Pamungkasari, Ety Poncorini
Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Socioeconomic and Cultural Determinants of Early Marriage in Ngawi, East Java: Application of PRECEDE-PROCEED Model

Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior Vol 2, No 4 (2017)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Indonesia ranks 37 of the countries in the world with the highest rate of early marriage. Center for Gender and Sexuality Studies, University of Indonesia reported in 2015 that Indonesia rank the second highest rate of early marriage in South East Asia. Approximately 2 millions (7.3%) girls aged under 15  years old have been married and dropped out of school. This number is expected to become 3 million married girls in 2030. This study aimed to determine the effect of socioeconomic and cultural factors on early marriage in Ngawi, East Java.Subjects and Method: This was an analytical observational study with case control design. Study subjects consisted of 75 women of reproductive age who got married before 20 years old and 75 women of reproductive age who got married had 20-30 years of age. The dependent variable was early marriage. The independent variables were paternal education level, maternal education level, family income, family belief, culture, and peers. The data were collected by a set of questionnaire and analyzed by path analysis model.Results: Early marriage was positively affected by family belief (b=1.47; 95% CI= 0.44 to 2.50; p=0.005) and culture (b=1.56; 95% CI= 0.54 to 2.58; p=0.003). Early marriage was negatively affected by family income (b=-2.20; 95% CI= -3.18 to -1.21; p<0.001) and positive peers (b=-2.51; 95% CI= -3.58 to -1.44; p<0.001). Family income was affected by paternal education (b=2.24; 95% CI= 0.37 to 4.12; p=0.019) and maternal education (b= 6.53; 95% CI= 4.25 to 8.80; p<0.001). Family belief  was affected by paternal education (b= -1.20; 95% CI= -2.10 to -0.30; p= 0.009) and maternal education (b= -1.20; 95% CI= -2.10 to -0.30; p= 0.009).Conclusion: Early marriage is directly affected by family income, family belief, culture, and positive peers.Keyword: early marriage, family education, family income, family belief, culture, peersCorrespondence: Noviana Ayumi Wijayati. Masters Program in Public Heath, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: novianaayumi@gmail.com. Mobile: +6285645828766.Journal of Health Promotion and Behaviour (2017), 2(4): 302-312https://doi.org/10.26911/thejhpb.2016.02.04.02 

Effects of Predisposing, Enabling, and Reinforcing Factors on Completeness of Child Immunization in Pamekasan, Madura

Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health Vol 2, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: According to WHO Weekly Epidemiological Record, Indonesia ranked fourth the lowest country in immunization coverage after India, Nigeria, and Democratic Republic of Congo. Likewise, Pamekasan District in Madura was one of districs in East Java with the lowest immunization coverage. This study aimed to determine the effects of predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors on completeness of child immunization, using PRECEDE and PROCEED model and health belief model.Subjects and Method: This was an observational analytic study with case control design. This study was carried out at 4 community health centers in Pamekasan District, Madura, East Java, in March to April, 2017. A sample of 135 mothers who had infants aged 10 to 12 months were selected for this study by fixed disease sampling. The dependent variable was completeness of immunization use. The independent variables were maternal education, attitude towards immunization, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefit, perceived barrier, self efficacy, family support, and distance to health service. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed using path analysis.Results: Perceived barrier (b= -0.5; 95% CI = -1.5 to 0.4; p= 0.255) and distance to health service (b= -1.0; 95% CI= -2.0 to -0.1; p= 0.037) had a negative effect on completeness of immunization. Perceived susceptibility (b= 1.1; 95% CI= 0.2 to 2.0; p= 0.022), perceived severity (b= 1.5; 95% CI= 0.5 to 2.5; p= 0.003), perceived benefit (b= 0.7; 95% CI= -0.1 to 1.6; p= 0.110), and self efficacy (b= 0.6; 95% CI= -0.3 to 1.5; p= 0.193) had a positive effect on completeness of immunization. Perceived susceptibility was affected by maternal education (b= 1.0; 95% CI= 0.3 to 1.7; p= 0.005). Perceived severity was affected by maternal education (b= 0.9; 95% CI= 0.5 to 1.6; p= 0.018) and attitude towards immunization (b= 1.0; 95% CI= 0.3 to 1.8; p= 0.007). Perceived benefit was affected by family support (b= 0.7; 95% CI= -0.1 to 1.4; p= 0.078). Likeliwise, self efficacy was affected by family support (b= 0.6; 95% CI = 0.1 to 1.3; p= 0.134).Conclusion: Perceived barrier and distance to health service have a negative effect on completeness of immunization. Perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefit, and self efficacy have a positive effect on completeness of immunization.Keywords: completeness of immunization, PRECEDE and PROCEED model, health belief modelCorrespondence: Nur Jayanti. Masters Program in Public Health, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: Yanti_nurjayanti13@yahoo.co.id. Mobile: +6282233829768.Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2017), 2(2): 106-118https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2017.02.02.02