Agoes, Ridad
Althea Medical Journal

Published : 7 Documents
Articles

Found 7 Documents
Search

Vegetables contamination by Parasitic Helminth Eggs in Malaysia and Indonesia Loganathan, Reashnaa; Agoes, Ridad; Arya, Insi Farisa Desy
Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (138.97 KB)

Abstract

Background: Soil-transmitted helminth infection is known to be a serious issue in South East Asia when the farmers use night soil and contaminated water for their plants. In Indonesia, some of the farmers still use human feces and sometimes also mixed it with urine from the latrines as fertilizers. On the contrary, in Malaysia these contamination occured at a lower rate due to strict rules by the authorities.The objective of this study was to identify the helminth eggs in vegetables from traditional markets in Indonesia and Malaysia.Methods: Three traditional markets were selected by non-random sampling, namely Pasar Ampang in Malaysia and 2 traditional markets in Indonesia, i.e Pasar Tanjungsari and Jatinangor. Cabbages and lettuce were bought from 15 different vegetable sellers per market. The samples were examined at the laboratory of the Medical Faculty, Universitas Padjadjaran. The method to obtain the specimen was in accordance with Khairul Anwar and Ramachandran. This study was carried out from July to October 2014. The collected data was analyzed by percentage and frequency tabulation.Result: Most of the samples are contaminated by helminth eggs. In Pasar Ampang, 13.3% in cabbage and 6.7% in lettuce. In Pasar Tanjung Sari, 46.7% in cabbage and 40% in lettuce. Moreover, in Pasar Jatinangor, 33.3% in cabbage and 26.7% in lettuce. Most of the helmint eggs were Ascaris lumbricoides.Conclusions: The helminthes eggs contamination is higher in Indonesian traditional markets compared to in Malaysia. [AMJ.2016;3(2):190–4]DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n2.796
Identification of Pathogen Protozoans (Cryptosporidium spp and Giardia lamblia) from Canteen’s Water-sources at Jatinangor, West Java, Indonesia Murugesan, Komathi Nair; Agoes, Ridad; Sari, Sri Yusnita Irda
Althea Medical Journal Vol 4, No 3 (2017)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (363.427 KB)

Abstract

Background: The prevalence of intestinal protozoan infection caused by Cryptosporidium spp and Giardia lamblia has been rapidly increasing in developing countries. Contamination of water-sources by intestinal protozoans can spread infection to humans when it is consumed without any specific treatment. Jatinangor is an educational area where many universities are located and many students live in this area. This study aimed to identify the presence of intestinal protozoa (Cryptosporidium spp and Giardia lamblia) in water-sources used by canteens at Jatinangor area to detect the magnitude of protozoans intestinal infections.Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out from August to September 2014. Raw water samples from reservoir tanks, water containers and tapwater were taken from all canteens located along the main road of Jatinangor. Samples were centrifuged and divided into two portions; two drops from the first test tube was stained with Lugol solution and observed by 2 observers under a light microscope for Giardia lamblia, and sediments from the second test tube was stained using acid fast staining then observed for Cryptosporidium spp under the light microscope. Results: Out of 50 samples, 26 were positive for parasites, of which 22 (44%) were contaminated by Cryptosporidium spp and 4 (8%) were contaminated by Giardia lamblia.Conclusions: Half of the raw water-sources in Jatinangor are contaminated by Cryptosporidium spp and Giardia lamblia. Proper water treatment should be implemented by the owners of the canteens before it is consumed as drinking water. 
Identification of Pathogen Protozoans (Cryptosporidium spp and Giardia lamblia) from Canteen’s Water-sources at Jatinangor, West Java, Indonesia Murugesan, Komathi Nair; Agoes, Ridad; Sari, Sri Yusnita Irda
Althea Medical Journal Vol 4, No 3 (2017)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (363.427 KB)

Abstract

Background: The prevalence of intestinal protozoan infection caused by Cryptosporidium spp and Giardia lamblia has been rapidly increasing in developing countries. Contamination of water-sources by intestinal protozoans can spread infection to humans when it is consumed without any specific treatment. Jatinangor is an educational area where many universities are located and many students live in this area. This study aimed to identify the presence of intestinal protozoa (Cryptosporidium spp and Giardia lamblia) in water-sources used by canteens at Jatinangor area to detect the magnitude of protozoans intestinal infections.Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out from August to September 2014. Raw water samples from reservoir tanks, water containers and tapwater were taken from all canteens located along the main road of Jatinangor. Samples were centrifuged and divided into two portions; two drops from the first test tube was stained with Lugol solution and observed by 2 observers under a light microscope for Giardia lamblia, and sediments from the second test tube was stained using acid fast staining then observed for Cryptosporidium spp under the light microscope. Results: Out of 50 samples, 26 were positive for parasites, of which 22 (44%) were contaminated by Cryptosporidium spp and 4 (8%) were contaminated by Giardia lamblia.Conclusions: Half of the raw water-sources in Jatinangor are contaminated by Cryptosporidium spp and Giardia lamblia. Proper water treatment should be implemented by the owners of the canteens before it is consumed as drinking water. 
Community Willingness to Participate in A Mosquito Breeding Site Eradication Program: A Study in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia Faridah, Lia; Nuriyah, Eva; Ekawardhani, Savira; Fauzah, Nisa; Sukandar, Hadyana; Agoes, Ridad
Jurnal Endurance Vol 4, No 1 (2019): Jurnal Endurance : Kajian Ilmiah Problema Kesehatan
Publisher : Lembaga Layanan Pendidikan Tinggi (LLDIKTI) Wilayah X

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (383.584 KB) | DOI: 10.22216/jen.v4i1.3917

Abstract

Despite many efforts to prevent dengue, vector control still promising specially through integrated vector management. This effort requires community participation. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the factors that are associated with the willingness of communities in high prevalence areas to participate in mosquito breeding eradication program. This study explored factors associated with the willingness of community members in Bandung to participate in the mosquito breeding eradication program initiated by Indonesian's government, called One House One Larvae Monitor. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried randomly at sub-district level in Bandung from January-November 2018. Interviews using a set of validated questionnaires were conducted to collect data on demography, socioeconomic status, knowledge, attitude and practice regarding implementation of the program. Among 210 participants, the proportion of low-to-middle knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) index is more prevalent. Yet, for attaining high-score on KAP, there are three main predictors observed; by being female, at least had attend undergraduate level of education, and being an entrepreneur. A good score in the attitude section does not necessarily translate to good score in the practice section. The results reflect the need for better tools for changing the behavior of society, and it should not be limited to enhancement of society’s knowledge.
Uji Validasi Kadar Interleukin-4 (IL-4) Sebagai Alternatif Uji Diagnosis Infeksi Kecacingan Hermawati, Ike; Herman, Herry; Agoes, Ridad
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 48, No 4 (2016)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (177.435 KB) | DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v48n4.912

Abstract

Infeksi kecacingan yang disebabkan oleh soil transmitted helminth (STH) dapat mengakibatkan gangguan gizi dan menurunkan kualitas sumber daya manusia. Imunitas terhadap infeksi cacing mengaktifkan respons Th2 yang ditandai oleh peningkatan kadar interleukin-4. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui kadar IL-4 pada anak kecacingan dan yang tidak kecacingan serta menganalisis validitas pemeriksaan IL-4 sebagai indikator infeksi kecacingan. Sebanyak 74 sampel plasma EDTA diambil dari anak-anak kelas 1–3 SD di Kecamatan Jatinangor kemudian dilakukan pemeriksaan kadar IL-4 dengan metode ELISA. Hasil penelitian didapatkan kadar IL-4 pada subjek yang terinfeksi kecacingan lebih tinggi secara bermakna dibanding dengan subjek yang tidak terinfeksi (3,001 pg/mL berbanding 1,406 pg/mL ; p<0,001). Pada cut-off point 1,585 pg/mL, kadar IL-4 memiliki sensitivitas 66,7%, spesifisitas 65,9%, dan akurasi 66,2%. validitas instrumen pemeriksaan telur cacing berdasarkan pemeriksaan kadar Interleukin-4 termasuk kategori cukup dengan koefisien Κ (Kappa) sebesar 0,635. Kadar IL-4 pada subjek yang terinfeksi kecacingan meningkat 1,6 kali lebih tinggi dibanding dengan subjek yang tidak terinfeksi kecacingan. Simpulan, IL-4 merupakan pemeriksaan yang valid digunakan sebagai diagnostik infeksi kecacingan. [MKB. 2016;48(4):211–5]Kata kunci: Infeksi kecacingan, interleukin-4, uji validasiInterleukin-4 (IL-4) Level Validation Testing as A Helminthiasis Infection Diagnostic Testing AlternativeHelminth infection caused by soil transmitted helminths (STH) could be one of the reasons for malnutrition, impaired growth, and intelligence which will reduce the quality of human resources. Helminth infections are potent inducers of Th2 type responses as well as increased secretion of interleukin-4. The purpose of this study was to determine the interleukin-4 concentration in subjects with helminth infection and without helminth infection and to assess the validity of the plasma Interleukin-4 concentration assessment in helminth infection patients. This study examined 74 plasma samples from 1st-3rd grade elementary students in Jatinangor district using ELISA method. The results indicated that IL-4 concentration of helminth infection subjects was significantly higher compared to that of non-infected subjects (3.001 pg/mL vs 1.406 pg/mL, p<0.001). A cut-off point of 1.585 pg/mL for IL-4 concentration means 66.7% sensitivity, 65.9% specificity, and 66.2% accuracy . The validity of the helminth ova assessment instrument based on Interleukin-4 level testing is fair with a K (Kappa) coefficient of 0.635. The IL-4 level in helminth infection patient increased 1.6 times compared to non-infected subjects. In conclusion, IL-4 is a valid marker for diagnosing helminthiasis. [MKB. 2016;48(4):211–5]Key words: Helminth infection, Interleukin-4, validity test
The Effectiveness of Ultraviolet, Ozonization and Reverse Osmosis as Disinfection Method in Drinking Water Refill Stations Sari, Sri Yusnita Irda; Iqbal, Muhamad; Cahyadi, Adi Imam; Respati, Titik; Raksanagara, Ardini Saptaningsih; Agoes, Ridad
Global Medical & Health Communication (GMHC) Vol 6, No 3 (2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Islam Bandung

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.29313/gmhc.v6i3.3427

Abstract

The number of drinking water refill stations (DWRS) was increased rapidly because high of mid-low urban community need to get affordable drinking water. Water treatment methods in DWRS are varying even many DWRS uses more than one disinfection method to increase the effectiveness. The quality of many DWRS productions was reported unstandardized, however not yet the study to evaluate the effects of the water treatment method used. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of various water treatment methods in DWRS to identify which method is the most effective. The study used a cross-sectional approach conducted in 3 groups of water treatment methods, namely ultraviolet, ultraviolet + ozonization, and a combination of ultraviolet + ozonization + reverse osmosis with each group consisted of 40 DWRS. The survey was conducted in July–September 2017 in Bandung municipality by structured interview. Examination of microbiological parameters of raw and processed drinking water samples using membrane filter method. Water samples from raw water and drinking water from treatment process were taken from each DWRS to be tested for the microbiological parameter by using the membrane filter method. Comparison of the effectiveness was analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test and assessment of log removal reduction. The result showed that there was significantly different in the effectiveness of coliform removal between the three groups. The improvement for controlling and training particularly for the procedure and maintenance of water treatment equipment to the owners/workers in DWRS is urgently needed as the concern of related authority. In conclusion, the water treatment method using reverse osmosis and ultraviolet is the most effective disinfection method compared to the ozonization method. The usage of more that one method of water treatment at the same time relate to the lower percentage of the effectiveness compares to the usage of only one method. EFEKTIVITAS ULTRAVIOLET, OZONISASI, DAN REVERSE OSMOSIS SEBAGAI METODE DESINFEKSI DEPOT AIR MINUM ISI ULANGPerkembangan depot air minum isi ulang (DAM) melaju dengan pesat karena masyarakat menengah ke bawah perkotaan membutuhkan air minum dengan harga yang terjangkau. Metode pengolahan air baku menjadi air minum di DAM bervariasi bahkan tidak jarang digunakan lebih dari satu metode desinfeksi untuk meningkatkan efektivitasnya. Kualitas produksi DAM banyak yang dilaporkan tidak sesuai dengan standar, namun belum terdapat penelitian yang mengevaluasi pengaruh metode pengolahan air yang digunakan. Penelitian ini bertujuan membandingkan efektivitas berbagai metode pengolahan air di DAM sehingga dapat diketahui metode apa yang paling efektif. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan cross-sectional yang dilakukan pada 3 kelompok metode pengolahan air, yaitu ultraviolet, ultraviolet + ozonisasi, dan kombinasi ultraviolet + ozonisasi + reverse osmosis dengan tiap-tiap kelompok terdiri atas 40 DAM. Survei dilakukan pada Juli–September 2017 di Kota Bandung dengan melakukan wawancara terstruktur. Sampel air baku dan air minum hasil olahan diambil dari setiap DAM untuk diperiksa parameter mikrobiologinya menggunakan metode filter membran. Perbandingan efektivitas dianalisis menggunakan Wilcoxon rank sum test dan penilaian log removal reduction. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan efektivitas yang signifikan pada ketiga kelompok terutama efektivitas terhadap coliform. Perlu upaya pengawasan dan pelatihan khususnya mengenai teknis pemakaian dan pemeliharaan alat pada pemilik/pekerja DAM yang harus menjadi perhatian pemerintah dan pihak terkait. Simpulan, metode pengolahan air menggunakan reverse osmosis dan ultraviolet merupakan metode desinfeksi yang paling efektif dibanding dengan metode ozonisasi. Pemakaian lebih dari satu metode desinfeksi pada saat yang bersamaan menyebabkan persentase efektivitas menjadi lebih rendah dibanding dengan yang menggunakan hanya satu jenis metode desinfeksi.
Vegetables contamination by Parasitic Helminth Eggs in Malaysia and Indonesia Loganathan, Reashnaa; Agoes, Ridad; Arya, Insi Farisa Desy
Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (138.97 KB)

Abstract

Background: Soil-transmitted helminth infection is known to be a serious issue in South East Asia when the farmers use night soil and contaminated water for their plants. In Indonesia, some of the farmers still use human feces and sometimes also mixed it with urine from the latrines as fertilizers. On the contrary, in Malaysia these contamination occured at a lower rate due to strict rules by the authorities.The objective of this study was to identify the helminth eggs in vegetables from traditional markets in Indonesia and Malaysia.Methods: Three traditional markets were selected by non-random sampling, namely Pasar Ampang in Malaysia and 2 traditional markets in Indonesia, i.e Pasar Tanjungsari and Jatinangor. Cabbages and lettuce were bought from 15 different vegetable sellers per market. The samples were examined at the laboratory of the Medical Faculty, Universitas Padjadjaran. The method to obtain the specimen was in accordance with Khairul Anwar and Ramachandran. This study was carried out from July to October 2014. The collected data was analyzed by percentage and frequency tabulation.Result: Most of the samples are contaminated by helminth eggs. In Pasar Ampang, 13.3% in cabbage and 6.7% in lettuce. In Pasar Tanjung Sari, 46.7% in cabbage and 40% in lettuce. Moreover, in Pasar Jatinangor, 33.3% in cabbage and 26.7% in lettuce. Most of the helmint eggs were Ascaris lumbricoides.Conclusions: The helminthes eggs contamination is higher in Indonesian traditional markets compared to in Malaysia. [AMJ.2016;3(2):190–4]DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n2.796