Ida Bagus Krisna Jaya Sutawan, Ida Bagus Krisna Jaya
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EXTENDED GLASGOW OUTCOME SCALE AND CORRELATION WITH BISPECTRAL INDEX

Bali Journal of Anesthesiology Vol 1, No 3 (2017)
Publisher : DiscoverSys Inc.

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Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health issue, which results in significant mortality and long-term disability. The profound impact of TBI is not only felt by the individuals who suffer the injury but also their caregivers and society as a whole. Clinicians and researchers require reliable and valid measures of long-term outcome not only to truly quantify the burden of TBI and the scale of functional impairment in survivors but also to allow early appropriate allocation of rehabilitation supports. In addition, clinical trials which aim to improve outcomes in this devastating condition require high-quality measures to accurately assess the impact of the interventions being studied. In this article, we review the properties of an ideal measure of outcome in the TBI population. Then, we will describe the measurement tools include: the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSe) in correlation with bispectral index (BIS).

Venous Air Embolism (VAE) during Craniotomy of Supratentorial Meningioma in Supine Position

Bali Journal of Anesthesiology Vol 1, No 3 (2017)
Publisher : DiscoverSys Inc.

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Abstract

AbstractVenous Air Embolism (VAE) is one of the most serious complications in neuroanesthesia case. The highest number of VAE incident is during neurosurgery procedure with sitting position, even tough VAE may occur during craniotomy of supratentorial tumor in the supine position. VAE occurs due to the pressure differential between open vein in the surgical field and right atrium. A 46 years old woman underwent craniotomy for supratentorial meningioma in the supine position. Intraoperative, the patient was experiencing a decrease in end-tidal CO2 pressure about 6 mmHg in 5 minutes. Therefore, management of acute VAE was proceed to the patient, such as informed the surgeon immediately, discontinued N2O and increased flow of O2, modified the anesthesia technique, asked the surgeon to irrigate the surgical field with fluids, gave compression on jugular vein, aspirated the right atrial catheter, prepared drugs to support the hemodynamic, and changed the patient’s position if possible. 

PERIOPERATIVE EFFECTS OF CO-ADMINISTRATION OF TCI PROPOFOL COMBINED WITH CLONIDINE AND KETAMINE

Bali Journal of Anesthesiology Vol 2, No 3 (2018)
Publisher : DiscoverSys Inc.

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Abstract

Background: Propofol is often used in Total Intravenous Anesthesia (TIVA). Studies found that adding clonidine and ketamine can increase the potential to achieve an adequate level of anesthesia while reducing inflammation and post-operative pain. The goal of this study is to see if the combination of Target Controlled Infusion (TCI) propofol plus clonidine and ketamine is more effective in reducing the IL-6 level, maintaining intraoperative stability, and reducing postoperative pain and morphine consumption.Methods: Forty patients planned for major oncology surgery were divided into two groups. The treatment group (Group T) received pre-medication with clonidine, induction with TCI propofol, and intraoperative ketamine. The control group (Group C) received normal saline solution.Results: The difference of IL-6 level increase between the two groups was not statistically significant (13.6 vs. 16.6 pg/mL, p>0.05). Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in group T were higher in 5 and 10 minutes after incision, but lower in minutes 30, 60, and 120 (p <0.05). Heart rate in group T was higher in minutes 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, and 120. Visual analog scale (VAS) in 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours post-surgery were lower in group T compared to group C. And post-operative morphine consumptions in group T were also lower. (3.6 ± 1.5 vs 9.9 ± 3.3, p <0.05).Conclusion: TIVA using TCI propofol combined with preoperative clonidine and intraoperative ketamine is effective in maintaining hemodynamic stability, reducing post-operative and reducing morphine consumption compared to TCI propofol alone.