Muslim, Nandang
Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

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KARAKTERISTIK FENOTIPE DAN GENOTIPE IKAN GURAMI, Osphronemus goramy, STRAIN GALUNGGUNG HITAM, GALUNGGUNG PUTIH, DAN HIBRIDANYA Arifin, Otong Zenal; Imron, Imron; Muslim, Nandang; Hendri, Ade; Aseppendi, Aseppendi; Yani, Akhmad
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 12, No 2 (2017): (Juni 2017)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15578/jra.12.2.2017.99-110

Abstract

Persilangan antara dua populasi yang berbeda secara genetik lazimnya menghasilkan kombinasi genetik baru. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi karakteristik fenotipe dan genotipe ikan gurami strain Galunggung Hitam, Galunggung Putih, dan Hibridanya. Perkawinan dalam galur (GP X GP dan GH X GH) dan persilangan dua arah antara betina GH dan jantan GP (GH X GP), dan resiprokalnya (GP X GH) telah dilakukan di BPBIGN Singaparna. Fenotipe dianalisis berdasarkan metode truss morfometrik dan meristik, sedangkan karakteristik genotipe diamati menggunakan metode PCR-RAPD. Hasil analisis menunjukkan berdasarkan 21 karakter truss morfometrik, centroid hibrida GH X GP lebih tinggi dari centroid ketiga populasi lainnya pada PC-1 yang dicirikan oleh karakter B3, B4, B5, A3, A4, dan A6, dan bersifat intermediate pada PC-2, PC-3, dan PC-4. Berdasarkan delapan karakter meristik, centroid hibrida GH X GP lebih tinggi dari kedua tetua dan hibrida GP X GH pada PC-1 yang dicirikan oleh karakter SPR dan SDA, lebih rendah dari kedua tetua, tetapi lebih tinggi dari populasi GP X GH pada PC-2, dan lebih rendah dari ketiga populasi lainnya pada PC-3 dan PC-4. Polimorfisme dan heterozigositas pada populasi hibrida GH X GP dan GP X GH lebih tinggi daripada kedua tetuanya GH X GH dan GP X GP. Hibridisasi yang dilakukan meningkatkan variasi genetik yang dapat berguna dalam peningkatan produktivitas budidaya.Hybridization between two genetically different populations is expected to generate a population carrying new genetic combinations which may be expressed in both phenotypes and genotypes. This study was carried out to explore the phenotype and genotype characteristics of reciprocal hybrids of goramy of Galunggung black (GH) and Galunggung white (GP) with respect to their parental lines. Matings within the same line producing GP X GP and GH X GH, and reciprocal mating producing hybrids GH X GP and GP X GH, were conducted at BPBIGN Singaparna. Samples representing the four populations were analyzed for their morphology using truss morphometric and meristic methods, while genotypes were analyzed using PCR-RAPD method. The results showed that based on the 21 morphometric characters, the centroid of hybrid GH X GP was higher than those of the other three populations at PC-1, which was marked by the characters B3, B4, B5,A3, A4, and A6, and was intermediate at PC-2, PC-3, and PC-4. Based on the eight meristic characters, the centroid of GH X GP was also higher than those of their parents and hybrids GP X GH at PC-1, which was marked by the characters SPR and SDA, lower than those of their parents but higher than that of hybrid GP X GH at PC-2, and lower than those of the other three populations at PC-3 and PC-4. The genetic diversities in terms of polymorphism and heterozygosity levels in hybrids GH X GP and GP X GH were higher than those found in the pure-line (GH X GH and GP X GP). Hybridization conducted in this study had resulted in the enhancement of genetic variations which could be useful in increasing aquaculture productivity.
HIBRIDISASI INTRASPESIFIK ANTAR DUA POPULASI IKAN GURAMI GALUNGGUNG (Osphronemus goramy, Lacepede, 1801) Arifin, Otong Zenal; Imron, Imron; Asependi, Asependi; Hendri, Ade; Muslim, Nandang; Yani, Akhmad
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 12, No 4 (2017): (Desember 2017)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15578/jra.12.4.2017.315-323

Abstract

Ikan gurami (Osphronemus goramy) populasi Galunggung Hitam (GH) dan Galunggung Putih (GP) telah dibudidayakan secara luas di wilayah Priangan. Dalam upaya mendapatkan strain unggul ikan gurami untuk budidaya, hibridisasi intraspesifik, yaitu persilangan antar strain berbeda dalam spesies yang sama, merupakan pendekatan sederhana yang menarik untuk dieksplorasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan informasi mengenai keragaan hasil pemijahan dua populasi ikan gurami. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Balai Pengembangan Budidaya Ikan Gurami dan Nilem, Singaparna. Empat populasi ikan diperoleh dari hasil pemijahan dua arah antara ikan gurami yang berwarna putih dan berwarna hitam. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan, hibridisasi antara induk betina gurami Galunggung Hitam dengan induk jantan Galunggung Putih (GH><GP), menghasilkan rerata panjang standar akhir 17,76 ± 1,129 cm; laju pertumbuhan mutlak 10,98 ± 1,240 cm; dan laju pertumbuhan spesifik 0,32 ± 0,017% per hari. Pada karakter lebar akhir, ikan gurami hibrida memiliki nilai 8,98 ± 0,485 cm; pertumbuhan mutlak lebar 5,68 ± 1,014 cm; dan laju pertumbuhan spesifik 0,33 ± 0,030% per hari. Bobot akhir ikan gurami hibrida sebesar 301,9 ± 6,63 g; laju pertumbuhan mutlak 295,6 ± 17,42 g; laju pertumbuhan spesifik 1,29 ± 0,017% per hari; dan sintasan sebesar 77,6 ± 5,26%; serta produktivitas sebesar 8,8 ± 0,70 kg/m2. Nilai heterosis ikan gurami hibrida (GH><GP) untuk seluruh karakter adalah positif. Nilai heterosis karakter bobot akhir adalah 14,1%; pertumbuhan mutlak 14,6%; laju pertumbuhan spesifik 5,38%; sintasan 31,75%; dan produktivitas sebesar 51,72%.The black Galunggung and white Galunggung strains of the giant gourami (Osphronemus goramy) have been widely cultured in Priangan areas, Indonesia. Intraspecific hybridization, a crossing between different strains of the same species, is a simple and commonly used approach to produce a superior strain for aquaculture purposes. This study was aimed to obtain information on the performance of gourami spawned from two different populations. The experiment was conducted at the Aquaculture Development Center of Giant Gourami and Nilem Carp, Singaparna. Four populations of giant gourami were obtained from spawning between white and black giant gourami. The results obtained showed that the hybrid resulted from the female of Black Galunggung and male of White Galunggung (GH><GP) produced the final average standard length of 17.76 ± 1.129 cm, standard length gain of 10.98 ± 1.240 cm, and specific growth rate in standard length of 0.32 ± 0.017% per day. On height character, the hybrid gourami had the final height of 8.98 ± 0.485 cm, a height gain of 5.68 ± 1.014 cm, and specific growth rate in height of 0.33 ± 0.030% per day. The final weight of the hybrid gourami of 301.9 ± 6.63 g, weight gain of 295.6 ± 17.42 g, the specific growth rate in weight of 1.29 ± 0.017% per day, and survival rate of 77.6 ± 5.26%, as well as the productivity of 8.8 ± 0.70 kg/m2. Heterosis value of the hybrid gourami (GH><GP) for the whole character was positive, with the heterosis value on the final weight of 14.1%, growth of 14.6%, the specific growth rate of 5.38%, the survival rate of 31.75%, and productivity of 51.72%.