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Pengembangan Metode Ekstraksi Alginat dari Rumput Laut Sargassum sp. sebagai Bahan Pengental Husni, Amir; Subaryono, Subaryono; Pranoto, Yudi; Taswir, Taswir; Ustadi, Ustadi
Agritech Vol 32, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9649

Abstract

Indonesia has a lot of seaweed that have high potential as a producer of alginate, but the method of extraction has not been as expected. The objective of this study to develop a method of extraction of sodium alginate from seaweed Sargassum through the calcium alginate pathway. This study used different variations of the concentration of calcium chloride. The concentration of calcium chloride used varied 0.5, 0.75 and 1 M. As a control, the extraction of alginate performed through alginic acid pathway which was developed at the Center for Research Product Processing and Biotechnology of Marine and Fisheries, Jakarta. Quality parameters were observed including alginate yield, product appearance, viscosity and gel strength. The result showed that the yield of alginate produced successively for 32.67; 44.67 and 53.33 % and 31.67 % for controls. In appearance, the concentration of calcium chloride did not significantly affect the alginate product appearance, but darker when compared with the product extracted through the alginic acid. Viscosity alginate produced successively 149, 131 and 144 cP, while 304 cP for control. In general, the alginate gel strength extracted through of calcium alginate pathway is lower than the alginic acid pathway.ABSTRAKIndonesia  mempunyai  banyak  rumput  laut  yang  berpotensi  tinggi  sebagai penghasil  alginate,  namun  metode ekstraksinya belum sesuai yang diharapkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan metode ekstraksi natrium alginat dari rumput laut Sargassum melalui jalur kalsium alginat. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan berbagai variasi konsentrasi kalsium klorida yang digunakan pada pemisahan alginat dari filtrat hasil ekstraksinya. Konsentrasi kalsium klorida yang digunakan divariasi 0,5; 0,75 dan 1 M. Sebagai kontrol dilakukan ekstraksi alginat melalui jalur asam alginat yang dikembangkan di Balai Besar Riset Pengolahan Produk dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan, Jakarta. Parameter kualitas alginat yang diamati meliputi rendemen alginat, kenampakan produk, viskositas dan kekuatan gel yang dihasilkan. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa rendemen alginat yang dihasilkan berturut-turut sebesar 32,67; 44,67 dan 53,33 % dan untuk kontrol 31,67 %. Secara kenampakan, konsentrasi kalsium klorida tidak terlalu mempengaruhi kenampakan produk alginat yang dihasilkan, tetapi lebih gelap jika dibandingkan dengan produk hasil ekstraksi melalui jalur asam alginat. Viskositas alginat yang dihasilkan berturut-turut 149, 131 dan 144 cP, sementara untuk kontrol 304 cP. Secara umum kekuatan gel alginat yang dihasilkan dari jalur kalsium alginat lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan yang diekstrak melalui jalur asam alginat.
PENAKSIRAN INFORMASI GEOSPASIAL, ASPEK DATUM GEODESI DALAM PENETAPAN DAN PENEGASAN BATAS DAERAH PADA ERA OTONOMI DAERAH DI INDONESIA Sumaryo, Sumaryo; Sutisna, Sobar; Subaryono, Subaryono; Djurdjani, Djurdjani
GEOMATIKA Vol 20, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Badan Informasi Geospasial in Partnership with MAPIN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24895/JIG.2014.20-1.38

Abstract

Penetapan batas daerah meliputi pemilihan garis batas serta pendefinisian letak titik dan garis batas di atas peta. Hasil penetapan dituangkan pada peta cakupan wilayah dan batas-batasnya yang dilampirkan dalam Undang-Undang tentang Pembentukan Daerah. Selanjutnya, peta lampiran undang-undang tersebut digunakan sebagai dasar dan pedoman untuk penegasan batas daerah di lapangan yang dilakukan dengan metode geodesi. Secara ilmu geodesi, penentuan posisi selalu merujuk kepada sistem koordinat dan datum geodesi yang digunakan. Jadi pendefinisian posisi garis batas, harus memiliki kejelasan datum geodetiknya. Penelitian eksploratif telah dilakukan untuk mengetahui penggunaan informasi geospasial khususnya datum geodetik dan sistem koordinat dalam penetapan dan penegasan batas daerah di Indonesia. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada periode tahun 1999 sampai dengan tahun 2007 yang mengacu kepada regulasi PP No. 129 tahun 2000, peta lampiran Undang-Undang pembentukan daerah otonom seluruhnya tidak menggunakan informasi geospasial yang benar menurut kaidah-kaidah Geodesi. Akibatnya 115 peta lampiran Undang-Undang pembentukan daerah pada periode 1999 sampai dengan 2007 tidak memiliki kejelasan datum dan sistem koordinat geodesi, sehingga penegasan batas daerah tidak dapat dilakukan dengan mudah. Permendagri No.1 tahun 2006 tentang pedoman penegasan batas daerah seharusnya tidak diawali dengan penelitian dokumen karena dapat ditafsirkan terjadi penetapan ulang atau re-delimitasi batas wilayah. Pada periode setelah tahun 2007 setelah PP No. 129 tahun 2000 diganti dengan PP No. 78 tahun 2007 ditegaskan bahwa peta Rupa Bumi Indonesia harus digunakan sebagai dasar pembuatan peta lampiran undang-undang pembentukan daerah. Digunakannya peta Rupa Bumi Indonesia sebagai dasar pembuatan peta lampiran Undang-Undang, maka datum geodetik dan sistem koordinat peta lampiran menjadi jelas.Kata kunci: Informasi geospasial, datum geodetik, penetapan dan penegasan batas daerah, Indonesia.ABSTRACT     Boundary demarcation is one of the main activites that have to be carried out after the establishment of a new autonomous government founded pursuant to Article 5 of the Law concerning Regional Establishment. Regional boundary demarcation activities include the definition of coordinates of regional boundary points that can be conducted through cartometric method or terrestrial surveys. According to boundary making theory, boundary demarcation is part of a boundary making process, in which each step requires map as part of the infrastructure. According to the geodesy concept, demarcation activities requires a clear geodetic datum definition, so that maps can contribute as a source of disputes solution. This research has been carried out in line of regional boundary fixing in Indonesia. The results show that in the period of 1999 to 2007, which use Government Regulation PP Nr. 129/2000, there are 115 attachment maps to the Acts of the establishment of new local government are not defined geodetic datum, and the coordinates of the maps are also not defined using properly geospatial information supplied by competence map authority in Indonesia. More over the Ministry of Home Affairs Regulation (Permendagri) Nr. 1/2006 concerning the Guidelines for administrative boundary demarcations may be interpreted as making administrative boundary re-delimitation. In 2007, after the revision of PP Nr. 129/2000 by the PP Nr.78/2007, there is a clear statement that the topographic maps produced by Bakosurtanal be used as basic maps in making attachment maps of the Acts of new local government establishment. Under this new regulation PP 78/2007 implied then that all the attachment maps to the Act of new local government establishment have a specific geodetic datum clearly.Keywords: geospatial information, geodetic datum, boundary delimitation and demarcation, Indonesia
CARAGEENAN OLIGOSACCHARIDES : BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AND ITS DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN INDONESIA Subaryono, Subaryono
Squalen, Buletin Pascapanen dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 13, No 1 (2018): May 2018
Publisher : Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnol

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (488.17 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/squalen.v13i1.347

Abstract

Oligosaccharides from hydrocolloids especially carrageen now get a lot of attention because of the abundant raw material availability and various biological activities so it is potentially used in various fields both in the field of food and non food. Like oligosaccharides of terrestrial materials, carageenan oligosaccharides have many biological activities such as antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiinflamatory, anticancer, and other biological activity. Oligosaccharide carrageen can be produced either physically, chemically or enzymatically. This paper reviews articles on oligosaccharide carageenan, how it is produced, biological activity and development opportunities in Indonesia.
Imunomodulator Activity of Alginate Oligosaccharides from Alginate Sargassum crassifolium Subaryono, Subaryono; Perangiangin, Rosmawati; Suhartono, Maggy Thenawidjaja; Zakaria, Fransiska Rungkat
Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia Vol 20, No 1 (2017): Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia
Publisher : Department of Aquatic Product Technology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (690.154 KB) | DOI: 10.17844/jphpi.v20i1.16434

Abstract

Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS) are oligosaccharides produced from depolimerization of the alginate polymer, and is reported to have various biological activities. The study aims is to determine the effect of AOSproduction conditions and their effects on products and its activities as an immunomodulatory compound. Production of alginate oligosaccharides (AOS) enzymatically carried out with the help of alginate lyase enzyme produced from the bacterium Bacillus megaterium S245. Variation of incubation time is 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours at concentrations of alginate lyase enzyme addition of 25, 50, 75 and 100U. Treatment of enzyme concentration and the duration of incubation in the production of AOS produces a degree of polymerization (DP) 2-7. In vitro activity test showed AOS is have ability to induce cell proliferation of human lymphocytes.This type of cell lymphocytes proliferation induced by AOS is a CD 8 cells or cytotoxic T cell and non cell CD4 / CD8. AOS production conditions with the addition of alginate lyase enzyme 50 U and incubation period 2 hours has produce AOS with the highest index of lymphocyte proliferation  117.6+3.6% or an increase of 43.24% compared to the native alginat polymer.
PENINGKATAN KUALITAS NUTRIEN ONGGOK YANG DIFERMENTASIMENGGUNAKAN Bacillus megaterium SS4b SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU PAKAN IKAN Fuad, Mulyasari; Subaryono, Subaryono; Samsudin, Reza; Widyastuti, Yohanna Retnaning
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 13, No 2 (2018): (Juni, 2018)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (82.775 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jra.13.2.2018.147-157

Abstract

Onggok adalah hasil produk samping pengolahan ubi kayu menjadi tapioka yang berpotensi dikembangkan sebagai bahan baku pakan ikan. Permasalahan yang dihadapi yaitu kecernaan onggok masih relatif rendah sehingga perlu ditingkatkan melalui teknik fermentasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi kemampuan bakteri B. megaterium SS4b dalam menyederhanakan nutrien kompleks dari onggok, serta menentukan dosis bakteri yang sesuai untuk proses tersebut. Penelitian ini terdiri atas dua tahap yaitu: 1) penentuan aktivitas enzim selulase, amilase, dan protease bakteri B. megaterium SS4b secara semi-kualitatif; 2) penentuan dosis inokulum yang efektif untuk proses fermentasi onggok (0%, 3%, 6%, dan 9%). Parameter yang diukur meliputi glukosa terlarut/gula pereduksi, protein terlarut, protein kasar, serat kasar, dan kecernaan protein secara in vitro. Percobaan dilakukan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) dengan empat perlakuan beda dosis bakteri untuk fermentasi onggok dan tiga ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa B. megaterium SS4b memiliki aktivitas selulase, amilase, dan protease, serta mampu menghidrolisis onggok. Dosis penambahan isolat bakteri sebanyak 9% pada kepadatan 1011 sel/mL dan inkubasi selama 72 jam merupakan dosis terbaik dalam meningkatkan kualitas nutrien onggok. Proses fermentasi ini dapat meningkatkan kandungan protein terlarut, kecernaan protein, ketersediaan gula pereduksi, dan penurunan serat onggok berturut-turut adalah sebesar 2,9 kali, tiga kali, satu kali, dan enam kali dibandingkan dengan kontrol.Cassava starch residue is a by-product in tapioca production that has the potential to be used as one of the ingredients in fish feed. The problem was that the digestibility of cassava starch residue was relatively low but could be improved through fermentation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of B. megaterium SS4b bacteria in simplifying the nutrient complex of cassava starch residue and determine the appropriate bacterial dose for the process. The study consisted of two stages: 1) determining, semi-qualitatively, the activity of cellulase, amylase, and protease enzyme of B. megaterium SS4; 2) determining the effective inoculum dose for the fermentation process of cassava starch residue (0%, 3%, 6%, and 9%). Parameters measured included dissolved glucose/reducing sugar, dissolved protein, crude protein, crude fibre, and protein digestibility in vitro. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) with four different treatments of bacterial dose for fermentation of cassava starch residue and three replicates. The results showed that B. megaterium SS4b has cellulase, amylase, and protease activities and was able to hydrolyze cassava starch residue. The dosage level of the bacterial isolate at 9% with a density of 1011 cells mL-1 and incubation for 72 hours was the best treatment in improving the nutrient quality of cassava starch residue. This fermentation process could increase soluble protein content, protein digestibility, availability of reducing sugar, and decrease significantly the fiber content of cassava starch residue
Alginate Lyase from Indonesian Bacillus megaterium S245 Shows Activities Toward Polymannuronate and Polyguluronate Subaryono, Subaryono; Ardilasari, Yuwanita; Peranginangin, Rosmawaty; Zakaria, Fransisca Rungkat; Suhartono, Maggy Thenawidjaja
Squalen, Buletin Pascapanen dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 11, No 2 (2016): August 2016
Publisher : Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnol

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1833.689 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/squalen.v11i2.250

Abstract

Screening of alginate lyase producing bacteria associated with seaweed Sargassum crassifolium was carried out, and isolate S245, identified as Bacillus megaterium S245 was found to produce high alginate lyase activity. This research was conducted to evaluate activity of the alginate lyase enzyme at various pHs, temperatures and substrates. Polymannuronate and polyguluronate were used to evaluate substrate specificities. Alginate lyase activity was assayed by analysis of reducing sugar released using the 3,5 dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method. The research showed that the activity of alginate lyase was optimum at pH of 7.0 and  temperature of 45 0C. This enzyme was active for both polymannuronate and polyguluronate susbtrates. The Vmax and Km of this enzyme for polymannuronate and polyguluronate were 200 unit/ml/min and 79.8 mg/ml for polymannuronate substrate and 27.78 unit/ml/min and 13.17 mg/ml for polyguluronate substrate. This enzyme showed unique characteristic in working toward the two substrates.
Distribution of brown seaweed producing alginate in Indonesia and the potential utilization Subaryono, Subaryono
Squalen, Buletin Pascapanen dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 6, No 2 (2011): August 2011
Publisher : Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnol

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (88.134 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/squalen.v6i2.61

Abstract

Brown seaweed producing alginate frequently obtained in Indonesian waters , especially fromgenus of Sargassum and Turbinaria. These seaweeds are wide distributed from Aceh to Papuawaters. There are 15 species of Sargassum and some species of Turbinaria in Indonesia. Thisseaweed were very potential used as a row material of alginate industry, with main market Chinaand Malaysia. Quality requirement for seaweed as row material for alginate industry in China werealginate content not less than 17%, viscosity 47 cP, and gel strength 139 g/cm2. Expansion ofalginate industry in Indonesia was limited by low continuity of row material production. Prospectiveutilization of this brown seaweed as a row material of drug/traditional herbal medicine were sohigh because its ability to reducing high blood glucose in diabetes patient and decelerate thegrowth of cancer cell. Natural seaweed collection were done at peak season production on dryseason, and help out to increase the welfare of seaweed collection farmer.
Alginate Lyases: Sources, Mechanism of Activity and Potencial Application Subaryono, Subaryono; Peranginangin, Rosmawaty; Suhartono, Maggy Thenawidjaja; Zakaria, Fransiska Rungkat
Squalen, Buletin Pascapanen dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 8, No 3 (2013): December 2013
Publisher : Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnol

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1087.699 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/squalen.v8i3.39

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Alginate lyases are group of enzymes which catalyze depolymerization of alginate into oligosaccharides. Alginate lyase have been widely used in many applications such as in production of bioactive oligosaccharides, control of polysaccharide rheological properties, and polysaccharide structure analysis. The products of alginate lyase, polysaccharide structure analysis, alginate oligosaccharides (AOS) have many biological activities including act as prebiotics, immune modulator, anticoagulation, antioxidant, anticancer, growth promoting activities, promote production of antibiotics and ethanol. In relation to the importance of alginate lyases, their potential aplications and prospect in development of new bioactive products, we present review of the enzymes, sources, mechanism of activity and potential applications. This paper also discussed some new biological engineering in alginate lyase production.
Alginates modification and the prospective uses of their products. Subaryono, Subaryono
Squalen, Buletin Pascapanen dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 5, No 1 (2010): May 2010
Publisher : Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnol

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (406.666 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/squalen.v5i1.40

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Alginate is a natural hydrocolloid that is used in food and non food industries. The weakness ofnative alginate cause the limited uses of this material in industry. Some weaknesses of nativealginate had been successfully overcome either by the modification of alginate structure orinteraction of alginate with another substances. The low solubility of alginate and its low stabilityagainst acid had been successfully resolved with esterification of alginate backbone with propyleneglycol, producing propylene glycol alginate (PGA). The high syneresis of alginate gel had beensuccessfully overcome with partial hydrolysis, producing short chain alginate, introduce shortchain polyguluronate and interact alginate with other substances such as locust bean gum (LBG).Alginate hydrophilic properties could be changed into amphiphilic by long alkyl chain substitutiontowards part of the polysaccharides group. The ability of alginate to promote the growth of probioticbacteria could be done by enzymatic hydrolysis of alginate using alginate lyase producingalginate oligosaccharides (AOS). The modification of alginate had opened the big opportunity forthe uses of alginate and its derivatives, both in food and non food sectors.
PENELITIAN FORTIFIKASI IKAN PADA PENGOLAHAN PATOLO Subaryono, Subaryono; N. Indriati, N. Indriati; Irianto, Hari Eko
Jurnal Penelitian Perikanan Indonesia Vol 8, No 6 (2002): (Vol.8 No.6 2002)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15578/jppi.8.6.2002.53-63

Abstract

Penelitian pengolahan patolo (keripik singkong fermentasi khas Gunung Kidul) dengan penambahan ikan telah dilakukan. Jenis ikan yang ditambahkan yaitu udang putih(Penaeus merguiensis), kerang darah (Anadara granosa) dan ikan beloso (Sauida tumbit).