Laksono, Buyung Hartiyo
Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

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Tehnik Proteksi Otak pada Pembedahan Non Neurosurgery (Radical Neck Dissection) dengan Premorbid Space Occupying Lesion (SOL) dan Infark Serebri

Jurnal Neuroanestesi Indonesia Vol 3, No 3 (2014)
Publisher : Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

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Abstract

Insidensi kasus tumor dengan metastase otak berkisar antara 100.000 sampai 170.000 pertahun. Metastase otak bersifat multiple dengan 80% terletak pada hemis ferserebri. Pendesakan akibat lesi tersebut mengakibatkan gangguan neurologis dan peningkatan tekanan intrakranial (TIK). Seorang laki-laki, 62 tahun dengan tumor sub mandibula direncanakan radical neck dissection. Pada pasien didapatkan proses metastase pada serebri dan cerebropontine angle disertai infark serebri daerah pons dan otak tengah. Defisit neurologis berupa kelemahan ekstremitas kanan dan disartria. Preoperatif diberikan kortikosteroid untuk menurunkan edema perifokal. Tatalaksana anestesi dengan prinsip tehnik proteksi otak, dilakukan induksi kombinasi dengan midazolam, fentanyl, lidokain, propofol dan rocuronium. Kontrol ventilasi target paCO2 30–35 mmHg. Pemeliharaan anestesi dengan kombinasi sevofluran dan propofol. Pembedahan berjalan 7 jam, temperature selama pembedahan 35–36 °C dan MAP dijaga >70 mmHg. Dilakukan ekstubasi, setelah menilai status neurologis dan hemodinamik, difasilitasi dengan lidokain. Pascabedah tidak didapatkan perburukan defisit neurologis. Pasien dirawat di ICU selama 2 hari kemudian ke ruangan dengan perbaikan status neurologis. Tehnik proteksi otak bertujuan mencegah cedera sekunder dari SOL dan iskemia. Tindakan anestesi dan pembedahan dapat menambah perburukan cedera sekunder. Penatalaksanaan anestesi yang baik dengan prinsip proteksi otak akan menghasilkan outcome pembedahan sesuai yang diharapkan.  Brain Protection Technique in Non Neurosurgical Procedure (Radical Neck Dissection) on a Patient with Space Occupying Lession (SOL) and Cerebral InfarctionThe incidence of tumors with brain metastases ranged from 100,000 to 170,000 per year. Brain metastases are multiple with 80% of lesion located on the cerebral hemispheres. These lesions could cause neurological disorders and increase intracranial pressure (ICP). A 62 years old male, diagnosed with sub mandibular tumour was scheduled for radical neck dissection. From preoperative evaluation he hadcerebral metastasis at the cerebrum and cerebro-pontine angle with cerebral infarction at pons and middle brain regions. Neurological deficits were weakness of the right limband dysarthria. The patient received corticosteroids pre-operatively to reduce perifocal edema. Anesthesia management was given using brain protection principles. Induction was done by using midazolam, fentanyl, lidocaine, propofol and rocuronium. Ventilation was controlled with a target PaCO2 of 30–35 mmHg. Sevoflurane and propofol was given as anesthesia maintenance. Surgery was done for 7 hrs, temperature was 35–36 °C during surgery and MAP was maintained >70 mmHg. Extubation was done after assessing the neurologic and hemodynamic status,facilitated with lidocaine. There was no worsening of neurologic deficits post surgery. Patients was managed in the ICU for 2 days and transferred to ward with increased neurological state. The technique of brain protection aims to prevent further process of secondary injury from SOL and ischemia. Anesthesia and surgery itself could increase the progression of secondary injury. Anesthesia management usingbrain protection principles will provide better outcomes as expected.

Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography: Diagnosis dan Monitoring Non Invasif pada Neuroanesthesia dan Neurointesive Care

Jurnal Neuroanestesi Indonesia Vol 6, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

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Abstract

Transcranial Doppler (TCD) adalah pemeriksaan ultrasonografi yang telah digunakan secara luas dibidang neuroanestesi dan perawatan intensif. Pada bidang perawatan intensif neurologi, pemeriksaan TCD sangat berguna untuk evaluasi dan monitoring perubahan sirkulasi pembuluh darah penting di otak, seperti arteri serebri media (middle cerebral artery-MCA), arteri serebri anterior (anterior cerebral artery-ACA), arteri carotis interna (internal carotid artery-ICA) cabang terminalis, arteri cerebri posterior (posterior cerebral artery-PCA), arteri vertebralis dan arteri basilaris. Selain kecepatan aliran, pemeriksaan ini juga dapat digunakan untuk evaluasi perubahan diameter pembuluh darah. TCD digunakan untuk pemeriksaan penunjang diagnostik perdarahan subarachnoid, monitoring vasospasme dan deteksi peningkatan tekanan intrakranial (TIK), evaluasi hemodinamik cerebral pada kasus trauma kepala, serta sebagai alat bantu penentuan kasus kematian otak. Pada tindakan pembedahan saraf atau neurosurgery, TCD sangat berguna dalam deteksi dini adanya mikroemboli.Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography: Diagnosis and Monitoring non Invasive in Neuroanesth and Neurointensive CareTranscranial Doppler (TCD) is ultrasound examination which is already widely used in the field of neuroanesthesia and intensive care. In the field of neurology intensive care, TCD examination is very useful for the evaluation and monitoring of significant changes in the circulation of main cerebral blood vessels, such as the middle cerebral artery (MCA), anterior cerebral artery (ACA), terminal branches of internal carotid artery (ICA), posterior cerebral artery (PCA) , the vertebral artery and the basilar artery. In addition to the flow velocity, the examination can also be used to evaluate changes in the diameter of blood vessels. TCD is used for diagnostic investigation of subarachnoid hemorrhage, vasospasm monitoring and detection of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics changes in cases of head injury, as well as aids for determination of brain death cases. In neurosurgery, TCD is very useful in the early detection of microemboli.

Gangguan Natrium pada Pasien Bedah Saraf

Jurnal Neuroanestesi Indonesia Vol 3, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

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Gangguan pada susunan saraf pusat (SSP) akan mengakibatkan gangguan pada fungsi axis hipotalamus hipofise, yang akan menyebabkan gangguan pada keseimbangan cairan dan elektrolit. Selain karena lesi neurologis primer yang terjadi pada SSP, penyebab kelainan elektrolit ini juga disebabkan oleh tindakan pembedahan atau iatrogenik, tindakan perawatan pascabedah di intensive care unit (ICU) akibat dari tindakan medis, misalnya obat-obatan dan pemberian cairan intravena, pemberian diuretik, pemberian steroid dan mannitol. Gangguan elektrolit paling banyak terjadi pada natrium. Dua kondisi dengan klinis hiponatremi adalah SIADH dan CSWS, yang penataksanaan keduanya sangat berbeda. Hampir 62% pasien bedah saraf dengan hiponatremia (kadar natrium < 135 mmol/L) disebabkan oleh SIADH, sedangkan sisanya 16,6% karena penggunaan obat-obatan dan 4,8% karena CSWS. Gangguan natrium dengan gambaran klinis hipernatremi adalah diabetes insipidus (DI). DI terjadi sekitar 3,8 % pada pasien bedah saraf. Kondisi keseimbangan cairan dan elektrolit pada pasien dengan kelainan SSP yang dilakukan tindakan anestesi dan operasi merupakan tantangan khusus bagi dokter anestesi dan intensivist. Pasien pasien bedah saraf biasanya mendapatkan terapi diuretik sebagai salah satu manajemen edema otak dan untuk mengurangi tekanan intrakranial. Di sisi lain efek diuresis dari lesi pada otak dan penggunaan teknik hipotermi juga akan menambah kondisi diuresis pada pasien bedah saraf. Efek diuresis yang berlebihan menyebabkan kehilangan natrium. Sodium Disturbance in Neurosurgical PatientDisturbance of the central nerve system (CNS) will lead to interference with the function of the hypothalamus pituitary axis and will cause disruption of fluids and electrolytes balance as well. In addition to its primary neurological lesions occurring in the CNS, the cause of electrolyte abnormalities are also due to surgical procedure or iatrogenic, postoperative medical treatment in ICU such as administration of drugs and intravenous fluids, diuretics, steroids and mannitol. The most frequent electrolyte disorder is sodium. Two clinical conditions related to hyponatremia are SIADH and CSWS which the management can be totally different, respectively. Nearly 62% of neurosurgical patients with hyponatremia (sodium levels <135 mmol / L) is caused by SIADH, while the remaining 16.6% patient is due to the use of drugs and 4.8% patient is due to CSWS. Sodium disorder clinically referred to as hypernatremia is diabetes insipidus (DI). DI occurs around 3.8% in neurosurgical patients. The condition of fluid and electrolyte balance in patients with CNS disorders undergoing anesthesia and surgery is a particular challenge for anesthesiologists and intensivists. The patients usually receive diuretic therapy to manage brain edema and to reduce intracranial pressure. On the other hand, diuresis effects due to brain lesions and the use of hypothermia technique will also increase diuresis condition in neurosurgical patients. Excessive diuresis effect will cause loss of sodium.

Anestesi untuk Pengangkatan Meningioma Suprasella dengan Pendekatan Supraorbita

Jurnal Neuroanestesi Indonesia Vol 2, No 3 (2013)
Publisher : Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

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Anestesi pada kasus meningioma memiliki beberapa hal yang harus diperhatikan. Otak merupakan jaringan yang tertutup oleh tulang kranium dan memiliki jaringan pembuluh darah yang banyak sehingga beresiko untuk terjadinya pendarahan dan edema. Kondisi jaringan otak yang rileks dibutuhkan ketika akan dilakukan operasi otak melalui insisi kecil supraorbita. Tanpa penanganan anestesi yang baik maka ahli bedah saraf akan kesulitan untuk melakukan pendekatan pada tumor dan meningkatkan resiko edema otak karena manipulasi operasi. Pada kasus ini dilaporkan pasien wanita usia 44 tahun datang dengan keluhan nyeri kepala hebat dan pusing dirasakan sejak 8 bulan sebelum masuk rumahsakit, mengalami periode kejang selama 1–2 menit, terjadi kurang lebih 1x/bulan, penglihatan pada mata kanan buram. Pasien didiagnosa dengan meningioma suprasellar, dan direncanakan dilakukan pembedahan dengan pendekatan subfrontal. Status fisik ASA 3 dengan riwayat asma, riwayat sepsis karena pneumonia dan infeksi saluran kemih, riwayat Steven Johnson karena phenytoin, leukositosis 10.570, defisit neurologis. Pasien dilakukan tindakan anestesi umum dengan intubasi. Induksi dengan midazolam, fentanyl, lidokain, propofol, dan vecuronium. Operasi dengan pendekatan supraorbita berlangsung selama 10 jam. Pascabedah, pasien dirawat di Unit Perawatan Intensif (Intensive Care Unit/ICU) selama 2 hari sebelum pindah ruangan. Kontrol faktor fisiologi dan perlakuan anestesi yang dilakukan selama operasi memiliki pengaruh kepada jaringan otak. Lebih lanjut lagi, seorang dokter anestesi harus memiliki pengetahuan tentang berbagai macam efek obat untuk mencapai hal tersebut dan mengetahui kondisi premorbid pasien yang dapat mempengaruhinya. Anesthesia Management for Suprasella Meningioma Removal with Supraorbital Approach Anesthesia for meningioma presents special considerations. The brain is enclosed in a rigid skull and the brain is a highly vascular organ presenting potential for massive perioperative hemorrhage and edema. A slack brain is necessary when treating neoplastic lesions through the small supraorbital approach. Without optimal anesthesia care, the neurosurgeon can not reach the operative site and the risk of brain edema due to extensive brain manipulation is increased. This case reports a 44 years old woman with severe headache and dizziness for 8 months prior to admission she suffers from 1–2 minutes periods of seizure once a month, and experienced a blured vision on her right eye. She was diagnosed with suprasellar meningioma, which will be removed with supraorbital surgical approach. ASA 3rd was confirmed with history of status asthmaticus, septic condition due to pneumonia and urinary tract infection, history of Steven-Johnson syndrome due to phenytoin, leucocytosis of a count of 10.570, and neurological deficits general anesthesia was performed. Induction of anesthesia was done using midazolam, fentanyl, lidocaine, propofol and vecuronium. The surgery for meningioma was conducted within 10 hours. Patient was managed in the Intensive Care Unit post operatively for 2 days prior to ward transfer. Physiologic and anesthetics factors controlled by the anesthesiologist have profound effects on the brain. Furthermore, anesthesiologists are required knowledge of the effects of various drugs on the issues mentioned above and patient conditions.

Tatalaksana Anestesi pada Prosedur Minimal Invasive Neurosurgery: Kasus Perdarahan Intraserebral Traumatika

Jurnal Neuroanestesi Indonesia Vol 5, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) menyumbang 70% kematian akibat trauma. Penyebab yang tersering adalah kecelakaan lalu lintas 49%. Tehnik minimal invasif cukup berkembang pada beberapa dekade ini, demikian juga pada bidang bedah saraf. Tujuan utama tatalaksana anestesia adalah immobilisasi intraoperatif, stabilitas kardiovaskuler, minimal komplikasi pascaoperasi, fasilitasi intraoperatif neurologi monitoring, kolaborasi tatalaksana peningkatan tekanan intrakranial (TIK) dan rapid emergence untuk pemeriksaan neurologis dini. Kasus laki-laki 50 tahun dengan perdarahan intraserebral (ICH) direncanakan operasi minimal invasive neuroendoscopy evakuasi hematom. Posisi selama operasi adalah true lateral yang juga menjadi perhatian tersendiri. Komplikasi akibat posisi harus dihindari karena rentan mempengaruhi luaran operasi. Operasi berjalan selama 3 jam dengan luaran optimal. Beberapa masalah penting menjadi perhatian khusus selama operasi dan pascaoperasi. Prinsip tatalaksana anestesi pada minimal invasif yang harus dicapai adalah pemeriksaan dan perencanaan preoperatif yang baik, kontrol hemodinamik serebral untuk menjamin tekanan perfusi otak (cerebral perfusion presure/CPP) optimal, immobilisasi penuh, dan dapat dilakukan rapid emergence untuk menilai status neurologis. Komunikasi antara operator dan ahli anestesi penting untuk keberhasilan kasus ini.Anesthesia Management in Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery Procedure: Traumatic Intracerebral Hemorrhage CaseTraumatic brain injury (TBI) accounted for 70% of deaths from trauma. The most common causes of traffic accidents is 49%. Minimally invasive techniques sufficiently developed in the past few decades, as well as in the field of neurosurgery. The main objective is the treatment of immobilization intraoperative anesthesia, cardiovascular stability, minimal postoperative complications, facilitating intraoperative neurological monitoring, collaborative management of an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP) and the rapid emergence of early neurological examination. The case of a man 50 years with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) minimally invasive surgery neuroendoscopy planned evacuation of hematoma. Position during operation is true lateral is also a concern in itself. Complications due to the position should be avoided because it is vulnerable affect the outcome of the operation. Operations run for 3 hours with optimal outcomes. Some important issue is of particular concern during surgery and postoperatively. Procedural principle in minimally invasive anesthesia to be achieved is the examination and good preoperative planning, cerebral hemodynamic control to ensure optimal cerebral perfussion pressure (CPP), full immobilization, and can do rapid emergence to assess the neurological status. Communication between the operator and the anesthetist is important to the success of this case.

Tatalaksana Anestesi pada Direct Clipping Aneurisma Otak

Jurnal Neuroanestesi Indonesia Vol 4, No 3 (2015)
Publisher : Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

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Perdarahan subarachnoid (SAH) yang diakibatkan oleh pecahnya aneurisma otak menyumbang sekitar 85% dari kejadian SAH non traumatik. Insidensi sekitar 8–10 per 100.000 penduduk per tahun atau sekitar (0,008%). Rangkaian tatalaksana kasus SAH mempengaruhi outcome dari hasil terapi, mulai dari pertolongan pertama pada prehospital, transportasi, diagnosis awal, manajemen kegawatdaruratan dini, tindakan neuroradiologi intervensi ataupun pembedahan dan perawatan intensif pasca tindakan definitif. Pada laporan kasus ini, pasien wanita usia 65 tahun, berat badan 50 kg dengan diagnosa SAH hari ke 18 karena pecahnya aneurisma arteri serebri media disertai defisit neurologis ringan. Pembedahan dilakukan tindakan kraniotomi direct clipping aneurisma. Prinsip anestesi yang dilakukan adalah pemeliharaan homeostasis dan Cerebral Perfusion Pressure (CPP)/Transmural Pressure (TMP) yang efektif, tindakan pencegahan peningkatan tekanan intrakranial (Intracranial Pressure-ICP), pembengkakan otak dan manajemen vasospasme serebral. Operasi berjalan 6 jam dan dilakukan rapid emergence. Outcome pembedahan sesuai yang diharapkan. Anestesi mempunyai peranan yang sangat penting dalam manajemen secara keseluruhan pada pasien ini untuk memberikan manajemen proteksi otak yang maksimal selama pembedahan sehingga memperoleh hasil akhir pembedahan yang sukses. Anesthetic Management in Direct Clipping Cerebral AneurysmaSubarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by rupture of a brain aneurysm accounts for about 85% of the incidence of non-traumatic SAH. The incidence is approximately 8-10 per 100,000 populations per year, or about (0.008%). The management of SAH affects the outcome, ranging from first aid in Prehospital, transportation, early diagnosis, early emergency management, neuroradiology action or surgical interventions and intensive therapy after definitive care. In this case report, a 65 years old female, 50 kgs, diagnosised with SAH day 18 due to middle cerebral artery aneurysm rupture with mild neurological deficits. Craniotomy was performed using direct aneurysm clipping. The anesthesia principle is to maintain adequate homeostasis and effective Cerebral Perfusion Pressure (CPP)/Transmural Pressure (TMP), preventing increase in ICP, brain swelling and management of cerebral vasospasm. The operation was done in 6 hours with rapid emergence. The outcome of surgery was as expected. Anesthesia has a very important role in the overall management of these patients to provide optimal brain protection management during surgery in obtaining successful outcome.