Barliana, Melisa I.
Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

Published : 4 Documents
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Polymorphism of pfcrt K76T and pfatpase6 S769N Genes in Malaria Patients at Papua, Indonesia

Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research Vol 1, No 1
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

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Abstract

Indonesia is one of the country with the highest prevalence of malaria infections. In order to achieve malaria control as an act to support Millenium Development Goals, complete eradication of Plasmodium parasites needs to be conducted. Drugs resistance has been a hindrance in this act. This study aimed to assess Plasmodium parasite resistance towards chloroquine (CQ) and artemisinin combined therapy (ACT) through the determination of polymorphism on pfcrt K76T and pfatpase6 S769N genes, respectively. Subjects of this study were 16 adult patients positively diagnosed with malaria infection caused by P. falciparum or cross infection. DNA obtained from patient blood samples were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then the fragment of pfcrt and pfatpase6 were then digested using ApoI and DdeI, respectively. The results showed that 81% of the pfcrt K76T polymorphism was occured on the samples, which indicated the resistance of CQ. Meanwhile, 87% of the patient samples did not showed any polymorphism of pfatpase6 S769N gene, which indicated no resistance of ACT. This study showed that CQ was no longer effective as the first line therapy of antimalarial drugs due to the resistance of P. falciparum to CQ. However, the used of ACT still can be maintained in the antimalarial drug therapy regimen. In conclusion, the polymorphism of both genes negatively influenced the effectivity of antimalarial therapy using artemisinin.Keywords: antimalarial drugs, resistance, polymorphism, endemic area

Economic Evaluation of the Use of Cefotaxime and Ceftazidime in the Treatment of Pneumonia in Pediatric Patients

Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research Vol 2, No 1
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

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Abstract

The prevalence of pneumonia is particularly high among pediatric patients. Appropriate antibioticsselection is required to reduce mortality and morbidity rates associated with thesediseases. However, information on cost-effectiveness of empirical antibiotics treatment forpneumonia was limited. This study was aimed to evaluate cost-effectiveness of cefotaximeand ceftazidime for pneumonia in pediatric patients. This study was a retrospective crosssectional study conducted at a hospital in Bandung during January-December 2012. Datawere derived from medical records of pediatric pneumonia inpatients during study period.Cost was calculated based on direct medical cost, i.e., inpatient care, medical support, andmedicines that were used from admission until hospital discharge. The results showed thatthere was no statistical difference in the average medical cost of the treatment using cefotaxime(1,197,017 IDR) and ceftazidime (2,245,748 IDR). Incremental cost effectivenessratio (ICER) showed that cefotaxime is more cost effective than ceftazidime with greaterreduction of leukocytes level (576 IDR/mm3 ). The use of cefotaxime is recommended forthe treatment of pnuemonia in pediatric patients.Keywords: cost minimization, cost effectiveness, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, pneumonia

Anti-proliferative Activity of Crotalaria pallida Aiton on MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research Vol 2, No 3
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

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Abstract

 Crotalaria pallida Aiton (C. pallida Aiton) is empirically used as dietary supplement to treat cancer by the people of North Sulawesi. However, its scientific pharmacology activity has not been explored yet. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate anti-proliferative activity of C. pallida Aiton on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The extraction of leaves and seeds were performed using ethanol, ethyl acetate, n-hexane, and water. Phytochemical screening was then performed to identify secondary metabolites in this extract. Anti-proliferative activity was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results indicated that ethyl acetate fraction of C. pallida Aiton has the lowest IC50 (29,67). In conclusion, ethyl acetate fraction of C. pallida Aiton is potential to be developed as anti cancer agent.Keywords: Crotalaria pallida Aiton, WST assay, MCF-7 cell line

Potential Nephrotoxicity of Lisinopril and Valsartan on Patients with Congestive Heart Failure

Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research Vol 2, No 1
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

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Abstract

Lisinopril (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) and valsartan (angiotensin II receptorblocker) are the first-line treatment for patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Thesetwo drugs potentially cause side effects on renal functions. However, limited informationwas available regarding the comparison of potential nephrotoxicity of these drugs in IndonesianCHF patients. This research was aimed to compare the potential nephrotoxicitybetween lisinopril and valsartan in outpatients with CHF at a hospital in Palu, Indonesia.This was an observational study conducted during April-May 2015. Potential nephrotoxicitywere assessed by measuring serum creatinin (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Datawere obtained from Cardiology Unit from a hospital in Palu, Indonesia. Statistical analysiswas conducted using T-test and Mann-Whitney test. The increasing trend of SCr and BUNwere observed in lisinopril-treated patients with the mean of increase were 21% and 59%,respectively. Relatively higher increase was observed in valsartan treatment group with 47%and 51% in SCr and BUN, respectively. The analysis showed that there were significant differencesin SCr level between lisinopril and valsartan groups (p=0.001), but the oppositeresults observed in BUN parameter (p=0.697). Therefore, valsartan was potentially morenephrotoxic than lisinopril based on the increase of SCr parameter. Thus, lisinopril is recommendedfor CHF patients who are particularly at high risks of having renal impairment.Keywords: lisinopril, valsartan, nephrotoxicity, congestive heart failure