Alimuna, Wa
Fakultas Geografi, Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Pengaruh Aktivitas Masyarakat terhadap Kerusakan Hutan Mangrove di Rarowatu Utara, Bombana Sulawesi Tenggara Alimuna, Wa; Sunarto, Sunarto; Murti, Sigit Heru
Majalah Geografi Indonesia Vol 23, No 2 (2009): September 2009
Publisher : Fakultas Geografi, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (206.305 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/mgi.13332

Abstract

ABSTRAK Hutan mangrove penting keberadaannya karena memberikan fungsi ekologi dan fungsi ekonomis bagi kehidupan masyarakat pesisir. Kerusakan hutan mangrove yang terjadi bersumber dari perilaku masyarakat untuk membuka lahan tambak, budidaya perikanan, dan penebangan liar karena semakin besarnya permintaan terhadap produksi kayu. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk : 1) mengkaji tingkat kerusakan hutan mangrove; 2) mengkaji aktivitas masyarakat yang mempengaruhi kerusakan hutan mangrove; 3) mengkaji faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi aktivitas masyarakat terhadap kerusakan hutan mangrove; 4) mengkaji peran serta masyarakat dalam mengelola hutan mangrove. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu metode survei melalui wawancara dengan menggunakan kuisioner. Analisis data menggunakan tabel silang, kemudian hasilnya dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa melalui perhitungan INP (Indeks Nilai Penting) diketahui bahwa jenis vegetasi mangrove yang mendominasi dan memiliki peranan penting pada hutan mangrove di Desa Watumentade adalah jenis Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (tingkat semai (92,21), tingkat sapihan (87,98), dan tingkat pohon (139,84)), dan di Desa Tunas Baru adalah jenis Rhizophora mucronata (tingkat semai (67,52), tingkat sapihan (73,52), dan tingkat pohon (80,88)). Aktivitas masyarakat yang mempengaruhi terjadinya kerusakan hutan mangrove meliputi kegiatan pertambakan, dan penebangan liar yang digunakan sebagai kayu bakar dan bahan bangunan. Faktor-faktor kondisi sosial ekonomi yang mempengaruhi ativitas masyarakat meliputi pendidikan formal, pengetahuan, dan pendapatan masyarakat. Faktor tingkat pendidikan, pengetahuan (fungsi dan manfaat hutan mangrove, kerusakan hutan mangrove, dan pencegahan kerusakan hutan mangrove), dan pendapatan berpengaruh terhadap aktivitas masyarakat dalam bentuk penggunaan lahan pertambakan yang menyebabkan kerusakan terhadap hutan mangerove. Peranserta masyarakat dalam pengelolaan hutan mangrove ditujukan oleh tindakan pencegahan kerusakan hutan mangrove, pada tingkat sedang (41,67%). ABSTRACT Presence of mangrove forest is very necessary because it serve ecological and economical functions to beach inhabitants’ life. Mangrove forest was damaged as result of inhabitants’ behavior to open embankment area, fishing, and illegal logging due to big demand for wood products. Objectives of research were (1) to study damage rate of mangrove forest; (2) to study inhabitants’ activity affecting damage of mangrove forest; (3) to study factors having effects of inhabitants’ activity on damage of mangrove forest; (4) to study roles of inhabitants in cultivating the mangrove forest. Methods used in this research were survey methods through interview using questionnaires. Data were analyzed by using cross-tables, the results were analyzed descriptively. Results of research indicated that, from calculation of INP (Important Value Index), it was known that types of mangrove vegetation dominating and having important role in mangrove forest in Watumentade Village were types of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (rate of seedling (92.21), rate of sapling (87.98), and rate of trees (139.84)); and in Tunas Baru Village were types of Rhizophora mucronata (rate of seedling (67.52); rate of sapling, (73.52); and rate of trees (80.88)). Inhabitants’ activity affecting damage of mangrove forest included activity of embankment, and illegal logging used as firewood and building materials. Factors of social-economic condition affecting inhabitants’ activity included formal education, knowledge, and inhabitants’ income. Factors of educational level, knowledge (function and benefit of mangrove forest) and income affected inhabitants’ activity in uses of embankment area were causing damage of mangrove forest. Inhabitants’ role in cultivating mangrove forest was aimed by mangrove forest damage prevention at medium rate (41.67%).