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A Design of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Cancer Treatment in Indonesia Sardjono, Yohannes; Widodo, Susilo; Irhas, Irhas; Tantawy, Hilmi
Indonesian Journal of Physics and Nuclear Applications Vol 1 No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Fakultas Sains dan Matematika Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1133.98 KB) | DOI: 10.24246/ijpna.v1i1.1-13

Abstract

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is an advanced form of radiotherapy technique that is potentially superior to all conventional techniques for cancer treatment, as it is targeted at killing individual cancerous cells with minimal damage to surrounding healthy cells. After decades of development, BNCT has reached clinical-trial stages in several countries, mainly for treating challenging cancers such as malignant brain tumors. The Indonesian consortium of BNCT already developed of the design BNCT for many cases of type cancers using many neutron sources. The main objective of the Indonesian consortium BNCT are the development of BNCT technology package which consists of a non nuclear reactor neutron source based on cyclotron and compact neutron generator technique, advanced boron-carrying pharmaceutical, and user-friendly treatment platform with automatic operation and feedback system as well as commercialization of the BNCT though franchised network of BNCT clinics worldwide. The Indonesian consortium BNCT will offering to participate in Boron carrier pharmaceuticals development and testing, development of cyclotron and compact neutron generators and provision of neutrons from the 100 kW Kartini Research Reactor to guide and to validate compact neutron generator development. Studies were carried out to design a collimator which results in epithermal neutron beam for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the Kartini Research Reactor by means of Monte Carlo N-Particle 5 (MCNP5) codes. Reactor within 100 kW of output thermal power was used as the neutron source. The design criteria were based on the IAEA’s recommendation. All materials used were varied in size, according to the value of mean free path for each. Monte Carlo simulations indicated that by using 5 cm thick of Ni as collimator wall, 60 cm thick of Al as moderator, 15 cm thick of 60Ni as filter, 1,5 cm thick of Bi as "-ray shielding, 3 cm thick of 6Li2CO3-polyethylene as beam delimiter, with 3-5 cm varied aperture size, epithermal neutron beam with minimum flux of 7,8 x 108 n.cm-2.s-1, maximum fast neutron and "-ray components of, respectively, 1,9 x 10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1 and 1,8 x 10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1, maximum thermal neutron per epithermal neutron ratio of 0,009, and beam minimum directionality of 0,72, could be produced. The beam did not fully pass the IAEA’s criteria, since the epithermal neutron flux was still below the recommended value, 1,0 x 109 n.cm-2.s-1. Nonetheless, it was still usable with epithermal neutron flux exceeded 5 x 108 n.cm-2.s-1. When this collimator was surrounded by 8 cm thick of graphite, the characteristics of the beam became better that it passed all IAEA’s criteria with epithermal neutron flux up to 1,7 x 109 n.cm-2.s-1. it is still feasible for BNCT in vivo experiment and study of many cases cancer type i.e.; liver and lung curcinoma. In this case, thermal neutron produced by model of Collimated Thermal Column Kartini Research Nuclear Reactor, Yogyakarta. Sodium boroncaptate (BSH) was used as in this research. BSH had effected in liver for radiation quality factor as 0.8 in health tissue and 2.5 in cancer tissue. Modelling organ and source used liver organ who contain of cancer tissue and research reactor. Variation of boron concentration was 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 47 $g/g cancer. Output of MCNP calculation were neutron scattering dose, gamma ray dose and neutron flux from reactor. Given the advantages of low density owned by lungs, hence BNCT is a solid option that can be utilized to eradicate the cell cancer in lungs. Modelling organ and neutron source for lung carcinoma was used Compact Neutron Generator (CNG) by deuterium-tritium which was used is boronophenylalanine (BPA). The concentration of boron-10 compound was varied in the study; i.e. the variations were 20; 25; 30; 35; 40 and 45 μg.g-1 cancer tissues. Ideally, the primary dose which is solemnly expected to contribute in the therapy is alpha dose, but the secondary dose; i.e. neutron scattering dose, proton dose and gamma dose that are caused due to the interaction of thermal neutron with the spectra of tissue can not be simply omitted. Thus, the desired output of MCNPX; i.e. tally, were thermal and epithermal neutron flux, neutron and photon dose. The liver study variation of boron concentration result dose rate to every variation were0,042; 0,050; 0,058; 0,067; 0,074; 0,082; 0,085 Gy/sec. Irradiation time who need to every concentration were 1194,687 sec (19 min 54 sec);999,645 sec (16 min 39 sec); 858,746 sec (14 min 19 sec); 743,810 sec (12 min 24 sec); 675,156 sec (11 min 15 sec); 608,480 sec (10 min 8 sec); 585,807sec (9 min 45 sec). The lung carcinoma study variations of boron-10 concentration in tissue resulted in the dose rate of each variables respectively were 0.003145, 0.003657, 0.00359, 0.00385, 0.00438 and 0.00476 Gy.sec-1 . The irradiated time needed for therapy for each variables respectively were 375.34, 357.55, 287.58, 284.95, 237.84 and 219.84 minutes.
PENERAPAN TAFSIR AL-QUR`AN BI AL-QUR`AN (Studi Atas Kitab Tafsir al-Mizan Fi Tafsir al-Qur`an Karya Muhammad Husain al-Thabathaba’i) Irhas, Irhas
Jurnal Ushuluddin Vol 24, No 2 (2016): Juli - Desember
Publisher : Universitas Islam Negeri Sultan Syarif Kasim Riau

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (385.67 KB) | DOI: 10.24014/jush.v24i2.1682

Abstract

Kitab tafsir al-Mizan fi Tafsir al-Qur`an adalah karya terbesar Muhammad Husain al- Thabathaba’i, yaitu seorang mufassir dari kalangan muslim Syi’ah. Ada hal menarik dari kitab tafsir ini yaitu kitab tafsir ini tersebar tidak hanya di kalangan muslim Syi’ah, tapi juga tersebar luas di kalangan muslim Sunni. Di antara faktor penyebab diterimanya tafsir ini di kalangan muslim Sunni adalah karena kitab tafsir ini mengutamakan penggunaaan sumber bi al-ma’tsûr sebagai sumber penafsirannya. Satu di antara sumber penafsiran bi al-ma’tsûr adalah tafsir al-Qur’an yang berasal dari al-Qur’an. Fokus tulisan ini adalah tentang bagaimana Muhammad Husain al-Thabathaba’i menggunakan al-Qur’an sebagai sumber utama penafsirannya
Tafsir Al-Qur’an Dalam Lintasan Sejarah Irhas, Irhas
Jurnal As-Salam Vol 1 No 2 (2016): Jurnal As-Salam
Publisher : Assalam press

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (356.405 KB)

Abstract

Penafsiran terhadap Kitab Suci al-Qur’an adalah sebuah kemestian karena ajaran al-Qur’an yang bersifat komprehensif. Namun, kenyataannya bahwa al-Qur’an bukanlah kitab suci yang menyebutkan ajarannya secara detail dan terperinci. Dalam banyak hal al-Qur’an hanya berbicara secara umum dan global. Terkadang, ia hanya berisi dasar dan isyarat tertentu yang membutuhkan penjelasan lebih lanjut. Untuk menjelaskan isi dan kandungan al-Qur’an sangat dibutuhkan adanya penafsiran. Upaya penafsiran terhadap al-Qur’an sudah ada sejak al-Qur’an itu diturunkan. Upaya itu mengalami perkembangan hingga zaman sekarang. Adanya banyak kitab tafsir yang disusun oleh ulama dari abad pertama sampai sekarang adalah sebagai bukti kuat terjadinya perkembangan dalam penafsiran itu. Kitab tafsir klasik berbeda dengan kitab tafsir yang muncul di abad ini. Perbedaan itu secara umum terdapat dalam tiga hal yaitu dari segi sumber, metode yang digunakan serta corak yang dominan menghiasi kitab tafsir itu. Tulisan ini bertujuan mendeskripsikan sejarah dan perkembangan penafsiran terhadap al-Qur’an sejak diturunkannya al-Qur’an pada masa Rasulullah SAW sampai berkembangnya tafsir saat ini.
PENGARUH KECERDASAN EMOSIONAL, KECERDASAN SPIRITUAL, DAN KOMITMEN ORGANISASIONAL TERHADAP ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR (OCB) (STUDI PADA DOSEN TETAP PERGURUAN TINGGI KEAGAMAAN ISLAM SWASTA ) irhas, irhas
JMM UNRAM - MASTER OF MANAGEMENT JOURNAL Vol 6, No 1 (2017): JMM MARET 2017
Publisher : Master of Management, Mataram University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.29303/jmm.v6i1.94

Abstract

This research aims at finding and the influence of : (1) Emotional  Quotient on  OCB, (2) Spiritual Quotient on OCB, and (3) Organizational Commitment on OCB.  This research is causal associative research which uses questionnaire as the instrument of Data Collection. The Population of this research are 119  Permanent Lecturers  of Private Islamic Higher Education in East Lombok West Nusa Tenggara Indonesia. Questionnaire was used to collect data. The collected data were then analyzed with Linear Multiple Regression.  The result shows that: (1)  Emotional Quotient has positive , but insignificant  effect on  OCB, (2)  Spiritual Quotient has positive and significant effect on  OCB, and (3) Organizational commitment has positive and significant effect  on OCB.Keywords: Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Emotional Quotient, Spiritual Quotient, and Organizational Commitment.