Failisnur, Failisnur
Balai Riset dan Standardisasi Industri Padang

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Pengaruh Suhu dan Lama Pencelupan Benang Katun pada Pewarnaan Alami dengan Ekstrak Gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb) Failisnur, Failisnur; Sofyan, Sofyan
Jurnal Litbang Industri Vol 6, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Institution for Industrial Research and Standardization of Industry - Padang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (563.145 KB) | DOI: 10.24960/jli.v6i1.716.25-37

Abstract

Natural dyes re-extraction of raw gambier was used as a dye on cotton yarn. Al2 (SO4)3, FeSO4 and CaO was used as a mordant with post-mordanting method. Dyeing process was done through a few stages; re-extracting of raw gambier, bleaching of cotton yarn, dyeing with gambier solution extract, mordanting with post-mordanting method, and finishing. Dyeing process was carried out at temperature of 30, 50, and 70⁰C with dyeing time 5, 15, and 25 minutes. Analysis of tannin content and particle size was conducted on raw gambier, gambier solution extract and remaining of dyeing solution. Cotton yarn which had been dyed with extracts of gambier evaluated its tensile strength, elongation, shrink yarn, intensity, color direction, and color fastness. The result showed that the hidhest color streght was obtained at 70⁰C dyeing and 25 minutes dyeing time using CaO mordant. Color fastness to 40⁰C washing with the use of CaO modant was good (4). The value of rubbing and light fastness was good until very good (4-5) for all treatments. All treatments with the same mordant shown to have similar of color direction visually, however quantitatively each of sample had a different significant on intensity and direction of colors.ABSTRAKPewarna alam gambir digunakan sebagai pewarna pada benang katun melalui  ekstraksi ulang dari gambir asalan.  Al2(SO4)3, FeSO4 dan CaO digunakan sebagai mordan dengan metoda pasca mordanting. Proses pencelupan dilakukan melalui tahapan; ekstraksi ulang gambir asalan, pengelantangan benang katun, pencelupan dengan larutan ekstrak gambir, pemordanan dengan metoda pasca mordanting, dan finishing. Proses pencelupan dilakukan pada suhu 30, 50 dan 70⁰C dengan lama pencelupan 5, 15 dan 25 menit.  Analisis kadar tanin dan ukuran partikel dilakukan terhadap gambir asalan, larutan ekstrak gambir dan larutan sisa pencelupan. Benang katun yang telah diwarnai dengan ekstrak gambir dievaluasi kekuatan tarik, mulur, mengkeret benang, intensitas, corak dan ketahanan luntur warnanya. Hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa intensitas warna tertinggi terdapat pada pencelupan 70⁰C dan waktu pencelupan  25 menit dengan menggunakan mordan CaO. Ketahanan luntur warna terhadap pencucian 40⁰C dengan penggunaan mordan CaO bernilai baik (4).  Nilai ketahanan luntur warna terhadap penyeterikaan dan sinar matahari adalah baik sampai sangat baik (4-5) untuk semua pelakuan.  Semua perlakuan dengan mordan yang sama terlihat mempunyai arah warna yang sama secara visual, namun secara kuantitatif masing-masing memiliki perbedaan intensitas dan arah warna yang cukup signifikan.
Karakteristik Es Krim Bengkuang Dengan Menggunakan Beberapa Jenis Susu Failisnur, Failisnur
Jurnal Litbang Industri Vol 3, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Institution for Industrial Research and Standardization of Industry - Padang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (888.533 KB) | DOI: 10.24960/jli.v3i1.623.11-20

Abstract

Ice cream is a frozen dairy solid product with the addition of other materials that are made through the process of freezing and agitation. The principle of its making to form a cavity of air in the mixture of ice cream ingredients to produce a volume that made the development of the ice cream into a lighter, less dense and has a soft texture. The purposed of the research to see influence the use of a variety of milk to the physical properties, chemical properties and organoleptic to the bengkoang ice cream produced. Research carried out by treatment type of milk used that were fullcream milk, sweetened condensed milk, soy milk powder, green bean powder, and soy milk liquid. The ice cream produced was tested the physics of overrun and melting speed, chemical analysis of protein content, fat and organoleptic of taste and texture. Research results showed that the best treatment was the use of soy milk powder where the value of overrun 37.2%, melting speed 10.1 minutes, protein content 6.9%, fat 13.08%, and organoleptic of  taste and texture was preferred.ABSTRAKEs krim merupakan produk olahan susu beku berbentuk padat dengan penambahan  bahan lain yang dibuat melalui proses pembekuan dan agitasi.  Prinsip pembuatan es krim adalah membentuk suatu rongga udara pada campuran bahan-bahan es krim sehingga dihasilkan pengembangan volume yang membuat es krim menjadi lebih ringan, tidak terlalu padat dan mempunyai tekstur yang lembut. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk melihat pengaruh dari penggunaan beberapa jenis susu terhadap sifat fisik, kimia dan organoleptik es krim bengkuang yang dihasilkan.  Penelitian dilakukan dengan perlakuan  penggunaan susu fullcream, susu kental manis, susu kedelai bubuk, kacang hijau bubuk, dan susu kedelai cair.  Es krim yang dihasilkan dilakukan uji fisika overrun dan kecepatan meleleh, analisis kimia kadar protein, lemak dan uji organoleptik rasa dan tekstur. Hasil penelitan menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan susu kedelai bubuk menghasilkan nilai overrun dan kecepatan meleleh yang baik yaitu 37,2% dan 10,1 menit, kandungan protein dan lemak yang cukup tinggi yaitu 6,9% dan 13,08%, serta organoleptik rasa dan tekstur yang disukai.
Pengaruh Proses Pengolahan Terhadap Sifat Fisika dan Kimia Bubuk Kedelai Failisnur, Failisnur; Firdausni, Firdausni; Silfia, Silfia
Jurnal Litbang Industri Vol 5, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Institution for Industrial Research and Standardization of Industry - Padang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (81.251 KB) | DOI: 10.24960/jli.v5i1.664.37-43

Abstract

Soybean powder is a functional product which contains high protein and isoflavones. Protein and isoflavones can prevent chronic and degenerative diseases. The processing can affect the composition especially protein and isoflavones mainly the physical properties of soybean powder. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the effect of processing on the physical and chemical properties in order to produce soybean powder to develop the applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. The soybean was processed through a few treatments, roasting, soaking, steaming, boiling, and without treatments as a comparator. The results showed that the processing of immersion, roasting, steaming, and boiling decreased bulk density until 0.06, wettability 8 seconds, protein content 10.87%, and crude fiber 4.85%. However, the isoflavone content of soybean powder increased to 0.077% and water content 2.18% compared to soybean powder without processing.ABSTRAKBubuk kedelai merupakan produk fungsional mengandung protein yang tinggi dan  isoflavon. Protein dan isoflavon dapat mencegah penyakit kronis dan degeneratif. Proses pengolahan dapat mempengaruhi komposisi terutama protein dan isoflavon serta sifat fisika dari bubuk kedelai. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh proses pengolahan terhadap sifat fisika dan kimia kedelai bubuk guna mengembangkan aplikasi dalam industri makanan dan farmasi. Kedelai diolah dengan beberapa proses, yaitu: penyangraian, perendaman, pengukusan dan perebusan, serta tanpa pengolahan sebagai pembanding.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa proses  perendaman, penyangraian, pengukusan dan perebusan menurunkan densitas kamba hingga 0,06, wettability 8 detik, kadar protein 10,87% dan serat kasar 4,85%. Akan tetapi, kandungan isoflavon bubuk kedelai naik hingga 0,077% dan kadar air 2,18% dibandingkan dengan bubuk tanpa pengolahan.
Pengaruh Perbedaan Persentase Penambahan Gliserin dan Konsentrasi Larutan Ekstrak Gambir Terhadap Beberapa Sifat Fisika dan Kadar Tanin Tinta Stempel Silfia, Silfia; Muchtar, Hendri; Failisnur, Failisnur
Jurnal Litbang Industri Vol 5, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Institution for Industrial Research and Standardization of Industry - Padang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (68.126 KB) | DOI: 10.24960/jli.v5i1.667.53-59

Abstract

Gambier extract derived from leaves of Uncaria Gambier Roxb contain catechin and tannin which belonged to polyphenolic compounds. Gambier extract when added with ferosulfat salt will form a complex compound that can give a green color to black and can be used as a dye in the stamp ink. This study aims was to see how far the effect of adding glycerin and concentration of the Gambier extract solution against some physical properties and levels of tannin stamp ink. The ink manufacturing was done through a washing process of gambier, filtering, cube black manufacture, dissolution and formulation. The making of the stamp ink was done by a non factorial completely randomized design with a variation of the concentration of glycerin Ao = Without the addition of glycerin, A1 = 15% = 20% A2, A3 and A4 = 25% = 30% and the concentration of the extract gambier B1 = 20%, B2 = 25% = 30% B3, B4 and B5 = 35% = 45%. Results of the research showed that the addition of glycerin could increase some physical properties, especially against the homogenity of the ink. The best treatment was obtained on the use of gambier extracts 35% (B3) with pH 3.27, total solids 41.33%, tannin content 2.5788%, visual observation of color strength was clear and flat, viscosity was medium, not expand and not sticky, and homogeneous.ABSTRAKGambir berasal dari ekstrak daun tanaman Uncaria Gambier Roxb, mengandung senyawa katechin dan tanin yang termasuk golongan senyawa polifenol. Ekstrak gambir jika ditambahkan dengan garam ferosulfat akan membentuk senyawa komplek yang dapat memberikan warna hijau sampai hitam dan dapat digunakan sebagai pewarna pada tinta stempel. Penelitian ini bertujuan untukmelihat sejauh mana pengaruh penambahan gliserin dan konsentrasi larutan ekstrak gambir terhadap beberapa sifat fisika dan kadar tanin tinta stempel. Pembuatan tinta dilakukan melalui proses pencucian gambir, penyaringan, pembuatan cube black, pelarutan dan formulasi. Pembuatan tinta stempel dilakukan dengan rancangan acak lengkap non faktorial dengan variasi konsentrasi gliserin (0%, 15%, 20%, 25%, dan 30%) dan konsentrasi ekstrak gambir (25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, dan 45%). Hasil penelitan menunjukkan bahwa penambahan gliserin dapat meningkatkan beberapa sifat fisika terutama terhadap homogenitas tinta. Perlakuan terbaik diperoleh pada penggunaan ekstrak gambir 35% dengan pH 3,27, padatan total 41,33%, kadar tanin 2,58%, pengamatan visual terhadap kekuatan pewarnan jelas dan rata, kekentalan sedang, tidak mengembang dan tidak lengket serta homogen.
Efek Perlakuan Pendahuluan Terhadap Kandungan Nutrisi Makro Rendang Belut Failisnur, Failisnur; Silfia, Silfia
Jurnal Litbang Industri Vol 2, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Institution for Industrial Research and Standardization of Industry - Padang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (841.357 KB) | DOI: 10.24960/jli.v2i1.596.19-26

Abstract

Eel (Monopterus albus Zuieuw) is a much prefered food because the taste is good, and the potential spread evenly, high nutrient content and medicinal.  Product of eel rendang can be an alternative to increase consumer acceptance and provide meaningful choices for food lovers of the eel. Research conducted with a variety of pre-treatment of raw materials in the form of fresh eel, baked and fried eel before the cooking of rendang, and then analyzed the nutritional content that includes water content, proteins, fats, organoleptic and resistance storage consisted of moisture content, peroxide number and organoleptic visually. Research results showed that the best treatment was the use of baked eel first before cooking process as the preferred flavor, texture, and aroma with the score were 4,7 ; 4,8 and  4,3  respectively. The chemical testing showed low content of fat and water that was 9.93% and 24.42% respectively and  high protein content that was 32,02%. The product still resistant until 3 months of storage with water content 16,2% and peroxide number 9,2 as well as flavor, aroma and texture were still good.ABSTRAKBelut (Monopterus albus Zuieuw) merupakan bahan pangan hewani yang banyak digemari karena rasanya cukup enak, potensi dan penyebaran merata, kandungan gizi tinggi dan juga berkhasiat obat. Pengolahan belut menjadi rendang belut dapat menjadi alternatif dalam meningkatkan penerimaan konsumen dan memberikan pilihan berarti bagi penikmat makanan dari belut. Penelitian dilakukan dengan berbagai perlakuan pendahuluan terhadap bahan baku belut berupa belut segar, belut yang dibakar dan belut yang digoreng sebelum dilakukan proses perendangan, kemudian dianalisis kandungan nutrisinya yang meliputi kadar air, protein, lemak dan organoleptik serta ketahanan simpannya meliputi kadar air, bilangan peroksida dan organoleptik secara visual. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan terbaik  adalah penggunaan belut yang dibakar terlebih dahulu sebelum dilakukan proses perendangan dimana dari hasil uji organoleptik lebih disukai panelis dengan nilai skala hedonik 4,7; 4,8 dan 4,3 berturut-turut untuk rasa, tekstur, dan aroma. Dari hasil uji kimia didapatkan kadar air dan lemak yang rendah yaitu 9,93% dan 24,42%, kadar protein yang lebih tinggi yaitu 32,02%. Produk masih tahan sampai 3 bulan penyimpanan dengan kadar air setelah 3 bulan 16,2% dan bilangan peroksida 9,2 serta rasa, aroma dan tekstur masih baik.
Sifat Tahan Luntur dan Intensitas Warna Kain Sutera Dengan Pewarna Alam Gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb) Pada Kondisi Pencelupan dan Jenis Fiksator Yang Berbeda Failisnur, Failisnur; Sofyan, Sofyan
Jurnal Litbang Industri Vol 4, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Institution for Industrial Research and Standardization of Industry - Padang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (822.495 KB) | DOI: 10.24960/jli.v4i1.634.1-8

Abstract

Gambier (Uncaria gambir Roxb) contains tannin compounds that can be used as a dye for textile products. Tannins are complex compounds in plant tissues when reacted with certain metal ions will form a specific colour. Result of strength and colour direction depend on dyeing condition and kind of fixator in fixation process. Purpose of the research to decide a right of dyeing condition and kind of fixator which were desired in order to produce colour variation, colour strength value, and a good colour fastness. The dyeing was conducted in hot condition (60-70ºC) in room temperature (27-30ºC) with fixator Al2(SO4)3, CaO,, and FeSO4. Result of the research was found a colour direction that was variative enough on silk fabrics started from yellow, golden yellow, brownish red, brown, moss green until blackish green. The optimum condition was obtained in hot dyeing (60-70ºC), kind of fixator CaO that produced intensity and higher darkness colour (K/S value) as high as 19.174 and colour fastness of washing 40oC, bright light and heat pressure was good and very good (4-5).ABSTRAK Gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb) mengandung senyawa tanin yang dapat digunakan sebagai pewarna pada produk tekstil. Tanin merupakan senyawa komplek pada jaringan tumbuhan yang bila direaksikan dengan ion-ion logam tertentu akan membentuk warna yang spesifik. Intensitas dan arah warna kain yang dihasilkan sangat ditentukan oleh kondisi saat pencelupan dan jenis fiksator pada proses fiksasi. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk menentukan kondisi pencelupan yang tepat dan pemilihan jenis fiksator yang diinginkan dalam menghasilkan variasi warna, nilai intensitas dan ketahanan luntur warna yang baik. Pencelupan dilakukan dalam suasana panas (60-70ºC) dan pada suhu kamar (27-30ºC), dengan pembangkit warna (fiksator) Al2(SO4)3 (tawas), CaO(kapur tohor) dan FeSO4 (tunjung).  Hasil penelitian didapatkan arah warna yang cukup variatif pada kain sutera mulai dari kuning, kuning keemasan, merah kecoklatan, coklat, hijau lumut sampai hijau kehitaman.  Kondisi optimum diperoleh pada pencelupan panas (60-70ºC), jenis fiksator CaO yang menghasilkan intensitas dan ketuaan warna lebih tinggi (nilai K/S) sebesar 19,174 dan ketahanan luntur warna terhadap pencucian 40ºC, sinar terang hari dan penekanan panas bernilai baik sampai sangat baik (4-5).
Pengaruh Metoda Pemberian Bumbu dan Jenis Ikan terhadap Mutu dan Nilai Sensorik pada Ikan Air Tawar Asap Failisnur, Failisnur
Jurnal Litbang Industri Vol 2, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Institution for Industrial Research and Standardization of Industry - Padang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (130.372 KB) | DOI: 10.24960/jli.v2i2.604.87-96

Abstract

Fish is a high quality food, especially because it contains a lot of protein, fat, vitamins and minerals that are very good and prospective for food source. However, it is highly perishable food in storage so that required treatment such process into smoked fish. Quality of smoked fish is strongly affected by raw materials, smoking material type, the preparation process, temperature and length of smoking and its packaging. So it was produced a smoked fish with a distinctive flavor and aroma. This study was conducted with the spices treatment method using ground spices and soaking in the extracts spices, and the treatment used a variety of freshwater fish those were lele (Clarias gariepinus), mujair (Oreochromis mossambicus), and nila (Oreochromis niloticus). Smoked fish products were then analyzed for total phenols, water content, protein, fat. Organoleptic test of taste, texture and aroma was also done. Test results showed that the best treatment was lele fish soaked in spices of extracts solution. The chemical tests were obtained total phenol; 45.05 ppm, water content; 11.06%, protein;  66.65% and fat; 5.87% respectively. Furthermore the organoleptic test were preferred with hedonic scale 4.57; 4.50; 4.02 and 4.10 respectively for the taste, texture, color and aroma.
Potensi Pigmen Cassiavera pada Minuman Jahe Instan Sebagai Minuman Fungsional Firdausni, Firdausni; Failisnur, Failisnur; Diza, Yulia Helmi
Jurnal Litbang Industri Vol 1, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : Institution for Industrial Research and Standardization of Industry - Padang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (107.758 KB) | DOI: 10.24960/jli.v1i1.590.15-21

Abstract

Cassiavera (Cinnamomum burmannii) contains reddish brown to dark brown pigment that can be used as additives in instant ginger drink. The pigment was generated by maceration method in water at initial temperature 25-27ºC and 85-100ºC with maceration time of 24, 48 and 72 hours. Cassiavera filtrate with optimal color intensity was then added to the ginger powder in the ratio w/v (10:1), (10:2) and (10:3). The potency of cassiavera pigment in the instant ginger was seen from the color intensity by using a spectrophotometer, test of total phenols and panelist preference level of aroma, color, and flavor generated. Results of the research showed that the treatment time of maceration significantly affected the color intensity of the product. The best treatment of cassiavera pigment generating was found on maceration with water at temperature 85-100ºC for 48 hours and comparison of ginger powder and cassiavera filtrate 10:3 (w/v) with the highest color intensity 0, 3813 and the color preferred by the panelists. Total phenol was 26.51 ppm, with average values of organoleptic test of taste, color, and aroma were 3.20, 3.40, and 3.40 respectively. The Color intensity was measured by using a spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 556 nm indicated the intensity of color between 0.0345 - 0.3813, and total phenols between 20.47 and 26.51 ppm.ABSTRAKCassiavera (Cinnamomum burmannii) mengandung pigmen berwarna coklat kemerahan sampai coklat tua yang digunakan sebagai bahan tambahan pada minuman jahe instan. Pengambilan pigmen dengan maserasi air pada suhu awal 25-27ºC dan 85-100ºC dengan lama maserasi 24, 48 dan 72 jam. Filtrat cassiavera dengan intensitas warna optimal yang didapatkan selanjutnya ditambahkan pada jahe bubuk dengan perbandingan antara jahe bubuk dan filtrat cassiavera b/v (10:1), (10:2) dan (10:3). Potensi pigmen cassiavera pada jahe instan dilihat dari intensitas warna dengan menggunakan spektrofotometer, uji total fenol dan tingkat kesukaan fanelis terhadap aroma, warna, dan rasa yang dihasilkan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan lamanya maserasi berpengaruh nyata terhadap intensitas warna produk. Pada pengambilan pigmen cassiavera didapatkan perlakuan terbaik pada  maserasi dengan air pada suhu 85-100ºC selama 48 jam dan perbandingan jahe bubuk dengan filtrat cassiavera dalam pembuatan jahe cassiavera instan adalah 10:3 (b/v) dengan intensitas warna tertinggi 0,3813, memiliki total fenol 26,51 ppm, aroma, warna, dan rasa yang disukai oleh panelis  dengan nilai rata rata  3,40; 3,47, dan  3,20. Pengujian intensitas warna menggunakan spektrofotometer yang diukur pada panjang gelombang 556 nm menunjukkan intensitas warna antara 0.0345-0.3813, dan total fenol antara 20,47-26,51 ppm.
Pemanfaatan Limbah Cair Pengempaan Gambir untuk Pewarnaan Kain Batik Failisnur, Failisnur; Sofyan, Sofyan; Hermianti, Wilsa
Jurnal Litbang Industri Vol 7, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Institution for Industrial Research and Standardization of Industry - Padang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (416.233 KB) | DOI: 10.24960/jli.v7i1.2695.19-28

Abstract

Gambier is a potential plant in West Sumatra with production about 17,160 tonnes in 2014. It will be released about 4,290,000 L of unutilized wastewater from that production which is dumped around production area. The wastewater odor is acidic with pH of 3-4 and contaminating the surrounding environment. Tannin content of the wastewater is high enough so it is good to be used as a dye. The research objective was to utilize wastewater of gambir as a dye in some types of batik fabrics. Variations of treatment in this study were 4 types of fabrics: cotton, silk, viscose and dobby, and addition of mordant metal Al2(SO4)3, CaO, and FeSO4. The result showed that the color direction of the fabrics varied from light brown, brown to blackish brown. Viscose fabric provided the highest color strength, followed by dobby fabrics. Silk and cotton fabrics produced non significant color strength. The test results of color fastness to washing in 40°C, light, and rubbing were generally good to excellent value (4-5). Test result of tear strength when compared with fabric blank showed that dyeing with gambir not reduce the fabric tear strength.ABSTRAKGambir merupakan tanaman perkebunan yang cukup banyak di Sumatera Barat dengan produksi tahun 2014 sekitar 17.160 ton. Dari produksi tersebut akan menghasilkan limbah cair sekitar 4.290.000 L yang dibuang di sekitar area produksi dan belum dimanfaatkan. Limbah cair tersebut berbau asam dengan pH 3-4 dan berpotensi mencemari lingkungan sekitarnya. Kandungan tanin dari limbah cair ini cukup tinggi sehingga sangat baik untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai pewarna. Tujuan penelitian adalah memanfaatkan limbah cair gambir sebagai pewarna pada beberapa jenis kain batik. Penelitian ini memvariasikan perlakuan penggunaan 4 jenis kain yaitu kain katun, kain sutera, kain viskos, dan kain dobi, dengan penambahan logam mordan Al2(SO4)3, CaO, dan FeSO4. Hasil penelitian didapatkan arah warna kain bervariasi dari coklat muda, coklat sampai coklat kehitaman. Jenis kain viskos memberikan intensitas warna paling tinggi, diikuti dengan kain dobi. Kain sutera dan kain katun memberikan intensitas yang tidak berbeda nyata.  Hasil uji ketahanan luntur warna terhadap pencucian 40oC,  sinar matahari, dan gosokan pada umumnya bernilai baik sampai baik sekali (nilai 4-5). Hasil pengujian ketahanan sobek kain bila dibandingkan dengan kain blanko memperlihatkan bahwa pencelupan dengan gambir tidak menurunkan kekuatan sobek kain.