Rahardjo, Setyo Sri
Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Analysis of the Contextual Effect of Village Characteristics and Other Determinants of Diarrhea in Children Under Five, Banjarnegara, Central Java Cahyaningrum, Lusia Arina; Rahardjo, Setyo Sri; Murti, Bhisma
Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health Vol 3, No 3 (2018)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Background: Diarrheal disease is the leading cause of child death and illness in the world. Diarrhea is one of the most potent endemic diseases in Indonesia. Children under five were the most affected group by this disease. This study aimed to determine the effect of nutritional status, information exposure, prevention behavior, income, social capital, and environmental sanitation on the incidence of diarrhea in children under five in Banjarnegara District, Central Java, using multilevel analysis.Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational study with a case-control design. The study was conducted in Banjarnegara, Central Java, from January to February 2018. A total of 25 villages was selected using stratified random sampling, based on village stratification criteria. A sample of 250 children under five was selected for this study by fixed disease sampling, consisting of 125 children with diarrhea and 125 healthy children. The dependent variable was diarrhea. The independent variables at level 1 were nutritional status, information exposure, prevention behavior, income, social capital, and environmental sanitation. Village stratification was used as the contextual factor at level 2. The data were collected by a set of pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed by multilevel logistic regression analysis using Stata 13.Results: Poor nutritional status (b= 1.33; 95% CI= -0.14 to 2.82; p= 0.077), poor prevention behavior (b= 1.52; 95% CI= 0.81 to 2.24; p<0.001), low income (b= 1.52; 95% CI= 0.80 to 2.25; p<0.001), weak social capital (b= 1.80; 95 % CI= 1.04 to 2.56; p<0.001), and poor environmental sanitation (b= 1.12; 95% CI= 0.39 to 1.85; p= 0.003) increased the risk of diarrhea. Exposure to information (b= 0.90; 95% CI= 0.17 to 1.64; p= 0.015) decreased the risk of diarrhea. The village stratification showed a strong contextual effect on the incidence of diarrhea with intra-class correlation (ICC)= 15.78%.Conclusion: Poor nutritional status, poor personal hygiene, low income, weak social capital, and poor environmental sanitation increase the risk of diarrhea.Keywords: determinant, diarrhea, children under five, multilevel analysisCorrespondence: Lusia Arina Cahyaningrum. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Indonesia. Email: lusiaarina@gmail.com. Mobile: +6282226835687.Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2018), 3(3): 342-352https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2018.03.03.05
Path Analysis on the Biopsychosocial Factors Associated with Hypertension Istyanto, Febry; Mudigdo, Ambar; Rahardjo, Setyo Sri
Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health Vol 4, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Background: Hypertension is a non-communicable disease which may lead to premature death and disability. This study aimed to determine the biopsychosocial factors associated with the risk of hypertension.Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational study with a case-control design. This study was conducted at Dr. Moewardi Hospital, from September to November 2018. A sample of 225 patients was selected by fixed disease sampling. The dependent variable was hypertension. The independent variables were anxiety, stress, quality of sleep, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, vegetables and fruit, coffee drink, and soft drink consumption. Blood pressure was measured by sphygmomanometer. Body weight was measured by scale. Body height was measured by microtoise. The other data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by path analysis.Results: Hypertension directly increased with anxiety (b= 0.26; 95%CI= 0.02to 0.51; p= 0.037), stress (b= 0.28; 95%CI= 0.04 to 0.53; p= 0.022), poor quality of sleep (b= 0.46; 95%CI= 0.06 to 0.87; p= 0.026), BMI (b= 0.68; 95%CI= 0.051 to 1.31; p= 0.034), coffee drink consumption (b= 1.31; 95%CI= 0.17 to 2.46; p= 0.024), and soft drink consumption (b= 0.38; 95%CI= 0.04 to 0.72; p= 0.029). Hypertension directly decreased with high physical activity (b= -0.04; 95%CI= -0.07 to -0.004; p= 0.027), vegetable and fruit consumption (b= -1.13; 95%CI= -2.07 to -0.19; p= 0.037). Hypertension was indirectly affected by anxiety, physical activity, quality of sleep, and coffe drink consumption through BMI and quality of sleep.Conclusion: Hypertension is directly and positively affected by anxiety, stress, poor quality of sleep, BMI, coffee drink consumption, and soft drink consumption, but negatively affected by high physical activity, vegetable and fruit consumption.Keywords: hypertension, biopsychosocial, determinantsCorrespondence: Febry Istyanto. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126. Email: febryistyanto@gmail.com.Mobile: 082133452012Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2019), 4(2): 70-80https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2019.04.02.02
The Contextual Effect of Village on Health Preventive Behavior for Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in Pati, Central Java Fatimah, Nurul; Rahardjo, Setyo Sri; Murti, Bhisma
Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health Vol 4, No 3 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Background: Dengue is a mosquito-borne infection that has emerged to become a major public health issue and can result in death. Various efforts have been made as an attempt to empower the community in dengue preventive behavior, but has not yet reached the optimal result. This study aimed to examine the effect of the village on the health preventive behavior for dengue hemorrhagic fever in Pati, Central Java.Subjects and Method: This was a case-control study conducted in Pati, Central Java, in November 2018. A sample of 225 household heads was selected by simple random sampling. The dependent variable was DHF preventive behavior. The independent variables were education, access to information, knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, community health behavior, social capital, and villages. Data on DHF status was measured by medical record. The other data were collected by questionnaire. The data were analyzed by multilevel multiple logistic regression.Results: DHF preventive behavior improved with high education (b= 0.86; 95% CI= 0.04 to 1.70; p= 0.040), good knowledge (b= 0.86; 95% CI= 0.06 to 1.67; p= 0.036), strong self efficacy (b= 0.87; 95 % CI= 0.06 to 1.68; p= 0.036), good access to information (b= 1.98; 95% CI= 1.06 to 2.87; p <0.001), positive attitude (b= 1.40; 95% CI= 0.55 to 2.25; p= 0.001), good community behavior in DHF prevention (b= 0.86; 95% CI= 0.02 to 1.70; p= 0.045), and strong social capital (b= 1.07; 95% CI= 0.26 to 1.89; p= 0.010). Village had strong contextual effect on DHF prevention behavior with ICC= 20.30%.Conclusion: DHF preventive behavior improves with high education, good knowledge, strong self-efficacy, good access to information, positive attitude, good community behavior in DHF prevention, and strong social capital. The village has a strong contextual effect on DHF prevention behavior.Keywords: dengue hemorrhagic fever, preventive behavior, village, multilevel analysisCorrespondence: Nurul Fatimah. Masters Program in Public Health.Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: nurul.fatimah00049@gmail.com. Mobile: +6281329501844.Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2019), 4(3): 198-204https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2019.04.03.07
Biopsychosocial Factors Affecting the Risk of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Surakarta, Central Java Romadhoni, Dea Linia; Rahardjo, Setyo Sri; Indarto, Dono
Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health Vol 3, No 3 (2018)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Background: Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) are injuries and disorders that affect the hu­man body’s movement or musculoskeletal system (i.e. muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, discs, blood vessels, etc.). The impacts of MSD include reduced activity, reduction of work abi­lity, and use of health care (seeing a health professional or taking prescription or non­prescription medication). Studies investigating risk factors of MSD are lacking in Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to investigate biopsychosocial factors affecting the risk of MSD in Sura­karta, Central Java.Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational study with a cross-sectional design. The study was carried out at Dr. Moewardi hospital, Surakarta, Central Java from April to May 2018. A sample of 116 patients was selected by fixed disease sampling. The dependent variable was MSD. The independent variable were gender, history of chronic disease, body mass index (BMI), stress, occupational type, environmental working, and working posture. Data on MSD status were taken from medical record. Working posture was measured by REBA questionnaire. Other data were collected by questionnaire. The data were analyzed by path analysis.Results: The risk of MSDs was directly increased with BMI ≥25 (OR= 1.22; 95% CI= 0.15 to 2.30; p= 0.026), history of chronic disease (OR= 2.02; 95% CI= 0.96 to 3.08; p<0.001), heavy occupational type (OR= 1.56; 95% CI= 0.43 to 2.68; p<0.007), and poor working posture (REBA score ≥4) (OR= 1.75; 95% CI= 0.65 to -2.86; p= 0.002). The risk of MSDs was indirectly affected by environmental working, stress, and gender.Conclusion: The risk of MSDs is directly increased with BMI ≥25, history of chronic disease, heavy occupational type, and poor working posture (REBA score ≥4), and is indirectly affected by environmental working, stress, and gender.Keywords: musculoskeletal disorders, biopsychosocial factorCorrespondence: Dea Linia Romadhoni. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36 A, Surakarta, Indonesia. Email: dealinia08@gmail.com. Mobile: +6282227862718.Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2018), 3(3): 361-368https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2018.03.03.07
Socioeconomic, Environmental, and Behavioral Determinants of Leprosy in Kediri, East Java Rahmah, Anindita Hasniati; Dharmawan, Ruben; Rahardjo, Setyo Sri
Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health Vol 3, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Background: Leprosy remains a major public health problem in the world, particularly in developing countries. Leprosy can be so progressive that damages skin, nerve, extremity, and eye organs of the affected patients. Cumulative incidence of leprosy amounted to 200,000 cases worldwide, with the highest incidences occuring in India, Brazil, and Indonesia. This study sought to examine the social economic, environmental, and behavioral determinants of leprosy in Kediri, East Java, using path analysis approach.Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational study with case control design. The study was conducted at Leprosy Hospital, Kediri, East Java, from November to December 2017. A total sample of 150 study subjects consisting of 75 leprosy patients and 75 non-diseased subjects were selected for this study by fixed disease sampling. The dependent variable was leprosy. The independent variables were personal hygiene, education, employment status, family income, dwelling density, humidity, and migration. Data on leprosy diagnosis was taken from medical record. The other data were collected by questionnaire. The data were analyzed by path analysis.Results: The risk of leprosy increased with poorer personal hygiene (b= -1.20; 95% CI= -1.92 to -0.49; p=0.001), higher humidity (b= 0.73; 95% CI= 0.33 to 1.43; p=0.040), and migration (b= 0.94; 95% CI= 0.14 to 1.74; p= 0.022). Being employed status increased family income (b= 1.41; 95% CI= 0.72 to 2.11; p< 0.001). Low family income  increased the likelihood of migration (b= -14; 95% CI= -1.71 to -3.19; p= 0.007) and dwelling density (b= -1.02; 95% CI= -1.71 to -0.32; p=0.004). Higher education level increased the likelihood of being employed (b= 1.41; 95% CI= 0.72 to 2.11; p< 0.001) and better personal hygiene (b= 1.15; 95% CI= 0.44 to 1.85; p= 0.001). Dwelling density increased the likelihood of humidity (b= 4.29; 95% CI= 3.22 to 5.37; p< 0.001).Conclusion: Migration, higher humidity, and poorer personal hygiene directly increase the risk of leprosy. Education, employment status, family income, and dwelling density indirectly affect the risk of leprosy. Keywords: Leprosy, social economic, environmental, personal hygieneCorrespondence: Anindita Hasniati Rahmah. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: aninditarahma22@gmail.com.Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2018), 3(2): 253-262https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2018.03.02.05 
Multilevel Analysis on the Biological, Social Economic, and Environmental Factors on the Risk of Pneumonia in Children Under Five in Klaten, Central Java Luthfiyana, Nurul Ulya; Rahardjo, Setyo Sri; Murti, Bhisma
Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health Vol 3, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Background: Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death in children under five in the world, particularly in the developing countries including Indonesia. Imbalance between host, agent, and environment, can cause the incidence of pneumonia. This study aimed to examine the biological, social economic, and environmental factors on the risk of pneumonia in children under five using multilevel analysis with village as a contextual factor.Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational study with case control design. The study was conducted in Klaten District, Central Java, from October to November, 2017. A total sample of 200 children under five was selected for this study by fixed disease sampling. The dependent variable was pneumonia. The independent variables were birth weight, exclusive breastfeeding, nutritional status, immunization status, maternal education, family income, quality of house, indoor smoke exposure, and cigarette smoke exposure. The data were collected by questionnaire and checklist. The data were analyzed by multilevel logistic regression analysis.Results: Birth weight ≥2.500 g (OR=0.13; 95% CI= 0.02 to 0.77; p= 0.025), exclusive breastfeeding (OR= 0.15; 95% CI= 0.02 to 0.89; p= 0.037), good nutritional status (OR=0.20; 95% CI= 0.04 to 0.91; p= 0.038), immunizational status (OR= 0.12; 95% CI= 0.02 to 0.67; p= 0.015), maternal educational status (OR= 0.18; 95% CI= 0.03 to 0.83; p= 0.028), high family income (OR= 0.25; 95% CI= 0.07 to 0.87; p= 0.030), and good quality of house (OR= 0.21; 95% CI= 0.05 to 0.91; p= 0.037) were associated with decreased risk of pneumonia. High indoor smoke exposure (OR= 8.29; 95% CI= 1.49 to 46.03; p= 0.016) and high cigarette smoke exposure (OR=6.37; 95% CI= 1.27 to 32.01; p= 0.024) were associated with increased risk of pneumonia. ICC= 36.10% indicating sizeable of village as a contextual factor. LR Test p= 0.036 indicating the importance of multilevel model in this logistic regression analysis.Conclusion: Birth weight, exclusive breastfeeding, good nutritional status, immunizational status, maternal educational status, high family income, and good quality of house decrease risk of pneumonia. High indoor smoke exposure and high cigarette smoke exposure increase risk of pneumonia.Keyword: pneumonia, biological, social economic, environmental factor, children under fiveCorrespondence: Nurul Ulya Luthfiyana, Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: ulya.luthfiyana@gmail.com.Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2018), 3(2): 128-142https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2018.03.02.03 
Path Analysis: The Effect of Smoking on the Risk of Periodontal Disease Robbihi, Hilmiy Ila; Sulaeman, Endang Sutisna; Rahardjo, Setyo Sri
Indonesian Journal of Medicine Vol 3, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Background: Periodontal diseases are prevalent both in developed and developing countries and affect about 20-50% of global population. Several risk factors such as smoking, poor oral hygiene, diabetes, medication, age, hereditary, and stress are related to periodontal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of smoking on the risk of periodontal disease, using path analysis.Subjects and Method: A case-control study was carried out in Tasikmalaya community health center, West Java, from October to November 2018. A sample of 200 patients was selected by fixed disease sampling. The dependent variable was periodontal disease. The independent variables were age, knowledge on oral health, education, income, smoking behavior, oral and dental health behavior, plaque, and calculus. The data were obtained from medical record and questionnaire. The data were analyzed by path analysis.Results: The risk of periodontal disease directly increased by smoking behavior (b= 0.92; 95% CI= 0.09 to 1.75; p= 0.030), after controlling for the effect of calculus (b= 1.23; 95% CI= 0.40 to 2.07; p= 0.004) and age (b=1.63; 95% CI= 0.76 to 2.50; p<0.001). The risk of periodontal disease directly decreased by better knowledge on oral and dental health (b=-0.92; 95% CI= -1.72 to -0.12; p= 0.023) and high income (b= -1.47; 95% CI= -2.32 to -0.60; p<0.001). It was indirectly affected by plaque and education.Conclusion: The risk of periodontal disease directly increases by smoking behavior, after controlling for the effect of calculus and age. In addition, the risk of periodontal disease directly decreases by better knowledge on oral and dental health and high income. It is indirectly affected by plaque and education.Keywords: periodontal disease, smoking, factors, path analysisCorrespondence: Hilmiy Ila Robbihi. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126. Email: hilmiyilarobbihi@gmail.com. Mobile: +628975565050.Indonesian Journal of Medicine (2018), 3(2): 99-109https://doi.org/10.26911/theijmed.2018.03.02.06
Religious Belief, Social Support, and the Acceptance of Intrauterine Device Among Women of Reproductive Age in Klaten, Central Java Wijaya, Veronica Fenny; Rahardjo, Setyo Sri; Adriani, Rita Benya
Journal of Maternal and Child Health Vol 4, No 3 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Background: Indonesia is one of the developing countries with complex population problems. According to the Central Bureau of Statistics, the current population in Indonesia in 2016 reached 258,704,986 people. One of the government's efforts to reduce population growth is Family Planning (KB) program. This study aimed to determine the socioeconomic determinants, social norm, religion on the use of IUD contraceptive among women in Klaten, Central Java, using Theory of Planned Behavior. Subjects and Method: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 25 community health centers in Klaten, Central Java, from November to December 2018. A sample of 200 women of reproductive age was collected by simple random sampling. The dependent variable was the use of IUD. The independent variables were education, husband support, health personnel support, employment, income, social norm, religion, intention, attitude, perceived behavior control. The data were measured by questionnaire and analyzed by a multilevel logistic regression.Result: The use of IUD was positively influenced by higher education (b= 1.40; 95% CI= 0.12 to 2.78; p= 0.047), strong husband support (b= 1.57; 95% CI= 0.12 to 3.03; p= 0.034), strong health personnel support (b= 1.70; 95% CI= 0.14 to 3.26; p= 0.033), employed (b= 1.50; 95% CI= 0.17 to 2.99; p= 0.047), high income (b= 2.14; 95% CI= 0.36 to 3.92; p= 0.018), supportive social norm (b= 1.50; 95% CI= 0.49 to 2.95; p= 0.043), supportive religion (b= 1.42; 95% CI= 0.12 to 2.84; p= 0.048), intention (b= 1.75; 95% CI= 0.15 to 3.35; p= 0.032), positive attitude (b= 2.16; 95% CI= 0.45 to 3.86; p= 0.013), and perceived behavior control (b= 1.57; 95% CI= 0.29 to 3.11; p= 0.046). Community health center had a contextual effect on the use of IUD contraception with ICC= 10.6%.Conclusion: The use of IUD is positively influenced by higher education, strong husband support, strong health personnel support, employed, high income, supportive social norm, supportive religion, intention, positive attitude, and perceived behavior control. The community health center has a contextual effect on the use of IUD contraception.Keywords: IUD contraceptive, utilization, community health center, multilevel analysisCorrespondence: Veronica Fenny Wijaya. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: veronicafenny04@gmail.com. Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2019), 4(3): 201-211https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2019.04.03.07
Contextual Effect of Village on the Risk of Pneumonia in Children Under Five in Magetan, East Java Mustikarani, Yola Alqorien; Rahardjo, Setyo Sri; Qadridjati, Isna; Prasetya, Hanung
Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health Vol 4, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Background: Pneumonia is a major cause of illness and death in children under five worldwide. Studies into the contextual effect of village are lacking in Indonesia. This study aimed to determine contextual effect of village on the risk of pneumonia in children under five in Magetan, East Java.Subjects and Method: This was a case control study conducted in Magetan, East Java, from October 2018 to December 2018. A sample of 225 children under five from 25 villages was selected by fixed disease sampling. The dependent variable was pneumonia. The independent variables were nutritional status, vitamin A intake, maternal stress, maternal education, family income, family smoking, cooking fuel, house physical environment, and the presence of children in the kitchen when cooking. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by a multilevel logistic regression.Results: Maternal stress (b= 1.91; 95% CI= 0.75 to 3.06; p= 0.001), family smoking habits (b = 1.39; 95% CI = 0.46 to 2.32; p = 0.003), cooking fuel (b= 1.51; 95% CI= 0.46 to 2.55; p= 0.005), and the presence of children in the kitchen when cooking (b= 1.37; 95% CI = 0.38 to 2.35; p= 0.007) increased the risk of pneumonia in children under five. The risk of pneumonia was reduced by good nutritional status (b= -1.74; 95% CI= -2.70 to -0.78; p <0.001), complete vitamin A status (b= -1.14; 95% CI= -2.04 to -0.24; p= 0.013), high maternal education (b= -1.41; 95% CI= -2.45 to -0.37; p= 0.008), high family income (b= -0.91; 95% CI= -1.80 to -0.02; p= 0.045), and healthy home physical environment (b= -1.86; 95% CI= -3.20 to -0.52; p= 0.007). Village had a strong contextual effect on pneumonia among children under five with ICC= 21.32%.Conclusions: Maternal stress, family smoking habits, cooking fuel, and the presence of children in the kitchen when cooking increase the risk of pneumonia in children under five. It is reduced by good nutritional status, complete vitamin A status, high maternal education, high family income, and healthy home physical environment. Village has a strong contextual effect on pneumonia among children under fiveKeywords: pneumonia, children under five, biopsychosocial, environmental, determinants, multilevel analysisCorrespondence: Yola Alqorien Mustikarani. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126, Indonesia. Email: yolla.mstika@gmail.com. Mobile: +6285856122288Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2019), 4(2): 117-126https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2019.04.02.07
Evaluation of Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis Predictor Index in Surakarta, Central Java Pamungkas, Putri; Rahardjo, Setyo Sri; Murti, Bhisma
Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health Vol 3, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global public health problem. New cases of lung Tuberculosis in 2015 were 10.4 million worldwide. One of the challenging in TB control to be addressed is the development of Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB). There were an estimated 15,380 TB cases in Indonesia by 2015 with 1,860 positive TB cases and 1,566 cases successfully treated. This study aimed to determine the predictor index for MDR-TB.Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational study with a case-control design. The study was conducted at Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta, Central Java, from August to November 2017. The study subjects were selected by fixed disease sampling including 75 MDR-TB patients and 75 TB patients. The dependent variable was MDR-TB. The independent variables were medical history, co-morbidity (Diabetes Mellitus), drug side effect, drug-taking supervisor, and regularity of treatment. The data were collected by questionnaire and medical record. The data were analyzed by a multiple logistic regression.Results: MDR-TB Occurrence Index increased with drug-taking supervisor (b = 2.33; 95% CI= 3.83 to 27.91; p<0.001), drug-side effect (b = 0.73; 95% CI= 0.58 to 7.45; p=0.026), medical history (b = 2.35; 95% CI= 3.80 to 29.38; p<0.001). MDR-TB Occurrence Index decreased by absence of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (b = -0.56; 95% CI= 0.18 to 1.78; p= 0.033), regular treatment (b = -1.73; 95% CI= 0.06 to 0.46; p<0.001).Conclusion: MDR-TB Occurrence Index is determined by the drug-taking supervisor, drug side effect, medical history, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and regular treatment.Keywords: MDR-TB Occurrence Index, medical history, drug-taking supervisor, drug side effect, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, regular treatmentCorrespondence: Putri Pamungkas. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36 A, 57126, Surakarta, Central Java. Email: pamungkasputri95@gmail.com.Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2018), 3(2): 263-276https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2018.03.02.06