ERIS, Deden Dewantara
INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

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Aktivitas ligninolitik Omphalina sp. hasil isolasi dari TKKS dan aplikasinya untuk dekolorisasi limbah kosmetik Ligninolytic activity of Omphalina sp. isolated from EFB and its application for decolorization of cosmetic waste SUHARYANTO, .; KRESNAWATY, Irma; PRAKOSO, Haryo Tejo; ERIS, Deden Dewantara
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 80, No 2: Desember 2012
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (148.873 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v80i2.34

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Abstract White-rot fungi (WRF) are belong to Basidiomycetes group that capable to degrade lignin, because they produce extracelullar ligninolytic enzymes such as lignin peroxsidase (Li-P), mangan peroxidase (Mn-P) and laccase. The ligninolytic activity can be used in bioprocess oxidation system such as biopulping, biobleaching and bioremediation.  The purposes of this research were to determine the optimum conditions of growth and ligni-nolytic activity of  Omphalina and to observe its potential to decolorize cosmetics wastewater.  Omphalina sp. was grown on media of PDA-Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) and PDA-Guaiacol (GU) at various pH and temperature conditions. The decolorization of cosmetic effluent was conducted by applying Omphalina sp. at various dose of inoculum.  Decolorization rate and change of COD were observed for eight days. The  results  showed that Ompha-lina sp. could grow and produce peroxidase enzyme both on RBBR and GU media at pH 4.5-8.5  and temperature 23-350C. Optimum dose of inoculum was as much as 5%  w/v at which the fungus was able to  decolorize cosmetic factory effluent up to 92.79% and to decrease COD value up to  48.57 % after eight days of incubation.Abstrak Jamur pelapuk putih (JPP) merupakan jamur kelompok Basidiomycetes yang mampu mendegradasi lignin karena memproduksi enzim-enzim ligninolitik ekstraseluler seperti lignin peroksidase (Li-P), mangan peroksidase (Mn-P) dan lakase.  Kemampuan ligninolitik JPP dapat dimanfaatkan dalam sistem oksidasi bioproses seperti biopulping, biobleaching dan bioremediasi. Pene-litian bertujuan menetapkan kondisi optimum pertumbuhan Omphalina sp. dan aktivitas ligninolitik yang dihasilkan-nya serta mempelajari potensinya dalam mendekolorisasi limbah cair kosmetik. Omphalina sp. ditumbuhkan dalam media PDA-Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) dan PDA-Guaiakol (GU)  pada  berbagai variasi pH dan suhu. Percobaan dekolorisasi limbah cair kosmetik dilakukan dengan aplikasi inokulum dalam berbagai dosis. Laju dekolorisasi dan perubahan COD diamati selama delapan hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan Omphalina sp. tumbuh dan menghasilkan enzim peroksidase, baik pada  media RBBR maupun GU pada pH 4,5-8,5 dan suhu 25-350C. Dosis optimum aplikasi Omphalina sp. adalah 5% (b/v) yang mampu mendekolorisasi limbah cair pabrik kosmetik hingga 92,79%  dan menurunkan COD 48,57% setelah delapan hari.
Karakterisasi PHA yang dihasilkan oleh Pseudomonas aeruginosa dan Bacillus subtilis yang ditumbuhkan dalam media limbah cair pabrik kelapa sawit Characterization of PHA produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis inoculated in palm oil mill effluent (POME) media KRESNAWATY, Irma; MULYATNI, Agustin Sri; ERIS, Deden Dewantara; PRAKOSO, Haryo Tejo
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 82, No 2: Desember 2014
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (355.124 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v82i2.20

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AbstractThe difficulties in processing of petroleum-based plastic waste had encouraged the development of biodegradable plastics polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Researchers isolated the PHA-producing microorganisms from various sources to obtain new species with high PHA production capability. In addition, the high cost of PHA production might be overcome by using carbon-rich waste, such as palm oil mill effluent (POME). This research conducted characterization of produced PHA and optimization of PHA production in POME. In previous research, three potential isolates were obtained, which are one Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate and two Bacillus subtilis isolates. Analysis of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) showed the presence of PHA accumu-lation within the bacterial cell. The results of Spectra of Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed differences in C-C and C-H alipathic regions of PHA produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. Optimum production of PHA was obtained using POME at concentration of 50-25% during 6 days of incubation time in an enriched media pretreatment.Abstrak Sulitnya pengolahan limbah plastik berbasis minyak bumi mendorong pengembangan plastik biodegradable poli-hidroksialkanoat (PHA). Beberapa peneliti mengisolasi mikroorganisme penghasil  PHA dari berbagai sumber karena diharapkan akan diperoleh spesies baru dengan kemampuan produksi PHA yang tinggi. Selain itu kendala tingginya biaya produksi PHA dapat diatasi dengan peman-faatan limbah yang kaya akan  karbon, seperti limbah cair pabrik kelapa sawit (LCPKS). Pada penelitian ini dilakukan karakterisasi PHA yang dihasilkan dan optimasi produksi PHA pada LCPKS. Pada penelitian sebelumnya telah diperoleh  tiga isolat potensial, yaitu : satu isolat  Pseudo-monas aeruginosa dan dua isolat  Bacillus subtilis.  Analisis Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) dan Transmission Electon Microscopy (TEM) menunjukkan adanya akumulasi PHA di dalam sel bakteri. Dari hasil analisis FT-IR disimpulkan bahwa senyawa PHA yang dihasilkan Pseudo-monas aeruginosa  berbeda dengan  Bacillus subtilisyang ditandai   perbedaan   pada  spectra   gugus  C-C  dan   C-H alifatik.  Produksi optimum PHA diperoleh pada konsentrasi LCPKS 50-25%, waktu inkubasi  enam hari dan optima-lisasi pertumbuhan pada media kaya di awal untuk mening-katkan populasi mikroba.
Antagonisme beberapa bakteri endofit Arecaceae terhadap Curvularia sp. patogen penyebab bercak daun yang diisolasi dari tanaman kelapa kopyor (Antagonism of selected Arecaceae endophytic bacteria against Curvularia sp. leaf spot pathogen isolated from coconut kopyor) ERIS, Deden Dewantara; PURWANTARA, Agus; MUNIF, Abdul; SOEKARNO, Bonny Poernomo Wahyu
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 86, No 2 (2018): Oktober 2018
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (586.429 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v86i2.318

Abstract

Coconut kopyor is one of the most important commodities. One of the problems in coconut kopyor cultivation is grey leaf spot disease caused by Curvularia sp. Using endophytic bacteria is one of the control technique that is environmentally friendly. A total of 40 selected endophytic Arecaceaebacteria isolated from coconut kopyor, palm oil, aren, nibung and pejibaye were tested for their inhibitory ability to Curvularia sp.through antibiotic and volatile organic compound (VOC)test.The antibiotic test showed that thirty three  endophytic bacteria isolates have inhibitory capacity againstCurvularia sp. in a range of inhibition from 4.4% to 86.6%. Isolates with the highest inhibition were EAKSS 502, EAKSS 520 and EAKSS 507. VOC test showed that EAPJN 216, EAKSS 532, EAAPN 225, EAAPN 506, EAAPN 507 and EAAPN 557 were produced VOC that suppressed the growth of Curvulariasp fungal colonies in a range from 92.27% to 97.21%. Based on the best combination of antibiotic and production of volatile organic compound test, there were four potential isolates to inhibit the growth of Curvulariasp. in vitro i.e. EAKSS 502, EAKSS 507, EAKPN 201 and EAPJN 216. Those isolates were molecularly identified as Serratia marcescensstrain PIGB81, Burkholderiasp. DOP Ma316, S. marcescensstrain RY21 and S. marcescensstrain LB21.The four isolates were isolated from different plants such oil palm, coconut kopyor and pejibaye.[Keywords: antibiotics,Burkholderia,malforma-tion, Serratia,suppression, volatile compound]AbstrakKelapa kopyor saat ini menjadi salah satu komoditas perkebunan yang penting. Salah satu masalah dalam pembudidayaan kelapa kopyor adalah serangan penyakit bercak kelabu yang disebabkan oleh cendawan Curvulariasp. Penggunaan bakteri endofit merupakan salah satu cara control yang ramah lingkungan.Sebanyak 40 isolat bakteri endofit asal tanaman Arecaceaediisolasi dari tanaman kelapa kopyor, kelapa sawit, aren, nibung dan pejibaye diujikan kemampuan penghambatannya terhadap Curvulariasp. melalui uji antibiosis dan uji produksi senyawa organik volatil (VOC). Uji antibiosis menunjukkan se-banyak 33 isolat bakteri endofit menunjukkan daya penghambatan terhadap cendawan Curvulariasp. dengan kisaran 4,4%-86,6%. Penghambatan terbesar yakni isolat EAKSS 502, EAKSS 520 dan isolat EAKSS 507. Pengujian produksi senyawa organik volatil menunjukkan EAPJN 216, EAKSS 532, EAAPN 225, EAAPN 506, EAAPN 507 dan EAAPN 557 menghasilkan komponen volatil organik yang menekan pertumbuhan koloni cendawan Curvulariasp. pada kisaran 92,27%- 97,21%. Berdasarkan kombinasi data pengujian antibioisis dan produksi senyawa organik volatilterdapat 4 isolat bakteri endofit yang berpotensi menghambat perkembangan Curvulariasp. yaitu  isolat EAKSS 502, EAKSS 507, EAKPN 201 dan EAPJN 216.Hasil identifikasi secara molekuler ke empat isolat tersebut berturut-turut adalah Serratia marcescens strain PIGB81,Burkholderia sp.  DOP Ma316,S. marcescens strain RY21danS. marcescens strain LB21. Keempat isolat tersebut diisolasi daritanaman yang berbeda yakni kelapa sawit, kelapa kopyor dan pejibaye.[Kata kunci: antibiotik, Burkholderia,malformasi, penghambatan, Serratia,komponen volatil].
Perangkat serologi untuk deteksi dini infeksi Ganoderma sp. pada kelapa sawit Serological device kit for early detection of Ganoderma sp. infection in oil palm SUHARYANTO, .; ERIS, Deden Dewantara; PRAKOSO, Haryo Tejo; SARAGIH, A H; DARMONO, T W
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 80, No 1: Juni 2012
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (210.644 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v80i1.42

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AbstractBasal stem rot caused by Ganoderma sp. is the most destructive disease in oil palm that difficult to control because its early symptom could not be detected easily. Serological technique that could detect early Ganoderma sp. infection in quick, simple, and cheap manner should be developed as one component for integrated disease management. A diagnostic device based on dot immunobinding assay (DIBA) for early detection of Ganoderma sp. infection in oil palm had been observed at laboratory, greenhouse and field experiment. Study result revealed that serological technique could detect antigen protein extract of Ganoderma mycelium as much as 138 µg/mL. Basal stem of young seedling that artificially be inoculated by the pathogen could also be clearly detected. At field experiment, Ganoderma sp. infection in oil palm plantation was marked with colour marking based on its infection stadium level to the palm oil. The colours are green, yellow, red, black, and white stating that the plant are healthy, mild infection, heavy infection, very heavy infection, and dead, respectively. Field experiment result showed that serological device kit gave strong reaction to antigen extracted from root and stem at red marking plant. The antigen extracted from healthy plant (green marking plant) was the weak one indicating that the plant is starting to be infected although the symptoms are not yet visually observed. AbstrakBusuk pangkal batang (BPB) yang disebabkan oleh Ganoderma sp. merupakan penyakit paling penting yang sulit ditanggulangi pada tanaman kelapa sawit karena gejala dini serangan sulit diketahui. Teknik serologi yang mampu mendeteksi dini infeksi Ganoderma sp. secara cepat, sederhana dan murah perlu dikembangkan sebagai salah satu komponen dalam pengelolaan penyakit secara terpadu. Teknik serologi dalam bentuk perangkat diagnostik berbasis dot immunobinding assay (DIBA) telah dirakit untuk mendeteksi infeksi Ganoderma sp. pada skala laboratorium, rumah kaca, dan lapang. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa perangkat diagnostik tersebut dapat mendeteksi ekstrak protein dari miselium Ganoderma sp sebesar 138 µg/mL. Keberadaan patogen pada bibit kelapa sawit yang diinfeksi buatan dapat dideteksi secara jelas dengan perangkat serologi tersebut. Deteksi tingkat infeksi Ganoderma sp. pada kebun kelapa sawit TM (skala lapang) dilakukan dengan mengambil sampel berdasarkan stadium infeksi (sehat, ringan, berat, sangat berat, mati) yang diberi kriteria warna hijau, kuning, merah, hitam, dan putih. Hasil uji di kebun kelapa sawit menunjukkan bahwa teknik serologi ini memberikan reaksi paling kuat terhadap antigen yang diekstraksi dari akar dan batang tanaman kriteria merah. Sedangkan reaksi paling lemah ditunjukkan oleh antigen yang diekstraksi dari tanaman kelapa sawit kode hijau yang mengindikasikan bahwa tanaman tanaman kelapa sawit di lapangan tersebut mulai terserang walaupun gejala penyakit belum terlihat secara visual.
Potensi fungisida organik untuk pengendalian Ganoderma pada tanaman kelapa sawit [Potency of organic fungicide to controle Ganoderma sp. of oil palm] WIDIASTUTI, Happy; ERIS, Deden Dewantara; SANTOSO, Djoko
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 84, No 2 (2016): Desember 2016
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (419.615 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v84i2.223

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Ganoderma sp. is an important pathogen causes stem rot disease in the cultivation of oil palm. Control of Ganoderma sp. using formulas contain natural organic active ingredients being developed by Indonesian Research Institute for Biotechnology and Bioindustry. Organic fungicide in two formula i.e.   liquid  and  pasta was  applied for a  period  of 3 months by drenching the uncolonized tissue of stem. Five treatments tested were drenching applications of organic fungicide  1) per week in liquid formula, 2) every 2 weeks in liquid formula, 3) every 4 weeks in liquid formula, 4) every 4 weeks in paste formula, and 5) control. Each of the treatments was treated on the 25 palm trees. The performance of the plant and Ganoderma sp. were observed for five months and subsequential incubation continued for 2 months to analyzed the levels of N, P, K and Cu in the leaves and the oil content of the palm fruits while FFB production was observed from 7 up to 13 months after application. Results of the experiments showed that the application of organic fungicide increased the growth of palm roots and especially weekly application produced the best compared with other treatments. There was a tendency of opening of leaf spear and induce oil palm to form a female flowers, increased levels of N, P, and K particularly on the treatment of applications every two weeks. The production of fruit average (PFA) and weights bunches at 5 months after application seems to rise particularly in the application of organic fungicide every week. Palm fruit oil content based either on fresh or dry weight was higher in applications of organic fungicide every 2 weeks compared with other treatments.[Keywords: Ganoderma diseases management, application times, organic pesticides, mature plants]  AbstrakGanoderma sp. jamur penyebab penyakit busuk pangkal batang merupakan patogen utama pada tanaman kelapa sawit. Pengendalian Ganoderma sp. menggunakan formula berbahan aktif organik alami sedang dikembangkan Pusat Penelitian Bioteknologi dan Bioindustri Indonesia. Fungisida organik diberikan dalam jangka waktu 3 bulan  yang diaplikasi dengan cara terlebih dahulu mengikis batang sawit terserang hingga jaringan segar. Lima perlakuan yang diuji adalah aplikasi fungisida organik tiap  1) minggu dalam formula cair, 2) 2 minggu dalam formula cair, 3) 4 minggu dalam formula cair, 4) 4 minggu dalam formula pasta, dan 5) kontrol. Masing-masing perlakuan diaplikasi pada 25 pohon kelapa sawit. Keragaan tanaman dan Ganoderma sp. diamati selama lima bulan dan selanjutnya inkubasi dilanjutkan selama 2 bulan untuk analisis kadar hara N, P, K dan Cu daun dan kadar minyak buah sawit, sedangkan produksi TBS diamati dari 7 hingga 13 bulan setelah aplikasi. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa pemberian fungisida organik tiap minggu menghasilkan perakaran yang paling banyak dibandingkan dengan perlakuan lainnya.  Terdapat kecenderungan terjadi pembukaan daun tombak dan peningkatan jumlah pohon yang membentuk bunga betina, peningkatan kadar hara N, P, dan K khususnya pada perlakuan aplikasi fungisida organik tiap dua minggu. Rata rata  bobot  tandan  (RBT)  dan bobot tandan  pada 5 bulan setelah aplikasi nampak meningkat khususnya pada perlakuan aplikasi fungisida organik tiap minggu. Kadar minyak buah sawit baik berdasarkan  bobot basah maupun kering lebih tinggi pada perlakuan aplikasi fungisida organik tiap 2 minggu dibandingkan dengan perlakuan lainnya.  [Kata kunci: pengendalian Ganoderma, frekuensi aplikasi, fungisida organik, tanaman sawit menghasilkan]
Optimasi sterilisasi permukaan eksplan stek mikro tanaman karet Optimization of surface sterilization on rubber microcutting explan MARTIANSYAH, Irfan; ERIS, Deden Dewantara; NURHAIMI-HARIS, .; TANIWIRYONO, Darmono
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 81, No 1: Juni 2013
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (485.619 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v81i1.55

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AbstractAn increasing number of explants is necessary toobtain plantlets in large quantities, for mass propagationof rubber plants. However, high level of contamination atthe primary culture stage is still a major constraint in invitro microcutting of rubber. The aim of this study was tooptimize surface sterilization procedures to reduce micro-bial contamination at the primary culture. Sterilizationexperiment was conducted in two step., The first step wasto determine the effect of washing the explants withrunning water prior to sterilization and then using Deso-germe, ethanol or H 2 O 2 , while the second step was toidentify the suitable sterilization process on reducing thelevel of contamination. The results showed that the surfacesterilization with only one type of sterilization agent couldnot reduce contamination level caused either by bacteriaor fungi, while sterilization with three types of sterilizingagents increased the number of dead explants. The besttreatment for surface sterilization was the directsterilization of explants using 70% ethanol for one minuteand 17.6% H 2 O 2 for 20 minutes without washing with tapwater (A-CD treatment). The percentage of viable andaseptic explantsof this treatment was 76.7%, which wassignificantly higher than those of other treatments. Thistreatment reduced contamination level to 21.7%.AbstrakPeningkatan jumlah eksplan sangat diperlukan untukmemperoleh planlet dalam jumlah besar pada perbanyakanmassal tanaman karet secara in vitro. Namun, tingginyatingkat kontaminasi pada tahap kultur primer masih me-rupakan kendala utama dalam kultur stek mikro tanamankaret. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengoptimasi prosedursterilisasi permukaan eksplan untuk mengurangi jumlaheksplan yang terkontaminasi mikroba pada tahap kulturprimer. Percobaan sterilisasi dilaksanakan dalam duatahap, tahap pertama untuk mengetahui pengaruh pen-cucian eksplan dengan air mengalir pada awal sterilisasiserta penggunaan Desogerme, etanol dan H 2 O 2 , sedang-kan tahap kedua untuk mendapatkan proses sterilisasi yangpaling sesuai dalam menurunkan tingkat kontaminasi.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan sterilisasipermukaan yang menggunakan satu jenis bahan sterilantidak dapat mengurangi kontaminasi, baik oleh bakterimaupun cendawan. Perlakuan sterilisasi eksplan dengantiga jenis bahan sterilan meningkatkan kematian eksplan.Perlakuan sterilisasi permukaan terbaik adalah sterilisasilangsung eksplan menggunakan etanol 70% selama satu  menit dan H 2 O 2 17,6% selama 20 menit, tanpa pencuciandengan air mengalir (perlakuan A-CD). Persentase eksplansteril yang hidup sebesar 76,7%, berbeda nyata dibanding-kan dengan perlakuan lainnya. Perlakuan tersebut dapatmengurangi kontaminasi menjadi sebesar 21,7%.
Penapisan bakteri penghasil bioplastik polihidroksi alkanoat dari tanah tempat pembuangan sampah dan limbah cair pabrik kelapa sawit Screening of bioplastics polyhydroxy alkanoic producing bacteria from landfill and palm oil mill effluents KRESNAWATY, Irma; PRAKOSO, Haryo Tejo; ERIS, Deden Dewantara; MULYATNI, Agustin Sri
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 82, No 1: Juni 2014
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (302.734 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v82i1.28

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AbstractPlastic wastes  have  become a serious problem  of  the world  because of  unbiodegradable  property. There are many  solutions to this problem  and  one of  them is by replacing conventional plastic base  material with  the  biodegradable  materials. Bioplastic material that is quite important for industries and  recently being developed  by  scientists  is Polyhydroxyalcanoate (PHA). It is a natural polyester which  can be produced  by several microorganisms, like bacteria and algae. Bacterial isolations  from landfills waste and  palm oil mill effluents were conducted on this research. Preliminary screenings of PHA-producing-bacteria were examined qualitatively using  0.05%  Nile red dye. The selection results showed  that among 32 bacterial isolates, 10  of  them could  accumulate PHA  which  could be detected qualitatively through  its  fluorescence in  UV  ray  at λ 235 nm. TH-D092 and LC-S05 isolates originated  respectively  from landfill and  palm oil mill effluent had ability to accumulate PHA respectively  6.67 and 9.44% dried cell weight. Identification  of  the microbe concluded  that TH-D092  was Pseudomonas aeroginosa, whilst LC-S05 and LC-D02 isolates was  Bacillus subtilis.AbstrakLimbah plastik menjadi masalah serius yang dihadapi dunia karena sulit didegradasi mikroba. Salah satu solusi masalah adalah dengan mengganti bahan dasar plastik konvensional dengan plastik biodegradable (bioplastik). Bahan bioplastik yang cukup penting bagi indutri  dan saat ini terus dikembangkan oleh peneliti adalah Polihidroksial- kanoat (PHA). PHA merupakan poliester alami yang dapat diproduksi oleh mikroorganisme, seperti bakteri dan alga. Pada penelitian dilakukan isolasi bakteri dari tanah tempat pembuangan sampah (TPS) dan limbah cair pabrik kelapa sawit (LCPKS). Penapisan awal bakteri penghasil PHA dilakukan secara kualitatif menggunakan pewarna Nile red  0.05%. Hasil penapisan menunjukkan diantara ke-32  isolat bakteri diperoleh 10 isolat mampu mengakumulasi PHA secara kualitatif, yaitu isolat yang mampu menimbulkan  pendaran floresen pada sinar UV  pada λ 235 nm. Isolat TH-D092 dari tanah tempat pembuangan  sampah dan isolat LC-S05 dari limbah cair pabrik kelapa sawit memiliki kemampuan mengakumulasi PHA berturut-turut  6,67 dan 9,44% dari berat sel kering. Hasil identifikasi spesies bakteri menunjukkan bahwa isolat TH-DO9 termasuk Pseudomonas aeroginosa, LC-SO5 dan LC-DO2 termasuk Bacillus subtilis.
Perangkat serologi untuk deteksi dini infeksi Ganoderma sp. pada kelapa sawit Serological device kit for early detection of Ganoderma sp. infection in oil palm SUHARYANTO, .; ERIS, Deden Dewantara; PRAKOSO, Haryo Tejo; SARAGIH, A H; DARMONO, T W
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 80, No 1: Juni 2012
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (210.644 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v80i1.42

Abstract

AbstractBasal stem rot caused by Ganoderma sp. is the most destructive disease in oil palm that difficult to control because its early symptom could not be detected easily. Serological technique that could detect early Ganoderma sp. infection in quick, simple, and cheap manner should be developed as one component for integrated disease management. A diagnostic device based on dot immunobinding assay (DIBA) for early detection of Ganoderma sp. infection in oil palm had been observed at laboratory, greenhouse and field experiment. Study result revealed that serological technique could detect antigen protein extract of Ganoderma mycelium as much as 138 µg/mL. Basal stem of young seedling that artificially be inoculated by the pathogen could also be clearly detected. At field experiment, Ganoderma sp. infection in oil palm plantation was marked with colour marking based on its infection stadium level to the palm oil. The colours are green, yellow, red, black, and white stating that the plant are healthy, mild infection, heavy infection, very heavy infection, and dead, respectively. Field experiment result showed that serological device kit gave strong reaction to antigen extracted from root and stem at red marking plant. The antigen extracted from healthy plant (green marking plant) was the weak one indicating that the plant is starting to be infected although the symptoms are not yet visually observed. AbstrakBusuk pangkal batang (BPB) yang disebabkan oleh Ganoderma sp. merupakan penyakit paling penting yang sulit ditanggulangi pada tanaman kelapa sawit karena gejala dini serangan sulit diketahui. Teknik serologi yang mampu mendeteksi dini infeksi Ganoderma sp. secara cepat, sederhana dan murah perlu dikembangkan sebagai salah satu komponen dalam pengelolaan penyakit secara terpadu. Teknik serologi dalam bentuk perangkat diagnostik berbasis dot immunobinding assay (DIBA) telah dirakit untuk mendeteksi infeksi Ganoderma sp. pada skala laboratorium, rumah kaca, dan lapang. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa perangkat diagnostik tersebut dapat mendeteksi ekstrak protein dari miselium Ganoderma sp sebesar 138 µg/mL. Keberadaan patogen pada bibit kelapa sawit yang diinfeksi buatan dapat dideteksi secara jelas dengan perangkat serologi tersebut. Deteksi tingkat infeksi Ganoderma sp. pada kebun kelapa sawit TM (skala lapang) dilakukan dengan mengambil sampel berdasarkan stadium infeksi (sehat, ringan, berat, sangat berat, mati) yang diberi kriteria warna hijau, kuning, merah, hitam, dan putih. Hasil uji di kebun kelapa sawit menunjukkan bahwa teknik serologi ini memberikan reaksi paling kuat terhadap antigen yang diekstraksi dari akar dan batang tanaman kriteria merah. Sedangkan reaksi paling lemah ditunjukkan oleh antigen yang diekstraksi dari tanaman kelapa sawit kode hijau yang mengindikasikan bahwa tanaman tanaman kelapa sawit di lapangan tersebut mulai terserang walaupun gejala penyakit belum terlihat secara visual.
Karakterisasi PHA yang dihasilkan oleh Pseudomonas aeruginosa dan Bacillus subtilis yang ditumbuhkan dalam media limbah cair pabrik kelapa sawit Characterization of PHA produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis inoculated in palm oil mill effluent (POME) media KRESNAWATY, Irma; MULYATNI, Agustin Sri; ERIS, Deden Dewantara; PRAKOSO, Haryo Tejo
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 82, No 2: Desember 2014
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (355.124 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v82i2.20

Abstract

AbstractThe difficulties in processing of petroleum-based plastic waste had encouraged the development of biodegradable plastics polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Researchers isolated the PHA-producing microorganisms from various sources to obtain new species with high PHA production capability. In addition, the high cost of PHA production might be overcome by using carbon-rich waste, such as palm oil mill effluent (POME). This research conducted characterization of produced PHA and optimization of PHA production in POME. In previous research, three potential isolates were obtained, which are one Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate and two Bacillus subtilis isolates. Analysis of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) showed the presence of PHA accumu-lation within the bacterial cell. The results of Spectra of Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed differences in C-C and C-H alipathic regions of PHA produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. Optimum production of PHA was obtained using POME at concentration of 50-25% during 6 days of incubation time in an enriched media pretreatment.Abstrak Sulitnya pengolahan limbah plastik berbasis minyak bumi mendorong pengembangan plastik biodegradable poli-hidroksialkanoat (PHA). Beberapa peneliti mengisolasi mikroorganisme penghasil  PHA dari berbagai sumber karena diharapkan akan diperoleh spesies baru dengan kemampuan produksi PHA yang tinggi. Selain itu kendala tingginya biaya produksi PHA dapat diatasi dengan peman-faatan limbah yang kaya akan  karbon, seperti limbah cair pabrik kelapa sawit (LCPKS). Pada penelitian ini dilakukan karakterisasi PHA yang dihasilkan dan optimasi produksi PHA pada LCPKS. Pada penelitian sebelumnya telah diperoleh  tiga isolat potensial, yaitu : satu isolat  Pseudo-monas aeruginosa dan dua isolat  Bacillus subtilis.  Analisis Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) dan Transmission Electon Microscopy (TEM) menunjukkan adanya akumulasi PHA di dalam sel bakteri. Dari hasil analisis FT-IR disimpulkan bahwa senyawa PHA yang dihasilkan Pseudo-monas aeruginosa  berbeda dengan  Bacillus subtilisyang ditandai   perbedaan   pada  spectra   gugus  C-C  dan   C-H alifatik.  Produksi optimum PHA diperoleh pada konsentrasi LCPKS 50-25%, waktu inkubasi  enam hari dan optima-lisasi pertumbuhan pada media kaya di awal untuk mening-katkan populasi mikroba.
Aktivitas ligninolitik Omphalina sp. hasil isolasi dari TKKS dan aplikasinya untuk dekolorisasi limbah kosmetik Ligninolytic activity of Omphalina sp. isolated from EFB and its application for decolorization of cosmetic waste SUHARYANTO, .; KRESNAWATY, Irma; PRAKOSO, Haryo Tejo; ERIS, Deden Dewantara
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 80, No 2: Desember 2012
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (148.873 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v80i2.34

Abstract

Abstract White-rot fungi (WRF) are belong to Basidiomycetes group that capable to degrade lignin, because they produce extracelullar ligninolytic enzymes such as lignin peroxsidase (Li-P), mangan peroxidase (Mn-P) and laccase. The ligninolytic activity can be used in bioprocess oxidation system such as biopulping, biobleaching and bioremediation.  The purposes of this research were to determine the optimum conditions of growth and ligni-nolytic activity of  Omphalina and to observe its potential to decolorize cosmetics wastewater.  Omphalina sp. was grown on media of PDA-Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) and PDA-Guaiacol (GU) at various pH and temperature conditions. The decolorization of cosmetic effluent was conducted by applying Omphalina sp. at various dose of inoculum.  Decolorization rate and change of COD were observed for eight days. The  results  showed that Ompha-lina sp. could grow and produce peroxidase enzyme both on RBBR and GU media at pH 4.5-8.5  and temperature 23-350C. Optimum dose of inoculum was as much as 5%  w/v at which the fungus was able to  decolorize cosmetic factory effluent up to 92.79% and to decrease COD value up to  48.57 % after eight days of incubation.Abstrak Jamur pelapuk putih (JPP) merupakan jamur kelompok Basidiomycetes yang mampu mendegradasi lignin karena memproduksi enzim-enzim ligninolitik ekstraseluler seperti lignin peroksidase (Li-P), mangan peroksidase (Mn-P) dan lakase.  Kemampuan ligninolitik JPP dapat dimanfaatkan dalam sistem oksidasi bioproses seperti biopulping, biobleaching dan bioremediasi. Pene-litian bertujuan menetapkan kondisi optimum pertumbuhan Omphalina sp. dan aktivitas ligninolitik yang dihasilkan-nya serta mempelajari potensinya dalam mendekolorisasi limbah cair kosmetik. Omphalina sp. ditumbuhkan dalam media PDA-Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) dan PDA-Guaiakol (GU)  pada  berbagai variasi pH dan suhu. Percobaan dekolorisasi limbah cair kosmetik dilakukan dengan aplikasi inokulum dalam berbagai dosis. Laju dekolorisasi dan perubahan COD diamati selama delapan hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan Omphalina sp. tumbuh dan menghasilkan enzim peroksidase, baik pada  media RBBR maupun GU pada pH 4,5-8,5 dan suhu 25-350C. Dosis optimum aplikasi Omphalina sp. adalah 5% (b/v) yang mampu mendekolorisasi limbah cair pabrik kosmetik hingga 92,79%  dan menurunkan COD 48,57% setelah delapan hari.