Muta’ali, Lutfhi
Fakultas Geografi, Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Dampak Konservasi Lahan terhadap Lingkungan Lahan Pertanian dan Strategi Adaptasi Petani di Kecamatan Mejayan , Madiun Raharjo Pepekai, Agus Eko; Muta’ali, Lutfhi; Hardoyo, Su Rito; Sudrajat, Sudrajat; Harini, Rika
Majalah Geografi Indonesia Vol 28, No 2 (2014): September 2014
Publisher : Fakultas Geografi, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (4139.202 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/mgi.13070

Abstract

ABSTRAK Penetapan Kecamatan Mejayan sebagai ibu kota Kabupaten Madiun mendorong perkembangan wilayah Kecamatan Mejayan semakin cepat. Hal ini ditunjukan oleh meningkatnya kebutuhan lahan terbangun, sehingga mendorong terjadinya konversi lahan pertanian yang intensif. Berdasarkan hal tersebut maka tujuan yang hendak dicapai adalah :1) mengkaji dampak konversi lahan pertanian terhadap kondisi lingkungan lahan pertanian serta kondisi sosial ekonomi petani; 2) mengkaji bentuk strategi adaptasi yang dilakukan petani dalam menghadapi konversi lahan pertanian; 3) mengkaji pengaruh konversi lahan terhadap strategi adaptasi petani. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode survei dengan pengambilan sampel secara proporsional dari masing masing-masing status petani. Jumlah sampel sebanyak 96 responden terdiri dari 46 responden petani pemilik lahan, 31 responden petani penggarap, 19 responden buruh tani. Data yang digunakan terdiri dari data primer berupa kuisioner dan wawancara mendalam serta data sekunder dari instansi terkait. Metode analisis data menggunakan analisis deskriptif kuantitatif, dengan uji statistik chi kuadrat dan koefisien kontigensi. Hasil penelitian menunjukan konversi lahan pertanian di Kecamatan Mejayan berdampak negatif terhadap lingkungan lahan sawah, antara lain semakin berkurangnya lahan usahatani, kerusakan saluran irigasi, serta menurunnya kesuburan tanah akibat sampah rumahtangga. Terdapat perbedaan bentuk strategi adaptasi dari masing-masing rumahtangga petani diantaranya 56,5 % pemilik lahan menerapkan strategi akumulasi, 87,1 % petani pengarap menerapkan strategi konsolidasi dan 84,2% dari buruh tani menerapkan strategi survival. Faktor kondisi sosial ekonomi dengan nilai koefisien kontigensi 0,557 dan kepemilikan aset dengan nilai koefisien kontigensi 0,462 berpengaruh secara nyata terhadap bentuk strategi adaptasi petani, di antara kedua faktor tersebut status kondisi sosial ekonomi lebih kuat pengaruhnya terhadap bentuk strategi adaptasi petani. ABSTRACT The determination district of Mejayan to be capital city of Madiun regency encourages the fast development of district Mejayan. It is evidenced by the increasing needs of undeveloped land, so that encourage the intensive conversion of agricultural land. According to the situations, there are two goals to be reached: 1) to assess the impact of the conversion agricultural land to the environmental condition of agricultural land as well as socio-economic conditions of farmers; 2) to analyze what strategies adaptation of the farmers in facing the conversion of agricultural land; 3) to analyze the effect of conversion land to the farmer adaptation strategies. This study has a survey method by taking a proportional sampling of each farmer status individually. The total samples of 96 respondents are 46 respondent peasant land owners, tenant farmers 31 respondents, and 19 respondents laborer. The data use consists of primary data, in a questionnaires and in-depth interviews, then secondary data from relevant agencies. Methods of data analysis use a quantitative descriptive analysis, the chi squared test and contingency coefficient. The results show conversion of agricultural land in the district of Mejayan has a negative effect to the wetland environment, such as the less land farming, irrigation canals damage, and declining soil fertility due to household waste. There are different adaptation strategy of each farm household; 56.5% land owner applying accumulation strategies, 87.1% of tenant farmers implementing consolidation strategies and 84.2% of farm workers applying survival strategies. The condition of socio-economic with contingency coefficient value 0.557 and the ownership assets with a contingency coefficient value 0,462 influence really to the farmer adaptation strategies, in both factors status socio economic condition give a stronger influence to the form of farmer adaptation strategies.
Dampak Erupsi Merapi 2010 terhadap Pemanfaatan Lahan dan Aktivitas Perekonomian Masyarakat di Daerah Aliran Sungai Gendol Ardianingrum, Alvyntha Glaudia; Hadmoko, Danang Sri; Muta’ali, Lutfhi
Majalah Geografi Indonesia Vol 28, No 2 (2014): September 2014
Publisher : Fakultas Geografi, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (4205.212 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/mgi.13071

Abstract

ABSTRAK Perubahan pemanfaatan lahan pasca erupsi menyebabkan perubahan aktivitas perekonomian masyarakat, terutama untuk pemanfaatan lahan pertanian. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah :  (1). Mengidentifikasi dampak erupsi Merapi 2010 terhadap perubahan  pemanfaatan penggunaan lahan; (2). Menganalisis dampak perubahan pemanfaatan penggunaan lahan  terhadap aktivitas perekonomian (matapencaharian) masyarakat setempat; (3). Mengevaluasi dan merekomendasi upaya pemulihan ekonomi masyarakat pasca erupsi. Perubahan penggunaan lahan diperoleh dari overlay Peta Penggunaan Lahan Sebelum Erupsi dengan Peta Penggunaan Lahan Sesudah Erupsi. Analisa daya pulih rumahtangga diperoleh dari wawancara. Penyamplingan dilakukan di Dusun dengan purposive sampling, mempertimbangkan daerah tersebut termasuk di daerah terdampak total atau sebagian dan jumlah korban KK terbanyak dan sedikit. Pengambilan sampel di KRB 3 sebanyak 50 responden, KRB 2 sebanyak 30 responden, dan KRB 1 sebanyak 15 responden. Pengambilan responden di setiap Dusun menggunakan metode simple random sampling karena memperhatikan keragaman populasi yang relatif  homogen. Variabel yang dianalisa meliputi asset, akses, dan aktivitas masyarakat. Jenis penggunaan lahan mengalami penambahan pascaerupsi yaitu penambahan shelter dengan luas 140,66 Ha. Penggunaan lahan yang berkurang luasanya adalah semak belukar 312,994 Ha, kebun 292,702 Ha, rumput 30,514, dan tegalan 2155,698 Ha. Sedangkan penggunaan lahan yang bertambah luasannya adalah pemukiman 2222,664 Ha, sawah irigasi 428,584 Ha, dan shelter 140,66 Ha. Tingkat daya pulih rendah lebih besar yaitu 65%, dan daya pulih tinggi sebesar 35%. Dari ketiga variabel asset, akses, dan aktivitas, variabel asetlah yang memiliki kontribusi berpengaruh lebih besar. ABSTRACT Gendol Watershed be a research location because this watershed is the most severely affected. Cangkringan was chosen as the focus area on this research because this area as one of the District in Sleman that located on the slopes of Mount Merapi and the resources was affected. The changing of land use after the eruption can changes the economic activity of the communities, particularly for agricultural. The aims of this research are: (1). Identify the impact of Merapi eruption in 2010 for land use changes, (2). Analyzing the impact of land use changes for economic activities (livelihood) on local community; (3). Evaluation and recommendation public economic recovery efforts after the eruption. The land use changes acquired from the result overlay of Land Use before eruption and Land Use after eruption. Analysis of household resilience derived from the interviews. Sampling area on Kepuhharjo Village, Wukirsari , Glagahharjo and Argomulyo because this area was the greatest affected area. Sampling this area was done with purposive sampling, considering this area included in the severely affected or partial. Respondents of KRB 3 are 50 respondents, KRB 2 are 30 respondents, and KRB 1 are 15 respondents. Respondents in each Village was choosen by simple random sampling method because the observed variability is relatively homogeneous population. Variables analyzed include the assets, access, and community activities. Type of land use have increased post-eruption is shelters area 140,66 Ha. Land use was reduced by bush 312.994 ha , farm 292.702 ha, grass 30.514, and field 2155.698 Ha. Land use was improved by settlement 2222.664 ha, 428.584 ha of irrigated rice fields, and shelter 140.66 Ha. The changing of land use on post-eruption has a positive and negative impact on societies. The positive side for some communities provide new livelihoods, and  negative  impact the public land could not be processed, many homes are destroyed and majority communities lost their occupation. Resilience of communities are in low classified 65 %. From the three variables, asset variables that have the largest contribution affect on resilience.