogenic pulmonary edema epidemiology and pathophysiology leads to misdiagnosed of neurogenic pulmonary edema, which could worsen the clinical condition patients. The pathophysiology of neurogenic pulmonary edema is believed caused by lesion on the autonomic central of vascular pulmonary bed and overactivation of central vasomotor system, which leads to alteration of vascular pulmonary conditions and cardiac dysfunction. Clinical investigation should be done carefully, because the clinical manifestations of neurogenic pulmonary edema mimicking the cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, non-spesific diagnostic modalities, and none diagnostic criteria in neurogenic pulmonary edema. Although nowadays none of management guidelines of neurogenic pulmonary edema accepted widely, many study reported the good outcome of supportive management of airway, breathing, and circulation besides the primary management of central nervous system injury. Hence, clinical identifications, investigations, and management of neurogenic pulmonary edema should be done immediately, because of good clinical outcome in 48 – 72 hours with adequate management.

Penatalaksanaan Anestesi pada Ruptur Aneurisma

Jurnal Neuroanestesi Indonesia Vol 5, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Ruptur aneurisma adalah salah satu kejadian vaskular yang devastated dengan tingginya angka mortalitas. Namun dengan penanganan yang cepat dan tepat maka angka kematiannya hanya mencapai 10%, dan morbiditasnya ringan. Selain dari efek pecahnya pembuluh darah, banyak komplikasi lain yang perlu diperhatikan seperti perdarahan ulang, vasospasme, hidrosefalus, gangguan elektrolit sampai gangguan respirasi. Dilaporkan pasien perempuan 47 tahun dengan sakit kepala, mual dan muntah yang memberat sejak 2 minggu sebelum masuk rumah sakit. Keluhan seperti ini sudah dirasakan 7 tahun sebelumnya, dan didiagnosa sebagai ruptur aneurisma spontan, sekarang tanpa gejala sisa. Pada pemeriksaan fisik, pasien sadar penuh dengan kaku kuduk, tanpa tanda neurologis fokal. Dari pemeriksaan penunjang didapatkan terdapat vasospasme pada a. Karotis Interna setinggi segmen suprasinoid, serta perdarahan tipis intraventrikel dan ventrikulomegali. Pasien direncanakan untuk dilakukan clipping aneurisma dalam anastesi umum. Pasien kemudian di rawat di ruang perawatan intensif dengan target penyapihan cepat dan ekstubasi. Tantangan dalam proses anestesi kasus aneurisma adalah mempertahankan antara tekanan dalam aneurisma dan cerebral perfusion preassure (CPP), proteksi otak pada periode iskemi, serta menyediakan lapang operasi seluas mungkin. Pasca-operasi harus diperhatikan tanda tanda komplikasi berupa iskemia.Anesthetic Management in Patient with Rupture Intracranial AneursymAneurysm rupture is a devastated vascular injury with high mortality rate. But in expert hands, it has lower mortality only about 10%. Aneurysm has other complication such as rebleeding, vasospasm, hydrocephalus, and electrolyte also cardio-pulmonary disturbance. The patient is 47 years old women with progressive headache, nausea and vomiting since 2 weeks before admission. She already experienced the same symptoms at 7 years ago, and was been diagnosed with spontaneous rupture aneurysm. She is fully alert, only with nunchal rigidity and no neurologic deficit. There were vasospasm at A.Carotis Interna as high as supracinoid segment and intraventricular hemorrhage from CT dan CT-Angiography. Patient went to clipping procedure under general anesthesia. Post-operatively patient was admitted to intensive care unit with fast liberation of ventilator and extubation. Anesthetical challenge of rupture aneurysm are to maintain aneurysm pressure and cerebral perfusion rate, brain protection, and provide enough space for surgery. Post-op monitoring should include routine neurological examination to early detect ischemia.

Penatalaksanaan Perioperatif pada Bedah Dekompresi Mikrovaskular: Sajian Kasus Serial

Jurnal Neuroanestesi Indonesia Vol 5, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Dekompresi mikrovaskular (microvascular decompression/MVD) adalah terapi definitif dari spasme hemifasial, yakni suatu gangguan gerakan neuromuskular wajah. Spasme ini ditandai dengan kontraksi involunter berulang pada otat yang diinervasi oleh N. fasialis (N.VII) akibat penekanan oleh arteri, tumor atau kelainan vaskular lainnya. Prevalensinya mencapai 9–11 kasus per 100.000 populasi sehat, dan paling sering terjadi pada usia 40–60 tahun. Meskipun bukaan operasi MVD kecil yaitu di sekitar retroaurikula tetapi teknik anestesi-nya menggunakan prinsip-prinsip pembedahan fossa posterior. Bukaan lapangan operasi yang baik, kewaspadaan terhadap rangsangan ke batang otak maupun nervus kranialis dan kewaspadaan terhadap penurunan perfusi otak merupakan pilar-pilar utama tatalaksana anestesia pada MVD. Disajikan empat kasus spasme hemifasial dengan keadaan khusus. Kasus pertama operasi dilakukan pada pasien geriatri, pasien kedua dengan riwayat hipertensi, pasien ketiga dengan leher pendek dan asma, pasien terakhir dengan diabetes mellitus serta hipertensi. Pemantauan kestabilan hemodinamik, kedalaman anestesia dan relaksasi otot merupakan aspek penting yang menyertai tata laksana anestesi pada kasus ini.Perioperative Management in Microvascular Decompression Surgery: Case Series ReportMicrovascular decompression (MVD) is the definitive surgery for hemifacial spasm. The symptoms is described as a repetitive involuntary muscle contraction which innervated by N.fascialis caused by compression of the nervus by enlarged artery, tumor or vascular malformation. Its happened to 9-11 people from 100.000 population, especially in 4th to 6th decades. Although MVD operation only need small opening in retroauricula area but it still use posterior fossa operation principles. They are sufficient work field, awareness of impulse to brain stem and cranial nerves, and decrease of cerebral perfusion pressure. We present four cases of hemifacial spasm, with variety of considerations. The first case was a geriatric patient, the second was with history of hypertension, the third patient has short neck and also history of hypetension and asthma and the last is with diabetes mellitus and history of hypertension. Hemodynamic monitoring, deepness of anesthesia and adequate muscle relaxation is important parameter of anasthetical management of these cases.

Manajemen Anestesia pada Operasi Reseksi Malformasi Arteri Vena Otak

Majalah Anestesia dan Critical Care Vol 32 No 2 (2014): Juni
Publisher : Perdatin Pusat

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

AbstrakMalformasi arteri-vena otak, atau cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) merupakan kondisi yang jarang, namun morbiditas neurologis dan mortalitasnya bermakna. Salah satu pilihan terapi untuk AVM adalah operasi reseksi dengan bedah mikro. Perhatian khusus untuk ahli anestesia pada operasi ini adalah upaya mencegah iskemia sekunder jaringan otak dengan mempertahankan hemodinamik stabil agar tekanan perfusi otak sedekat mungkin dengan nilai normal, mengupayakan agar tidak terjadi pembengkakan otak dan mengantisipasi perdarahan. Di laporan ini, kami menjabarkan manajemen anestesia pada laki-laki 22 tahun dengan AVM simtomatik yang menjalani operasi reseksi AVM pada tanggal 10 April 2012 di Instalasi Bedah Pusat RS dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo, dan mengalami perdarahan akibat ruptur arteri intraoperasi. Kata kunci: Anestesia, AVM, malformasi arteri-vena, operasi reseksi Cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare vascular condition carrying significant neurologic morbidity and mortality. Among the treatment options are surgical resection using microsurgery technique. Special anesthetic consideration in this type of surgery is on preventing secondary ischemia of brain tissue by maintaining stable haemodynamics to achieve as normal cerebral perfusion pressure as possible, preventing cerebral edema and anticipating hemorrhage. In this report, we describe the anaesthetic management of a 22 year-old male presenting with symptomatic AVM, who underwent surgical resection on April 10th 2012 in Central Operating Theater of RS dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo, and experienced intraoperative bleeding from an arterial rupture. Key words: Anesthesia, arteriovenous malformation, AVM, surgical resection

Glasgow Coma Scale in Predicting the Outcome of Patients with Altered Consciousness in Emergency Department of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital

Majalah Anestesia dan Critical Care Vol 32 No 3 (2014): Oktober
Publisher : Perdatin Pusat

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Penurunan kesadaran harus ditangani dengan tepat untuk mengurangi kerusakan lebih lanjut. Glasgow coma scale (GCS) digunakan untuk menilai tingkat kesadaran pada pasien dan memprediksi outcome pasien. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui ketepatan Glasgow coma scale memprediksi outcome pada pasien dengan penurunan kesadaran di Instalasi Gawat Darurat RSUPN Cipto Mangunkusumo. Penelitian ini merupakan studi observasional, kohort prospektif pada 116 pasien usia ≥8 tahun dengan GCS dibawah 15 saat tiba di IGD RSCM Jakarta. Skor GCS dinilai sebanyak 1 kali ketika pasien pertama diterima. Peneliti mengevaluasi outcome dua minggu setelah perawatan dengan menggunakan kriteria GCS. Bad outcome (meninggal dan disabilitas berat) dijumpai pada 66 pasien (56,9%) dan good outcome (disabilitas sedang dan sembuh) pada 50 pasien (43,1%). Skor GCS kelompok bad outcome berbeda bermakna dengan kelompok good outcome berdasarkan analisis statistik (p<0,001). Skor GCS-E, GCS-M dan GCS-V masing-masing pasien kelompok bad outcome berbeda bermakna dengan kelompok good outcome berdasarkan analisis statistik (p<0,001). Dari hasil analisis regresi logistik, komponen GCS yang memiliki nilai prediksi terhadap outcome adalah komponen verbal dan membuka mata. Skor glasgow coma scale mampu memprediksi outcome dengan tepat pada pasien dengan penurunan kesadaran di Instalasi Gawat Darurat RSUPN Cipto Mangunkusumo. Kata kunci: Glasgow coma scale, glasgow outcome scale, penurunan kesadaran Altered consciousness must be managed immediately to reduce further damage. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to assess the level of consciousness in citically ill patients. GCS serves as the predictor of patient outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of GCS in predicting outcome of patients with altered level of consciousness in Emergency Department of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. This observational prospective cohort study enlisted 116 patients aged ≥18 years with GCS below 15 in the Emergency Department of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. GCS was assessed at admission then it was reviewed 2 weeks after in order to assess outcome. GCS scores were classified into bad outcome (death and severe disability) and good outcome (moderate disability and good recovery). Bad outcome were found in 66 patients (56.9%) and good outcome in 50 patients (43.1%). GCS score were different significantly between both groups (p<0.001). Each of patient’s GCS-E, GCS and GCS-M-V in bad outcome groups differed significantly with good outcome group (p <0.001). Based on logistic regression analysis, verbal and eye components served a predictive value for the outcome. Glasgow Coma Scale can predict outcome in patients with altered level of consciousness. Key words: Altered consciousness, glasgow coma scale, glasgow outcome scale Reference Bhardwaj A, Kornblunth J. Evaluation of coma: a critical appraisal of popular scoring systems. Neurocrit Care. 2010;3:1−10. Jennett B. Development of Glasgow coma and outcome scale. Nepal J Neurosci. 2005;2:24−8. Maheswaran M, Adnan W, Ahmad R, Rahman A, Naing N, Abdullah J. The use of an in house scoring system scale versus Glasgow coma scale in non-traumatic altered states of consciousness patients: can it be used for triaging patients in Southeast Asian developing countries? Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2007;38(6):1126−40. Bates D. The prognosis of medical coma. J Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001;71:i20−3. Ting HW, Chen MS, Hseih TC, Chan CL. Good mortality prediction by Glasgow coma scale for neurosurgical patients. J Chin Med Assoc. 2010;73(3):139−43. Miah T, Hoque A, Khan R. The Glasgow coma scale following acute stroke and inhospital outcome: an observational study. J Medicine. 2009;10(1):11−4. Levati A, Farina ML, Vecchi G, Rossanda M, Morrubini M. Prognosis of severe head injuries. J Neurosurg. 1982;57:779−83. Jagger J, Jane JA, Rimel R. The Glasgowcoma scale: to sum or not to sum? Lancet. 1983;2:97. McNett M. A review of the predictive ability of Glasgow coma scale scores in head-injured patients. J Neurosci Nurs. 2007;39:68−75. Wijdicks EF, Bamlet WR, Maramattom BV, Manno EM, McClelland RL. Validation of a new coma scale: the FOUR Score. Ann Neurol. 2005;58:585−93. Budiman. Kegawatdaruratan Medik di Bidang Ilmu Penyakit Dalam: penatalaksanaan umum koma. Dalam: Aru Sudoyo, Bambang Setiyohadi, Idrus Alwi Marcellus Simadibrata, Siti Setiati, editor. Buku Ajar Ilmu Penyakit Dalam. Edisi ke-4. Jakarta: Pusat Penerbitan Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia; 2006. Hlm.161−3. Settervall CH, Sousa RM, Silva SC. Inhospital mortality and the Glasgow coma scale in the first 72 hours after traumatic brain injury. Rev Latino-Am Enfermagem. 2011;19(6):1337−43.

Perbandingan Kemudahan Pemasangan Laryngeal Mask Airway antara Teknik Baku disertai Penekanan Lidah dengan Teknik Baku

Majalah Anestesia dan Critical Care Vol 32 No 3 (2014): Oktober
Publisher : Perdatin Pusat

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) merupakan suatu alat bantu jalan napas. Teknik baku pemasangan LMA disertai penekanan lidah memberikan angka keberhasilan pemasangan 100%. Penelitian ini bertujuan membandingan kemudahan dan komplikasi pemasangan LMA menggunakan teknik baku dengan penekanan lidah dibandingkan dengan teknik baku. Penelitian ini merupakan studi uji klinis acak tersamar tunggal yang dilakukan antara Mei – Juni 2013 di RSCM, pada 80 pasien dewasa yang menjalani operasi elektif dengan anestesia umum menggunakan LMA. Pada 40 pasien mengalami pemasangan LMA dengan teknik baku disertai penekanan lidah dan 40 pasien dengan teknik baku. Upaya pemasangan dan kemudahan dicatat dan dinilai. Pemasangan mudah bila ≤2 kali. Komplikasi pemasangan berupa noda darah, nyeri menelan dan nyeri tenggorokan dicatat dan dinilai. Analisis statistik dilakukan dengan uji chi-kuadrat dan eksak fisher. Batas kemaknaan untuk semua uji adalah p <0,05. Perbandingan proporsi keberhasilan upaya pemasangan pertama dan kedua antara kelompok teknik baku disertai penekanan lidah dan teknik baku adalah 87,5% banding 65% dan 100% banding 97,5%, secara berurutan. Pemasangan LMA dengan teknik baku disertai penekanan lidah tidak lebih mudah dibanding dengan teknik baku. Kekerapan komplikasi yang berbeda bermakna berupa noda darah 0% pada teknik baku disertai penekanan lidah dan 6,2% pada teknik baku. Kata kunci: Kemudahan pemasangan, komplikasi, laryngeal mask airway, teknik baku disertai penekanan lidah, teknik baku LMA is one of the airway management device. Novel technique of LMA insertion combined with tongue supression technique resulted in 100% succes rate of insertion. The objective of this study was to compare easiness and complications of inserting LMA using classic approach combined with tongue supression and classic approach. This study was a single-blind randomized clinical trial conducted from May ̶June 2013 in RSCM on 80 adult patients who underwent elective surgery with general anesthesia using LMA. In 40 patients underwent LMA insertion with classic approached combined with tongue supression technique and 40 patients with classic approached. Effort and success rate was noted and evaluated. Insertion was considered easy if the insertion was attempted maximally twice. Complications such as blood stains, sore throat, and dysphagia was noted and evaluated. Statistical analysis conducted by Chi-square Test and Fischer Exact. P <0,05 was considered significant. Proportion of first and second attempt LMA insertion between both technique was 87,5% compared with 65% and 100% compared with 97,5%, respectively. LMA insertion with classic approached combined with tongue supression technique was not easier than with classic approached technique. Complication which statistically significant different was blood stains 0% with classic approached combined with tongue supression technique compared with 6,2% classic approached technique. Key words: Classic approached combined with tongue supression, classic approached technique easy installation complications, laryngeal mask airway Reference Sinha PK, Misra S. Supraglottic airway devices other than LMA and its prototypes. Indian J anaesth. 2005;49(4):281–92. Hein C, Owen H, Plummer J. Randomized comparison of the SLIPA and the SS-LM by medical students. Emergency Medicine Australasia. 2006;18:478–83. Basket PJF, Brain AIJ, Handbook of the use of LMA in CPR. Intavent. 1998:1–14. Hein C. The Prehospital practitioner and the LMA: are you keeping Up?. J Emerg Primary Health Care. 2004:2; 1–2. Brimacombe JR, Berry AM, Daves SM, The LMA, Airway Management. Dalam: Hanowel LH, Penyunting Lippincott: Raven Publishers, Philadelphia;1996. Hlm.195–221. Rieger A, Brunne B, Striebel W. Use of manometry for laryngeal mask airway reduces postoperative pharyngolaryngeal adverse events, a prospective randomize trial. Anesthesiol. 2010; 112:652–7. Park PG, Choi GJ, Kim WJ, Yang SY, Shin HY, Kang H, dkk, A comparative study among normal saline, water soluble gel and 2% lidocaine gel as a SLIPA lubricant, Korean J Anesthesiol. 2014 February; 66(2): 105–111. Hein C. The prehospital practitioner and the laryngeal mask airway: “Are you keeping up?”. Austral Jo Paramed. 2004:2 (1) Vaida S. Airway management-Supraglotic Airway Devices. Timisoara. 2004. Strydom C, Le Roux. A clinical comparison of disposable airway devices. SAJAA. 2008; 14(6):31–36. Andre AZ. Comparison of the LMA-Classic with the new disposable soft seal laryngeal mask in spontaneously breathing adult patients. Anesthesiology. 2003;99:1066–71. Keijzer C, Buitelaar D. A Comparison of postoperative throat and neck complaints after the use of I-gel and the La Premiere Disposable laryngeal mask: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial. Anaesth Analg 2009; 109(4);1092–4. Cook TM, Gatward et al. A Cohort evaluation of the I-Gel airway in 100 elective patients. J Association Anaesthetists Great Britain Ireland 2008;63:1124–30. Roodneshin F, Agah M, Novel technique for placement of LMA in difficult pediatric airways. Tanaffos.2011;10(2):56–8. Mun’im A. Perbandingan dua macam teknik pemasangan sungkup laring pada penderita operasi elektif di RSUPN-CM tahun 1997. [Tesis]. Jakarta: Departemen Anestesiologi dan Terapi Intensif FKUI/RSCM. 1997. Payne FB, Wilkes NC. A prospective study of two insertion techniques of the laryngeal mask airway. Anesthesiol. 1996;85:3A. Malayanti. Keberhasilan pemasangan sungkup laring: perbandingan antara teknik baku dengan teknik putar 180o pada pasien operasi elektif. [Tesis]. Jakarta: Departemen Anestesiologi dan Terapi Intensif FKUI/ RSCM. 2002. Brimacombe J, Berry AM, Insertion of the LMA A Prospective Study of Four Techniques. Anaesth Intens Care. 1993;21:89–92 (4).