Sumiwi, Sri A.
Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

Published : 4 Documents
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Hepatotoxicity Effects of Alcohol Consumption during Paracetamol Therapy of Malaria Patients

Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research Vol 2, No 2
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

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Abstract

The risk of paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity could increase with alcohol consumption.Paracetamol was usually given to tropical malaria patients to treat fever. The aim of this studywas to determine the hepatotoxicity effect of alcohol consumption in malaria tropica patientsreceiving paracetamol. This study was a cross-sectional study which was conducted duringApril-June 2015 at a hospital in Jayapura, Indonesia. The data were obtained from questionnairesand medical records. Alcohol status was determined by Short Michigan Alcoholics ScreeningTest (SMAST) questionnaire. Level of ALT, AST and bilirubin were observed before and afterreceiving paracetamol therapy for 5 days. Based on the results, the ALT and bilirubin levels ofalcoholic group were higher than in non-alcoholic. However, chi-square test showed that alcoholstatus did not have a significant influence in ALT, AST, and bilirubin levels. Otherwise,logistic regression analysis showed that age gave a significant effect on AST level (P=0.067).Keywords: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alcohol,malaria

Inhibitory Activity of Andrographolide and Andrograpanin on the Rate of PGH2 Formation

Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research Vol 1, No 3
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

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Abstract

Cyclooxygenase (COX) or prostaglandin H2 synthase (PGHS) catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) work by inhibiting both COX-1 and COX-2 isoforms, thus disturbing this reaction. In Indonesia, Andrographis paniculata (local name: sambiloto), is empirically used to reduce inflammation by consuming the herb tea of this plant. This work studied the inhibitory activity of andrographolide and andrograpanin, diterpenoids of the plant, on the rate of prostaglandin formation. Previous works have proven that andrographolide inhibited PGE2 production in LPS-induced human fibroblast cells. This study was performed by measuring the absorbance of TMPD (tetramethyl-p-phenyldiamine) oxidized by andrographolide and andrograpanin. Acetosal was used as a control drug. The rate of PGH2 formations on either COX-1 or COX- 2 was affected by andrographolide and andrograpanin. Andrographolide and andrograpanin interact longer with COX-1 than COX-2. Andrographolide shows weak inhibition on the rate of PGH2 formation, whilst andrograpanin might be further developed for potential antiinflammatory drugs.Keywords: Andrographis paniculata, anti-inflammatory, COX, cyclooxygenase, prostaglandin

Evaluation of Prescription Pattern for Internal Medicines Outpatients using World Health Organization Indicators

Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research Vol 2, No 3
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

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Abstract

Rational use of drugs plays an important role in efficacy and safety. World Health Organization(WHO) developed a set of indicators to assess medicines precribing pattern. The aim ofthis study was to evaluate the rational use of drugs among internal medicines outpatients ata hospital in Papua, Indonesia, using WHO prescribing indicators. This study was a retrospectiveobservational study conducted during January-March 2014. The data were obtainedfrom patients medical prescriptions. From each prescriptions, data regarding the the totalnumber of drugs, generic, antibiotics, parenteral, and essential drugs were extracted. A totalof 2025 medical precriptions were included in this study. We found out that the averagenumber of drugs per prescription was 2.3. Majority of the prescribed drugs were generic(84.14%). The use of antibiotics, parenteral drugs, and essential drugs were 33.43%, 3.40%,and 60.13%, respectively. Polypharmacy was relatively low among the subjects. The medicinesprescribing patterns among internal medicines outpatients were in accordance withWHO recommendation.Keywords: prescribing indicator, polypharmacy, essential drugs

Assessment of Risk Factors of Hepatotoxicity among Tuberculosis Patients

Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research Vol 3, No 1
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

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Abstract

Tuberculosis is a devastating disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. If left untreated or not properly treated, it could lead to progressive tissue damage and even death. Short-term chemotherapy containing isoniazid, rifampicin. and pyrazinamide were proven to be very effective in the treatment of TB. However, the concern regarding its potential hepatotoxicity might hinder the completion of treatment. Information regarding risk factor of hepatotoxicity among Indonesian tuberculosis patients were limited. This study aimed to investigate risk factors of hepatotoxicity among Indonesian tuberculosis patients. This was a case-control study with retrospective approach conducted at one of the public hospital in Lampung, Indonesia. We included 320 tuberculosis patients who were classified as case (64 patients who were diagnosed with hepatotoxicity during hospitalization) and control (256 patients). Results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age was significant risk factor of hepatotoxicity (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.056, 95% CI 1.0121, 1.091), while longer duration of hospitalization had a 1.4 lower odds of hepatotoxicity compared to control (adjusted OR 0.757, 95% CI 0.682, 0.839) (p<0.005). The results indicated that older patients were more likely to have hepatotoxicity, while patients with shorter duration of hospitalization tend to have higher risk of hepatotoxicity. In conclusion, age was the risk factor associated with hepatotoxicity among tuberculosis patients.Keywords: tuberculosis, hepatotoxicity, age, hospitalization