TRI-PANJI, .
INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

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Produksi dan stabilisasi desaturase dari Absidia corymbifera Production and stabilization of desaturases from Absidia corymbifera TRI-PANJI, .; SUHARYANTO, .; PAULUS, A W; SYAMSU, K; FAUZI, A M
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 70, No 2: Desember 2002
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (265.315 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v70i2.129

Abstract

SummaryDesaturases are enzymes which catalyze desaturation process on carbon chain of fatty acids into unsaturated fatty acids useful for healthy oil. Desaturases could be produced from Absidia corymbifera and applied for increasing unsaturation level and crude palm oil (CPO) quality. Desaturases have been known as very unstable enzymes. The objective this research was to determine carbon sources and culture time for optimum desaturase production, fatty acid composition resulted from desaturase bioconversion, and methods for stabilization of desaturase from A. corymbifera. Results showed that desaturases from A. corymbifera are intracellular enzymes that reached the highest activity in Serrano-Careon medium with C sources of a mixture of sucrose and paraffin (0.14 U/mL) and C sources of molasses (0.11 U/mL) incubated for 76 and 120 hours respectively. Activity of ∆6 and ∆12 desaturases have been detected in culture filtrate of A. corymbifera. Activiy of ∆12 desaturase was confirmed by increasing of linoleic acid in CPO incubated with culture filtrate and biomass extract, while activity of ∆6 was detected by its conversion as much as 66.48 % linoleic acid into gamma linolenic acid (GLA) that having high economic value. Precipitation of culture filtrate and lipid extraction of biomass were unable to stabilize desaturases. Desaturase degradation rate could be inhibited by isolation and washing of microsome fraction using high salt buffer. This method could stabilize desaturases 70-80% from initial activity at storage temperature 25o C and 50 o C for 6 hours. RingkasanDesaturase merupakan enzim yang berperan dalam proses desaturasi rantai karbon asam lemak menjadi asam lemak tak jenuh yang banyak manfaatnya bagi kesehatan. Desaturase dapat dihasilkan dari Absidia corymbifera dan diamplifikasikan untuk peningkatan ketidakjenuhan dan kualitas minyak sawit mentah (CPO). Enzim desaturase dikenal sangat tidak stabil. Penelitian bertujuan menetapkan sumber karbon dan waktu kultur yang memberikan aktivitas desaturase tertinggi, komposisi asam lemak hasil konversi desaturase dan cara menstabilkan desaturase dari A. corymbifera. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa desaturase dari A. corymbifera merupakan enzim intraselular yang mencapai aktivitas tertinggi pada medium Serrano-Careon dengan sumber karbon campuran sukrosa dan parafin (0,14 U/mL) dan sumber karbon molases (0,11 U/mL) masingmasing pada inkubasi selama 76 dan 120 jam. Aktivitas ∆6 dan ∆12 desaturase terdeteksi pada cairan fermentasi A. corymbifera. Aktivitas ∆12 desaturase terdeteksi dari peningkatan persentase asam linoleat pada CPO yang telah diinkubasi dengan cairan fermentasi atau ekstrak biomassa, sedangkan aktivitas ∆6 desaturase terdeteksi dari dikonversinya sebesar 66,48% asam linoleat menjadi asam gamma linolenat (GLA) yang memiliki potensi nilai ekonomis lebih tinggi. Pengendapan filtrat kultur fermentasi dan ekstraksi lipida biomassa tidak mampu menstabilkan desaturase. Laju degradasi desaturase dapat dihambat dengan cara isolasi dan pencucian fraksi mikrosom dengan bufer garam. Cara tersebut dapat mempertahankan aktivitas desaturase 70–80% pada penyimpanan suhu 25o C dan 50o C selama enam jam.
Produksi, isolasi dan karakterisasi superoksida dismutase dari Spirulina platensis yang dibiakkan dalam serum lateks Production, isolation, and characterization of superoxyde dismutase from Spirulina platensis cultured on latex serum TRI-PANJI, .; SUHARYANTO, .; WIJAYANTI, Marini
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 77, No 1: Juni 2009
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (374.392 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v77i1.113

Abstract

AbstractSpirulina platensis is a blue-green microalgawhich is frequently used for food and feedsupplements and cosmetic active agent. Thismicroalga also produces a strong antioxidantnamely superoxide dismutase (SOD) used ascosmetic active agent for anti aging and anti freeradicals. SOD was isolated from S. platensis cellbiomass from local isolate grown on latex serumon semipilot (3.5 m 3 ) and pilot scale (40 m 3 )then dried with spray drying or sun drying andcharacterized. SOD was purified with sequentialtwo-stage sedimentation using ammoniumsulphate and fractionated in chromatographiccolumn containing Sephadex G 200. Thefractions were analysed to determine the activity,cofactor metal and amino acid composition of theantioxidant. The results showed thatsedimentation of SOD extract with 80%ammonium sulphate produced SOD with higheractivity compared to that of SOD fromcommercial S. platensis biomass. This SOD wassuccessfully isolated and purified. MetaloenzymeSOD was composed of subunits with molecularweight of 77.78; 71.74; and 19.2 kDa, whichcontained nine types of amino acids with tyrosineand lysine as the major amino acid components.Zn was the most predominant metal on SOD, thenfollowed by Fe and Mn. The main subunitcofactors consisted of Zn 72%, Fe 25%, Mn 2%,and Cu 1%, which were different from thesmall subunit that contained of Zn 55%, Mn 31%,Fe 14%, and Cu 4%. The stability of SOD wasachieved on pH 7.5 and temperature below 25 o C.AbstrakSpirulina platensis adalah mikroalga hijaubiru yang banyak digunakan sebagai suplemenpangan, pakan, dan bahan aktif kosmetika.Mikroalga ini juga menghasilkan antioksidankuat yaitu superoksida dismutase (SOD), yangmerupakan bahan aktif kosmetika anti penuaandini dan pencegah efek radikal bebas. SODdiisolasi dari biomassa sel S. platensis isolat lokalyang dibiakkan dalam serum lateks skalasemipilot (3,5 m 3 ) dan pilot (40 m 3 ) sertadikeringkan dengan cara pengeringan kabut(spray drying) atau penjemuran untuk kemudiandikarakterisasi. SOD dimurnikan dengan peng-endapan bertingkat menggunakan ammoniumsulfat dan dipisahkan dengan kolom kromatografiberisi Sephadex G 200. Hasil pemisahankemudian dianalisis untuk menentukan aktivitas,logam kofaktor serta komposisi asam amino antioksidan tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkanbahwa pengendapan ekstrak SOD denganSOD lebih tinggi dari SOD asal biomassaS. platensis komersial. SOD tersebut telahberhasil diisolasi dan dimurnikan. MetaloenzimSOD tersusun atas subunit dengan BM 77,78;71,74; dan 19,2 kDa, yang mengandungsembilan jenis asam amino dengan tirosin danlisin sebagai komponen asam amino utama.Logam yang dominan pada SOD adalah Zn,disusul kemudian Fe dan Mn. Kofaktor sub unitbesar terdiri dari Zn 72%, Fe 25%, Mn 2%, danCu 1%, berbeda dengan sub unit kecil yangmengandung Zn 55%, Mn 31%, Fe 14%, dan Cu4%. Stabilitas SOD S. platensis dicapai pada pH7,5 dan suhu di bawah 25 o Cammonium sulfat 80% menghasilkan aktivitas
Karakterisasi gen penyandi lipase dari kapang Rhizopus oryzae dan Absidia corymbifera Characterization of gene encoding lipase from fungus Rhizopus oryzae and Absidia corymbifera PUTRANTO, Riza A; SANTOSO, Djoko; TRI-PANJI, .; SUHARYANTO, .; BUDIANI, Asmini
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 74, No 1: Juni 2006
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (471.091 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v74i1.118

Abstract

SummaryLipase is a group of enzymes which catalyze fat hydrolysis. Lipase is recently used to produce diacylglycerol (DAG) from triacylglycerol (TAG). Lipase  can be used to produce healthy oil. Having a rich biodiversity, Indonesia has the opportunity to produce lipase using indigenous microbes, such as molds. This research aimed to detect  LIPASE  gene on several strains of molds employing PCR technique. Genomic DNAs were isolated from four strains of molds (M. sitophila, R. oryzae, R. microsporus, and A. corymbifera). Heterologous primers for LIPASE  were designed based on the conserved region of 12 LIPASE  sequences accessed from GenBank and used to amplify the genomic DNA resulted in a 466 bp fragmen. BLAST analysis showed that the bands of DNAs have high homology with common lipase protein in several strains of  Rhizopus.Ringkasan Lipase merupakan kelompok enzim yang berfungsi sebagai biokatalis hidrolisis lemak. Lipase banyak digunakan untuk konversi triasilgliserol (TAG) menjadi diasilgliserol (DAG). Penggunaan lipase penting untuk produksi minyak sehat (healthy oil). Indonesia dengan keanekaragaman hayati tinggi berpeluang besar   mengembangkan   produksi   lipase   dari mikroba lokal, salah satunya adalah kapang. Deteksi gen merupakan langkah awal dalam upaya peningkatan produksi lipase melalui rekayasa genetika. DNA genomik empat galur kapang (M. sitophila, R. oryzae, R. microsporus, dan A. corymbifera) telah berhasil diisolasi. Sepasang primer heterologous telah berhasil dirancang berdasarkan daerah terkonservasi 12 sekuen gen LIPASE dari GenBank. Amplikon DNA yang diperoleh pada PCR menggunakan pasangan primer RLP memiliki panjang 466 bp. Analisis BLAST memperlihatkan bahwa amplikon PCR memiliki homologi yang tinggi dengan protein LIPASE  beberapa galur Rhizopus. 
Pemurnian diasilgliserol dari produk gliserolisis minyak sawit mentah dengan kromatografi kolom Purification of diacylglycerol from glycerolysis products of crude palm oil using column chromatography TRI-PANJI, .; SUHARYANTO, .; PERWITASAR, Urip
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 79, No 1: Juni 2011
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (333.272 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v79i1.71

Abstract

AbstractVegetable oil enriched with diacylglycerol (DAG) isknown as healthy oil. This oil is much more expensive thancooking oil. Production of DAG could be performed byglycerolysis process of CPO using specific lipase of 1,3-glyceride from Rhizopus oryzae mold. Product derived fromglycerolysis process of CPO is a mixture of DAG, mono-acylglycerol (MAG), free fatty acid (FFA) and residual ofunglycerolysed triacylglyserol (TAG). Therefore the DAGproduct has to be isolated from other components in order toget high purity of DAG. The objective of the research was topurify and to find out optimal concentration of DAG derivedfrom a mixture product of CPO glycerolysis at laboratoryscale experiment (total reactant for glycerolysis was93.8 mL) and semipilot scale experiment (10 times oflaboratory scale) using column chromatography with silicagel as stationary phase. The research showed that thehighest DAG content could be collected at fraction of 26 th i.e65%, while at semipilot scale experiment the highest contentof DAG (97%) was achieved at 64 to 66th fraction.Reglycerolysis of residual CPO only yielded 8.24%glycerolysis product which was much lower than that of thefirst glycerolysis reaching 46.67%. The highest DAG derivedfrom the second reglycerolysis product was achieved at 24 thfraction reaching 35.71 % .AbstrakMinyak nabati kaya kandungan diasilgliserol (DAG)dikenal sebagai minyak sehat (healthy oil). Minyak ini jauhlebih mahal dari minyak makan biasa. Produksi DAG dapatdilakukan dengan proses gliserolisis CPO menggunakanenzim lipase spesifik 1,3-gliserida dari kapang Rhizopusoryzae. Produk gliserolisis CPO triasilgliserol adalahcampuran DAG, monoasilgliserol (MAG) dan asam lemakbebas (ALB) serta residu triasilgliserol (TAG) yang tidaktergliserolisis. Oleh karena itu DAG yang terbentuk harusdipisahkan dari komponen lainnya agar diperoleh fraksi DAGdengan kemurnian tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untukmemurnikan dan menetapkan konsentrasi DAG yang dapatdiperoleh dari gliserolisis CPO skala lab (total reaktan93,8 mL) dan skala semipilot (10 kali skala laboratorium)dengan kromatografi kolom menggunakan fase padat silikagel. Residu TAG dari gliserolisis pertama digunakan untukgliserolisis kedua atau gliserolisis ulang. Hasil penelitianmenunjukkan bahwa fraksi DAG dengan konsentrasitertinggi diperoleh pada fraksi ke-26 yaitu sebesar 65%,sedangkan pada percobaan dengan skala semipilot (10 kaliskala laboratorium) diketahui bahwa konsentrasi DAGtertinggi (97%) diperoleh pada fraksi ke-64 sampai denganke-66. Gliserolisis kedua dari residu CPO hanya mampumenghidrolisis TAG menjadi campuran DAG, MAG danALB sekitar 8,24%, lebih kecil dari reaksi gliserolisispertama yaitu sebesar 46,67%. DAG tertinggi yang berhasildikumpulkan dari produk gliserolisis kedua adalah padafraksi ke-24 yaitu sebesar 35,71% .
Optimization media from low-cost nutrient sources for growing Spirulina platensis and carotenoid production Optimasi media dengan sumber nutrisi murah untuk pertumbuhan dan produksi karotenoid Spirulina platensis TRI-PANJI, .; SUHARYANTO, .
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 69, No 1: Juni 2001
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (233.789 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v69i1.175

Abstract

SummarySpirulina platensis is a cyanobacteriaproducing several bioactive compounds such ascarotenoids which are economically valuable. Toproduce carotenoids in S. platensis biomassefficiently, it is necessary to define an optimummedium composition consisting of mineral saltand organic complex derived from low-costnutrient sources. Spirulina platensis grown oncomplex media containing latex serum fromconcentrated latex factory, supplemented withsalt minerals might produce high yieldingcarotenoids. The objective of this research is todefine media composition for optimum growthand carotenoid production of S. platensis and toidentify carotenoid compounds from biomass ofthe algae. S. platensis was grown on mediacontaining latex serum from latex concentratefactory (5%, v/v), macroelements andmicroelements, for 10 weeks at a room aeratedand illuminated by 20 W TL lamp at 50 cmdistance. Microelements were formulatedat a certain amount to give eleven combinationsof C: N: P: Mg. The Aiba & Ogawa syntheticmedium was used as a reference medium. Theoptimum growth of S. platensis had reachedafter eight-week incubation. Among elevenmedia composition containing latex serumexamined, best growth on a formulated mediumwith a ratio of C: N: P: Mg = 1:3:0.3:0.2 yielding0.350 g biomass/L This amount was slightlylesser than those on synthetic Aiba & Ogawamedium that yields 0.407 g biomass/L, aftereight-week incubation. Although the biomassproduction was lower than that of synthetic Aiba & Ogawa medium, the formulated mediagave higher carotenoid content. The highestcarotenoid content in biomass was 2.866 mg/kgbiomass obtained from a medium with ratio ofC: N: P: Mg = 1: 2: 0.3: 0. Thin layerchromatography (TLC) analysis of biomassextract showed the presence of two-six carotenoidcompounds, in which one of them is β- carotene.RingkasanSpirulina platensis adalah sianobakteria yangmenghasilkan berbagai senyawa bioaktif bernilaiekonomi tinggi antara lain karotenoida. Untukmemproduksi karotenoida dari biomassa selS. platensis secara efisien, perlu ditetapkankomposisi media mineral dan bahan organikkompleks yang optimal dari sumber nutrisi yangmurah. Spirulina platensis yang ditumbuhkandalam media serum lateks dari pabrik latekspekat dengan suplemen garam-garam mineraltertentu diharapkan produktif dalammenghasilkan karotenoida. Tujuan penelitianadalah menetapkan komposisi media yangoptimal untuk pertumbuhan dan produksikarotenoid serta mengidentifikasi jenis senyawakarotenoid dalam biomassa sel S. platensis.Sianobakteria ini ditumbuhkan dalam mediakompleks mengandung serum lateks pekat(5%, v/v) dengan suplemen nutrisi berupamakronutrien dan mikronutrien selama10 minggu di dalam ruangan dengan aerasi danpenyinaran lampu TL 20 W pada jarak 50 cm.Komposisi makronutrien diformulasi untukmemberikan sebelas macam variasi nisbahC:N:P:Mg. Sebagai pembanding digunakanmedia sintetik Aiba & Ogawa. Hasil penelitianmenunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan S. platensismencapai puncak setelah diinkubasikan selamadelapan minggu. Dari 11 komposisi mediamengandung lateks yang diuji, pertumbuhanS. platensis terbaik adalah yang ditumbuhkandalam media formula dengan nisbah C:N:P:Mg=1:3:0.3:0.2 menghasilkan 0,350 g biomassa/L,sedikit lebih rendah dibandingkan denganmenggunakan media sintetik Aiba & Ogawa yangmenghasilkan 0,407 g biomassa/L selama8 minggu. Walaupun kandungan biomassanyalebih rendah, media formula tersebut meng-hasilkan karotenoid lebih tinggi dibandingkandengan media sintetik Aiba & Ogawa.Kandungan karotenoid tertinggi pada biomassayaitu sebesar 2.866 mg/kg diperoleh pada mediadengan nisbah C:N:P:Mg=1:2:0.3:0. Analisisekstrak biomassa dengan TLC menunjukkanadanya dua-enam jenis karotenoida, salahsatunya adalah β - karotena.
Optimisasi produksi biogas dari limbah lateks cair pekat dengan penambahan logam Optimization of biogas production from concentrated-latex effluent with addition of metals KRESNAWATY, Irma; SUSANTI, I; SISWANTO, .; TRI-PANJI, .
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 76, No 1: Juni 2008
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (214.177 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v76i1.92

Abstract

Summary The treatment of concentrated-latex effluent process applied in the field presently, has not obtain optimum additional benefits. Besides that, the technology using ponding system  needs  wide area and causes air pollution that  such a way caused conflicts with society. The application  concept of clean industry: reuse, reduction, recovery and recycling, makes the possibilities to convert the effluent to be usefull products. One of the alternative effluent process is by utilizing it as the source of renewable energy, that is in the form of biogas as an  alternative energy. The preliminary research showed that the use of spontaneous latex skim coagulation, the  addition of 1% manure as source of seed, and leaf biomass as the source of carbon could increase the biogas production. This research was carried out to optimize biogas production by adding metal ion and to observe the parameters which influenced every stage of biogas production. At the beginning of the process, pH showed increasing due to the hydrolysis process that generally occured in acid condition, but it remained stable (6.6-7.7) in the next steps, whereas, the VFA value as well as BOD value tended to increase. COD value had fluctuative inclination caused by the conversion of organic compounds to produce biogas and the hydrolysis process of leaf biomass to organic compounds that decom-posed to further biogas. The best result of biogas production was showed by addition of Fe3+ with optimum concentration 0.50 mg/L effluent.
Produksi Spirulina platensis dalam fotobioreaktor kontinyu menggunakan media limbah cair pabrik kelapa sawit Production of Spirulina platensis in continous photobioreactor using palm oil mill effluent media SUHARYANTO, .; TRI-PANJI, .; PERMATASARI, Shinta; SYAMSU, Khaswar
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 82, No 1: Juni 2014
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (370.61 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v82i1.25

Abstract

AbstractCultivation of Spirulina platensis in an abundant available and inexpensive medium such as palm oil mill effluent (POME) will produce biomass and valuable active materials at competitive price.  Utilization of POME  will also reduce pollution level and support cleaned production.  The objectives of this research were to determine the dilution rate of  S. platensis and the reduction rate of pollution level of POME on continuous photobioreactor. Preliminary research was conducted by growing S. platensis on POME medium with various concentration, namely 25%, 50%, 75%, and 90% POME on batch system. The experiment was conducted in 1.2 L capacity continous photobioreactor using medium containing a mixture of POME and synthetic medium. Feeding rate was set up at 0.05 mL/5 sec. (dilution rate of  0.03 hr -1), 0,05 mL/10 sec. (dilution rate of  0.015 hr -1), and 0.05 mL/15 sec. (dilution rate of 0.01 hr -1). For optimum dilution rate, the experiment was scaled up eight times using 10 L capacity continous photobioreactor. The results showed that optimum growth rate of S. platensis (µmax) = 0.233, was achieved using medium consisting of 90% POME and 10% synthetic medium after two weeks. Dilution rate of 0.015 hr -1 on photobioreactor was the optimum dilution rate for growth of S. platensis as well as for decreasing polution level of POME. The result of the eight-times scale up photobioreactor using flow rate of 0.4 mL/10 sec and dilution rate of 0.015 hr -1 showed that the growth of S. platensis was relatively constant as reflected by the OD value of the suspension culture and the concentration of cellular biomass. At the optimum condition, production of S. platensis biomass was 0.267g/L and pollution level was decrease 24%. The rate of outflow also resulted the constant decrease of polution level based on total carbon (TC), total dissolve solid (TDS), dissolve oxygen (DO), BOD, and COD parameters indicating that  continuous photobioreactor was running at steady state.Abstrak Kultivasi S. platensis dalam media yang tersedia me-limpah dan murah seperti limbah cair pabrik kelapa sawit (LC-PKS) akan menghasilkan biomassa dan bahan aktif bernilai ekonomi tinggi dengan harga kompetitif. Pemanfaatan  LC-PKS  juga  akan  mengurangi  dampak pen-cemaran lingkungan dan membantu menciptakan sistem produksi bersih. Penelitian ini bertujuan menetapkan laju dilusi optimum per-tumbuhan S. platensis dan laju penurunan tingkat cemaran LC-PKS pada fotobioreaktor sistem kontinyu. Untuk mengukur laju alir sistem kontinyu, pertama S. platensis ditumbuhkan pada media LC-PKS 25%, 50%, 75%, dan 90% dengan sistem batch.  Pertum-buhan S. platensis  pada fotobioreaktor sistem kontinyu kapasitas 1,2 L dirancang dengan variasi laju alir umpan berupa LC-PKS yang dicampur media sintetik pada konsentrasi optimum. Variasi laju alir pengumpanan diatur pada variasi 0.05 mL/5 detik (laju dilusi 0,03 jam-1), 0,05 mL /10 detik (laju dilusi 0,015 jam -1), dan 0,05 mL/15 detik (laju dilusi 0,01 jam-1). Pada laju alir optimum, skala percobaan diperbesar delapan kali menggunakan foto-bioreaktor berkapasitas 10 L. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa laju pertumbuhan maksimum (µ maks) adalah 0,233 jam-1 yang diperoleh dengan campuran media LC-PKS 90% dan media sintetik 10%  selama dua minggu. Fotobioreaktor dengan laju dilusi 0,015 jam-1 merupakan laju alir umpan yang optimum untuk pertumbuhan S. platensis serta menghasilkan penurunan tingkat cemaran LC-PKS yang optimum.  Hasil penelitian dengan perbesaran skala delapan kali menggunakan laju alir pengumpan 0,4 mL/10 detik  (laju dilusi 0,015 jam-1)  menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan S. platensis relatif konstan. Produksi biomassa sel rata-rata sebesar 0,267g/L dan kadar cemaran limbah rata-rata menurun sebesar 24%. Laju alir keluar (outflow) juga menghasilkan kadar cemaran limbah yang konstan ber-dasarkan parameter total karbon (TC), total dissolve solid (TDS), dissolve oxygen (DO), BOD, dan COD yang menunjukkan bahwa sistem fotobioreaktor kontinyu ini berjalan dengan baik.
Pola aktivitas enzim ligninolitik Pleurotus ostreatus pada limbah sludge pabrik kertas Activity pattern of ligninolytic enzyme of Pleurotus ostreatus in sludge waste of paper factory WIDIASTUTI, Happy; TRI-PANJI, .
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 76, No 1: Juni 2008
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (202.108 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v76i1.95

Abstract

Summary Sludge is a solid waste abundantly available on paper factory that is economically unutilized and tends to pollute environment. This waste can be used as growth media for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) as edible mushroom and ligninolytic enzymes production as well. A research has been conducted to study the activity pattern of ligninolytic enzymes of oyster mushroom grown on the sludge waste of recycle paper factory. Six treatments were examinated consisted of three media combinations (sawdust, sludge, sludge mixed with sawdust), with and without supplementing with rice bran, lime, and gypsum, and two mushroom strains Bogor oyster mushroom (JTB) and China Taipei oyster mushroom (JTT). Monitoring of ligninolytic enzyme activity consisting of laccase, mangan peroxidase (Mn-P) and lignin peroxidase (Li-P),  was subsequently regularly started since inoculation, at vegetative phase (four and six weeks), primordial formation, phase of fruiting body formation, and two weeks after formation of fruiting body. Each treatment was repeated three times, so that 216 bag logs of oyster mushroom cultures were performed. The results showed that laccase, Mn-P, and Li-P activities could be observed on sludge or mixture of sludge+sawdust media inoculated with P. ostreatus. Generally, the highest activity of ligninolytic enzymes especially for laccase and MnP were observed at the first vegetative growth phase i.e. before emerging primordial of fruiting body (1.697 & 2.113 U/mL, 4.394 & 2.314 U/mL  respectively for JTB and JTT laccase and JTB & JTT Mn-P). The highest Li-P activity was affected by the kind of media and strain of inoculum. In sludge medium, the highest Li-P activity was observed in  vegetative growth phase (2.706 & 4.014 U/mL respectively for JTB and JTT) while in a mixture of sludge + sawdust the highest activity of that enzyme was observed in primordial phase of growth (2.509 & 1.9 U/mL respectively for JTB and JTT). Addition of supplement to the sludge increased ligninolytic activity, while laccase activity of sludge was suggested could be more enhanced by mixing the sludge with sawdust and enrich with rice bran, gypsum and lime. Ringkasan                                                Sludge merupakan limbah padat yang tersedia melimpah di pabrik kertas dan belum dimanfaatkan secara ekonomis sehingga berpotensi mencemari lingkungan. Limbah ini dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai medium tumbuh jamur konsumsi seperti jamur tiram (Pleurotus ostreatus) dan penghasil enzim ligninolitik. Penelitian dilakukan untuk mempelajari pola aktivitas enzim ligninolitik jamur tiram pada limbah sludge pabrik kertas selama fase vegetatif sampai setelah fase generatif. Enam perlakuan yang diuji berupa tiga kombinasi komposisi medium (serbuk gergaji, sludge, campuran sludge dan serbuk gergaji), dengan dan tanpa pengayaan, yaitu penambahan dedak, kapur, dan gipsum,  serta dua strain jamur tiram Bogor (JTB) dan jamur tiram China Taipei (JTT). Pengamatan aktivitas enzim ligninolitik meliputi lakase, mangan peroksidase (Mn-P) dan lignin peroksidase  (Li-P) dilakukan sejak saat inokulasi, pada fase vegetatif (empat dan enam minggu), pada saat pembentukan primordia, fase tubuh buah, dan dua minggu setelah pembentukan tubuh buah. Masing-masing perlakuan diulang tiga kali sehingga terdapat 216 bag log jamur tiram. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aktivitas ligninolitik dijumpai pada medium sludge dan campuran sludge+serbuk gergaji yang diino-kulasi P. ostreatus. Aktivitas enzim ligninolitik tertinggi khususnya lakase dan MnP teramati pada fase pertumbuhan vegetatif pertama yaitu sebelum terbentuknya primordia (1,697 & 2,113 U/mL, 4,394 & 2,314 U/mL  masing-masing untuk lakase JTB dan JTT dan MnP  JTB & JTT). Aktivitas LiP tertinggi dipengaruhi oleh jenis medium dan strain inokulum. Pada medium sludge, aktivitas LiP tertinggi dijumpai pada fase vegetatif (2,706 & 4,014 U/ml masing-masing untuk JTB dan JTT) sedangkan pada medium campuran sludge+serbuk gergaji, aktivitas enzim  ter-tinggi dijumpai  pada fase primordia (2,509 & 1,9 U/ml berturut-turut untuk JTB dan JTT). Pengayaan sludge meningkatkan aktivitas ligninolitik, sedangkan aktivitas lakase pada sludge diduga dapat lebih ditingkatkan dengan menambahkan serbuk gergaji disertai pengayaan berupa gipsum, dedak, dan kapur.
Optimasi produksi diasilgliserol dari crude palm oil menggunakan lipase spesifik 1,3-gliserida dari Rhizopus oryzae TP-2 Optimation of diacylglycerol production from crude palm oil using specific lipase of 1,3-glyceride from Rhizopus oryzae TP-2 SUHARYANTO, .; TRI-PANJI, .; PERWITASARI, Urip
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 79, No 1: Juni 2011
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (268.219 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v79i1.69

Abstract

AbstractModern lifestyle caused the increasing prevalence ofobesity that precedes degenerative disease such as coronarycardiovascular disease, hypercholesterolemia, stroke, anddiabetes mellitus. Use of healthy oil in the daily food diet couldreduce the risk of the disease. One of healthy oils that proved tobe useful for human health is diacylglycerol (DAG).Unfortunately, production of DAG in Indonesia is hampered bythe relatively high price of the lipase enzyme. To overcome theprovision of costly imported lipase in producing DAG, aresearch was conducted by employing crude extract of lipaseenzyme from an indigenous mold namely Rhizopus oryzaeTP-2. Crude extract of lipase enzyme from mycelium culturefiltrate was freeze dryed and used for crude palm oil (CPO)bioconversion through glycerolysis at various processcondition. The objective of this research was to determineoptimum variable of temperature, incubation time, amount ofsubstrate and pH in producing DAG from CPO using lipase ofR. oryzae TP-2. The reseach result showed that lipase fromR. oryzae TP-2 was proved to be specific at position of 1,3-glyceride as indicated by glycerolysis products i.e DAG/TAGratio 0.48 higher than that of FFA/TAG ratio 0.06. Optimumconditions for glycerolysis were at temperature 37 o C, pH 7,3 g of CPO substrate, and 18 hours of incubation time. DAGyield by this optimum condition reach as much as 20.76 % w/w.The lipase derived from this experiment produced DAG betterthan that of using imported commercially lipase enzyme ofRhizomucor meihei.AbstrakGaya hidup modern telah menyebabkan meningkatnyakasus kegemukan yang berdampak timbulnya berbagaipenyakit degeneratif seperti jantung koroner, hiper-kolesterolemia, stroke dan diabetes mellitus. Penggunaanminyak sehat (healthy oil) sebagai menu diet sehari-hari dapatmengurangi faktor risiko penyakit tersebut. Salah satu jenisminyak sehat yang terbukti berdampak positif pada kesehatanmanusia adalah diasilgliserol (DAG). Sayangnya, produksiDAG di Indonesia terkendala oleh mahalnya enzim lipasespesifik 1,3-gliserida yang masih harus diimpor. Untukmengatasi mahalnya enzim lipase impor dalam produksi DAGdari CPO, penelitian penggunaan ekstrak kasar lipase darikapang lokal Rhizopus oryzae TP-2 telah dilakukan. Ekstrakkasar lipase dari filtrat kultur miselium R. oryzae TP-2dikeringbekukan dan digunakan untuk biokonversi CPOmelalui proses gliserolisis pada berbagai kondisi reaksi.Penelitian bertujuan menetapkan peubah suhu, waktu, jumlahsubstrat dan pH optimum dalam produksi DAG menggunakanlipase dari R. oryzae TP-2. Hasil penelitian menunjukkanbahwa enzim lipase R. oryzae TP-2 bersifat spesifik1,3-gliserida yang ditunjukkan oleh nisbah DAG/TAG, yaitu0,48 lebih besar dari nisbah ALB/TAG yaitu sebesar 0,06.Kondisi optimum untuk gliserolisis CPO adalah waktu inkubasiselama 18 jam, suhu reaksi 37°C, jumlah substrat CPO 3 g, danpH reaksi 7. Hasil DAG pada kondisi optimum gliserolisisadalah 20,76 %. (b/b). Lipase R. oryzae TP-2 yang digunakandalam penelitian ini menghasilkan DAG lebih tinggi dari padalipase impor asal Rhizomucor meihei.
Lipase spesifik 1,3-gliserida dari fungi lokal untuk biokonversi CPO menjadi diasilgliserol Specific lipase of 1,3-glyceride from indigenous fungi for bioconversion of CPO to produce diacylglycerol TRI-PANJI, .; SUHARYANTO, .; ARINI, Nining
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 76, No 1: Juni 2008
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (180.243 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v76i1.90

Abstract

SummaryDownstream industry of palm oil producing specialty oil with higher economic value compared to that of CPO in Indonesia is less developed due to technical obstacle and the availability of supporting materials. Specific lipase 1,3-glyceride for example which is used for oleochemical processing of healthy oil production is still imported with relatively high price.  Healthy oil can be made from CPO bioconversion using the enzyme that produces oil rich in diacylglycerol (DAG). Although research on the production and the use of lipase has been well studied, production of specific lipase from microbes of local source is still very limited.  This article reports one part of the series of the research activities on bioprocess and genetic engineering approaches to produce specific lipase for bioconversion of CPO i.e optimization of 1,3-glyceride-spesific lipase production from fungi selected from local sources. Based on the fluorescence zone on the screening media, of the twenty isolates collection, it was found that P6 isolate, thereafter indentified as Neurospora sitophila, has the highest activity of 1,3-glyceride-specific lipase. The lipase of N.  sitophila was able to catalyze glycerolysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) in CPO to produce DAG. The bioconversion products of lipase yielding ratio of DAG/TAG was higher than ratio of free fatty acids (FFA)/TAG (0.12 > 0.08). The optimum condition of the enzymatic bioconversion was at 40 oC, pH 6, and 10-day incubation. The primary fatty acids on the DAG were oleic (56.2%), palmitic (40.0%), and myristic (2.7%) acids. The decrease of palmitic acid on DAG compared to on TAG, indicated that the lipase of N. sitophila worked relatively specific at C1 or C3 of the TAG.Kurang berkembangnya industri hilir yang menghasilkan minyak khusus yang nilainya berlipat dibandingkan CPO antara lain karena hambatan teknis dan ketersediaan bahan pendukungnya. Lipase spesifik 1,3-gliserida misalnya, yang digunakan untuk produksi minyak kesehatan, masih diimpor dengan harga relatif tinggi. Minyak kesehatan dapat diproduksi dari biokonversi CPO dengan lipase spesifik 1,3-gliserida hingga diperoleh minyak yang kaya kandungan diasilgliserol (DAG). Tulisan ini melaporkan optimasi aktivitas lipase spesifik 1,3-gliserida dari fungi isolat lokal terpilih. Berdasarkan zona fluoresens pada medium penapis lipase, dari 20 isolat fungi yang diuji isolat P6 yang kemudian diidentifikasi sebagai Neurospora sitophila memiliki aktivitas tertinggi dan bersifat spesifik 1,3-gliserida. Lipase N. sitophilamampu mengkatalisis gliserolisis triasilgliserol (TAG) dalam CPO untuk menghasilkan DAG. Lipase tersebut menghasilkan nilai perban-dingan DAG/TAG  lebih  besar  dari nilai perbandingan asam lemak bebas (ALB)/TAG (0,12 > 0,08). Kondisi optimum biokonversi enzimatis ini terjadi pada suhu 40 oC, pH 6, dan waktu inkubasi selama 10 hari. Asam lemak utama penyusun DAG adalah asam oleat (56,2%), palmitat (40,0%), dan miristat (2,7%). Berkurangnya asam palmitat pada DAG dibanding pada TAG menunjukkan bahwa lipase N. sitophila bekerja secara relatif spesifik pada C1 atau C3 dari gliserida.