Soemanto, RB
Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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PRECEDE-PROCEED Theory Regarding Socio-Cultural Aspects that Influence the Treatment of Healthy Reproduction Organs among Senior High School Female Students in Surakarta Putri, Santy Irene; Soemanto, RB; Dewi, Yulia Lanti Retno
Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior Vol 2, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Background: The group that has been vulnerable to the abandonment of reproductive health rights in Indonesia is adolescents. The lack of adolescents’ awareness toward their behaviors in maintaining genital organs cleanliness is due to socio-cultural limitations might cause negative impact toward their reproductive health. This study aimed at analyzing the socio-cultural aspects that influenced the behaviors in treating healthy reproductive organs among female senior high school students in the City of Surakarta.Subjects and Method: This was a mixed-method study with quantitative and qualitative approach. This study was conducted in State Senior High School 1, Al-Islam 1 Senior High School and Regina Pacis Senior High School; all of these senior high schools were located in the City of Surakarta, from February to March 2017. A total of 120 subjects were selected by stratified random sampling. In addition, the sample also included 5 mothers and fathers who had been selected by purposive sampling. The dependent variable was the behaviors in treating reproductive organs. The independent variables were knowledge toward reproduction organ health, family support, toilet/ bathroom availability, clean water availability, culture and information exposure. The dependent and independent variables were collected by a set of questionnaire and analyzed by path analysis. The qualitative data were collected by in-depth interview and analyzed by Miles Huberman method.Results: The behaviors in treating reproductive organ were influenced by good knowledge (b= 0.21; SE= 0.09; p= 0.020), high information exposure (b= 0.20; SE= 0.07; p= 0.005), positive culture (b= 0.15; SE= 0.07; p= 0.039), toilet/ bathroom availability (b= 0.21; SE= 0.07; p= 0.026), clean water availability (b= 0.14; SE= 0.08; p= 0.073) and strong family support (b= 0.16; SE= 0.08; p= 0.041). Then, the knowledge of reproductive health was influenced by high information exposure (b= 0.31; SE= 0.07; p<0.001) and positive culture (b= 0.16; SE= 0.07; p= 0.016).Conclusions: The behaviors in treating reproductive organs are influenced by good knowledge, high information exposure, positive culture, toilet availability, clean water availability and strong family support. The knowledge of reproductive health are influenced by high information exposure and positive culture.Keyword: precede-proceed, path analysis, socio-culture, reproductive healthCorrespondence: Santy Irene Putri. Masters Program in Public Heath, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta. Email: santyireneputri@yahoo.co.id. Mobile: +6285785836884.Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior (2017), 2(1): 27-40https://doi.org/10.26911/thejhpb.2017.02.01.03
Factor Analysis with Health Belief Model on the Adherence to Methadone Maintenance Therapy Timoer, Seindy Arya Kusuma; Murti, Bhisma; Soemanto, RB
Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health Vol 1, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Background: Methadone maintenance therapy is one of substitution therapy is needed as a harm reduction approach of transmission of HIV / AIDS through injecting drugs. To achieve the success of the therapy, therapy adherence is very important. This study was aimed todetermine the factors affecting adherence methadone maintenance therapy using the approach of the Health Belief Model in clinical methadone maintenance therapyprograms.Subject and Methods: This was an analytical observation study with qualitative method, conducted in a community health center PTRMManahan Surakarta. A total ofsample was selected with snowball. Thedata collected by using in-depth interviews, observation and document. The validityincluded triangulation of sources, methods, theory and research. The data analysis was using analytical models mating patterns, reduction, data presentation and analysis of data that form a pattern that can reveal the Health Believe Model or HBM linkage with therapy adherence.Results: The results showed the factors of patients using the drug include family background, social environment, and knowledge. Factors underlying patients adhere to therapy, among others, those included in the high risk group of HIV / AIDS; the seriousness of the disease of HIV / AIDS; improved quality of life, side effects of methadone are more severe than injecting drug use; family and NGOs as a driving force to follow programswhich is an instrument of HBM. Programs patient factors for non-compliant in following methadone maintenance therapy include patients still using drugs, objected to the levy on programs, and saturated with duration of therapy.Conclusion: Methadone maintenance therapy adherence factors include the perception of vulnerability, perceived seriousness, benefits, barriers and trigger actions. Areas of compliance include methadone maintenance therapy patients were still using drugs, objected to the levy on programs, and saturated with duration of therapy.Keywords: injecting drug users, HIV / AIDS, reduction, HBM, compliance therapy, methadone maintenance therapyCorrrespondence: Seindy Arya Kusuma Timoer.  Masters Program in Public Health, Sebelas Maret University, SurakartaJournal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2016), 1(1): 49-57https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2016.01.01.06 
The Effect of Internal and External Factors on Preventive Reproductive Health Behaviors in Adolescents, in Banjarmasin, Kalimantan Arisa, Azura; Soemanto, RB; Rahardjo, Setyo Sri
Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior Vol 2, No 4 (2017)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Background: Many adolescents had engaged in unhealthy sexual behavior that can result in unintended health outcomes. In theory, the adolescent sexual behavior is influenced by a complex set of interactions between biology, genetics, individual perception, personality characteristics, and sociocultural norms and values. This study aimed to determine the influence of internal and external factors on preventive reproductive health behavior in adolescents, in Banjarmasin, Kalimantan, using Health Belief Model.Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational study with the cross-sectional design. The study was conducted at 10 senior high schools in Banjarmasin, Kalimantan. A total sample of 200 grade XI students was selected for this study by proportional stratified random sampling. The dependent variable was preventive reproductive health behavior. The independent variables were perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, perceived threat, perceived benefit, perceived barrier, self-efficacy, the role of parents, peer role, and information access. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by path analysis. Results: The strong role of parents (b=0.05; SE= 0.01; p<0.001), perceived benefit (b=0.06; SE= 0.02; p=0.006), perceived threat (b=0.10; SE= 0.02; p<0.001), self-efficacy (b=0.13; SE= 0.01; p<0.001), and peer role (b=0.06; SE= 0.01; p<0.001) positively affected preventive reproductive health behavior. Perceived barrier (b= -0.03; SE= 0.01; p=0.026) negatively affected preventive reproductive health behavior. Perceived threat increased with increasing role of parents (b=0.05; SE= 0.02; p= 0.059), perceived susceptibility (b=0.21; SE= 0.05; p<0.001), perceived seriousness (b=0.10; SE= 0.04; p= 0.015), and self efficacy (b= 0.13; SE= 0.06; p= 0.040). Perceived barrier decreased with improving access of information (b=-0.16; SE= 0.05; p= 0.004). Perceived benefit increased with improving access of information (b=0.09; SE= 0.04; p= 0.030) and perceived susceptibility (b=0.20; SE= 0.06; p= 0.002). Perceived susceptibility (b=0.13; SE= 0.04; p= 0.004), perceived seriousness (b=0.10; SE= 0.05; p= 0.057), and self efficacy (b=0.09; SE= 0.03; p= 0.006) increased with access of information. Self efficacy increased with stronger role of parents (b=0.06; SE= 0.02; p= 0.018), and peer role (b=0.07; SE= 0.04; p= 0.062).Conclusion: Preventive reproductive health behavior among adolescents is affected by the role of parents, perceived of threat, self-efficacy, peer role, perceived of benefit, and perceived of a barrier. Health belief model can predict health preventive behavior.Keywords: Preventive behavior, reproductive health, health belief model, internal and external factorsCorrespondence: Azura Arisa, Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: azura.syakura@gmail.com.Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior (2017), 2(4): 350-358https://doi.org/10.26911/thejhpb.2017.02.04.07 
Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents in Kartasura, Central Java Niswah, Sayida Royatun; Soemanto, RB; Murti, Bhisma
Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior Vol 2, No 3 (2017)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Background: Adolescents experience rapid growth. Therefore, they are at risk to have malnutritional problems such as overweight and obesity. The Indonesian Basic Health Research in 2013 showed that the prevalence of overweight among adolescents aged 13-15 years old in Indonesia was 10.8%, consisting of 8.3% overweight and 2.5% obese or very obese. The  prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents aged 15 years and over was 18.4% in Central Java, and 10.7% in Surakarta. Overweight and obesity are important public health problems because they are known as risk factors of various chronic diseases. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with overweight and obesity in adolescents using Health Belief Model.Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational study with cross-sectional design. The study was conducted at Islamic Boarding School (Pondok Pesantren Modern Islam) Assalaam Kartasura, Central Java, from March to May 2017. A total sampel of 120 adolesents aged 12 to 18 years old were selected for this study using fixed disease sampling, including 30 adolescents with overweight or obesity and 90 adolescents with normal weight. The exogenous variables were perceived threat, perceived benefit, perceived barrier, self efficacy, and maternal education. The endogenous variables were physical activity, dietary pattern, and overweight or obesity. Data on dietary pattern were collected by dietary questionnnaire. The other data were collected using a set of questionnaire. Path analysis was used to analyze the association between variables involving mediating variables.Results: Overweight or obesity was directly and negatively associated with perceived threat (b= -0.14, SE= 0.04, p< 0.001), perceived benefit (b= -0.10, SE= 0.02, p< 0.001), physical activity (b= -0.24, SE= 0.10, p= 0.016), and dietary pattern (b= -0.33, SE= 0.08, p< 0.001). Overweight or obesity was directly and positively  associated with perceived barrier (b= 0.13, SE= 0.07, p= 0.051). Dietary pattern was affected by perceived barrier (b= -0.22; SE= 0.007; p= 0.002), perceived benefit (b= 0.10; SE= 0.002; p<0.001), perceived threat (b= 0.09; SE= 0.04; p= 0.023), self effication (b= 0.22; SE= 0.09; p= 0.015), and maternal education (b= 1.05; SE= 0.41; p= 0.010). Physical activity was affected by perceived benefit (b= 0.05; SE= 0.001; p= 0.002), perceived barrier (b=-0.16; SE= 0.05; p= 0.002), perceived threat (b=0.14; SE= 0.03; p<0.001), self efficacy (b=0.24; SE=0.06; p< 0.001), and maternal education (b=0.86; SE= 0.30; p= 0.005).Conclusion: Overweight or obesity is negatively associated with perceived threat, perceived benefit, physical activity, and dietary pattern. Overweight or obesity is positively  associated with perceived barrier. Health Belief Model can be used to explain factors associated with overweight or obesity.                                     Keywords: overweight, obesity, Health Belief ModelCorrespondence: Sayida Royatun Niswah. Masters Program in Public Health, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: cestrowsha@gmail.com. Mobile: +6285700189910.Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior (2017), 2(3): 207-217https://doi.org/10.26911/thejhpb.2017.02.03.02 
Factors Associated with Exercise among Elderly in Boyolali, Indonesia Puspitosari, Aniek; Soemanto, RB; Wijaya, Mahendra
Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior Vol 1, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Background: The elderly will face more problems by getting older. One of which is degenerative disease due to of aging process, such as cardiovascular disease. In the year 2001 (SKRT) data indicated that there were 26.4% elderly suffered from hypertension disease. Exercise for elderly is one of primary preventive actions. Research should be done related to the practice exercise for elderly. This study was aimed to determine the factors of physical exercise for elderly based on health belief model (HBM).Subjects and Method: This was an analytic qualitative study with cross-sectional design. This conducted in Sobokerto, Ngemplak, Boyolali, Central Java, Indonesia. A total sample of 80 elderly with hypertension and participate in physical exercises. Data analysis used chi square and logistic regression.Results: The results showed that the perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers and cues to action have relationship with physical exercise. There is positive relationship and statically significant between perceived susceptibility with high phycical exercise (OR= 27.01; 95% CI= 2.04 to 357.91; p= 0.012), high perceived benefits (OR= 26.95; 95% CI= 2.20 to 392.05; p= 0.010), high perceived barriers (OR= 0.021; 95% CI= 0.00 to 0.90 p= 0.044), cues to action (OR= 21.37; 95% CI= 1.94 to 259.92; p = 0.044).Conclusion: The HBM constructs on the physical exercise of elderly who are at risk for hypertension. The most important HBM predictors of physical exercise were perceived susceptibility.Keywords: physical exercise, elderly, hypertension, health belief modelCorrespondence: Aniek Puspitosari. Health Polytechnic, Poltekkes of Surakarta Indonesia.Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior (2016), 1(1): 41-45https://doi.org/10.26911/thejhpb.2016.01.01.06