The purpose of this study was to describe (1) character and characterization, (2) setting, (3) planting values in the family, and (4) figures of family fighters in the novel Ibuk. The research was a qualitative research. The research data was qualitative data in the form of units of a paragraph or events in the novel Ibuk by Iwan Setiawan. The primary data source was the novel Ibuk by Iwan Setiawan published by PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama Jakarta in 2012. The research instrument was a researcher herself that was equipped with a set of theories about the characters and characterizations, setting, cultivation of values, theory of literature and family psychology. Data collection methods were reading, recording, and literature. Data analysis methods were using qualitative descriptive. The results of the research are as follows. (1) The main character in the novel Ibuk is Ngatinah (Ibuk), while the subordinate figures are Mr, Bayek, Isa, Nani, and Rini. Ngatinah (Ibuk) is referred as the main character because she is the character most involved with the theme of the story, most interact with other characters and most take storytelling. Ngatinah character is depicted as a firm leader, responsible, humble, and patient. (2) In the novel Ibuk, setting the time, place, and the social culture is in it. Setting time shows a state that occurs by day, month, and year of occurrence. The setting of place occurs in the market, Batu Malang, Bogor, Surabaya, Karawang, and New York. The social setting takes place in the setting of social class or lower middle-level social class. (3) Investment value in the novel Ibuk family consists of (a) values are socialized parents in children include diligent worship, be honest, be respectful, harmonious with relatives and the community, and a way of learning achievement, and (b) how to disseminate the values in children, among others, to give advice and provide examples (exemplary). (4) The figure of a fighter in the novel Ibuk family is a family that struggles to improve the standard of living is better to work hard and cooperate with one another.
This research aims to describe: (1) the significance of Bekisar Merah based on the Riffaterre semiotics approach and (2) the sufistic matter in the novel Bekisar Merah. This research is a qualitative research. Data of this study are narrative and/or dialogue in the novel which refers to the concept used as an analytical device, namely sufism. The narrative and dialogue are materialized in the clauses, sentences, and paragraphs form. Source of primary data used in this research is the novel Bekisar Merah by Ahmad Tohari. Researchers act as research instruments. To acquire data from primary source, this study uses observation as one of the data collection method, especially reading technique. This study also uses documentation methods in order to acquire and collect data from other relevant referral sources. This study uses hermeneutic methods and using data analysis techniques formulated by Miles & Huberman. After Bekisar Merah was analyzed based on Riffaterre's semiotics approach with a sufism perspective, several conclusions were found. (1) Semiotically, in Bekisar Merah, there are only two types of indirect expression with sufistic nuance, namely displacement of meaning and distorting of meaning. The matrix of Bekisar Merah is eling, especially eling in the context of revisionist neosufism. The matrix is transformed into model (characters), and the model is transformed into variants (nonverbal actions, verbal actions and mental actions in the form of thoughts or feelings). Bekisar Merah’s hypogram is Suluk Wujil. Intertextual pattern relations of Bekisar Merah-Suluk Wujil is innovation, takes place in at least four literary dimensions (content, form, symbolism and character). (2) The matter of sufism philosophy, ethics, and methods is conveyed by indirect delivery. Its medium is the structure, that is the instrinsic novel elements: characters and characterizations, plots, and—in small portions—setting.
This study aims to find out: 1) the plot in the Lelaki Harimau novel by Eka Kurniawan; 2) characters and characterizations in the Lelaki Harimau novel by Eka Kurniawan; 3) the setting or setting in the Lelaki Harimau novel by Eka Kurniawan; 4) inner conflict in the Lelaki Harimau novel by Eka Kurniawan; 5) causes of inner conflict in the Lelaki Harimau novel by Eka Kurniawan. This type of research is qualitative research. The research data is in the form of a unit of events in the form of sentences and paragraphs contained in the Lelaki Harimau novel. The research data source is Lelaki Harimau novel by Eka Kurniawan. The instrument of this research is that the researchers themselves are equipped with a set of theories. The research data collection technique is carried out by reading the entire contents of the novel, observing, and recording the data obtained. The research data analysis technique was carried out with qualitative descriptive techniques. The results of this study: 1) The flow in the novel Lelaki Harimau by Eka Kurniawan is a mixed plot; 2) Figure and character, the main character in the novel Lelaki Harimau by Eka Kurniawan is Margio with an honest, trustworthy, innocent and caring character; 3) The location in the Lelaki Harimau novel is 131, Surau, Warung Agung Sofyan, Rumah Anwar Sadat, Hutan, Rumah Margio, 4) The form of the main character's inner conflict in Lelaki Harimau Novel by Eka Kurniawan is due to the main character being born and raised in the environment families who are very deficient do not make the main character feel happy; 5) Factors that cause the inner conflict of the main character in Novel Lelaki Harimau by Eka Kurniawan, internal factors and external factors.
The Objective of this research are to describe (1) character and characterization of woman Moslem Pingkan with her setting, (2) problems faced by the character in international communication in Australia, (3) the ways done by Pingkan in facing the problems in international communication, and (4) feminism ideology believed and applied by Pingkan character in the Pingkan Sehangat Mentari Musim Semi novel. The type of the research is descriptive qualitative. The form of data is unity event concerned with the research question found in the Pingkan Sehangat Mentari Musim Semi novel, while the source of the data is the novel itself. The research instruments are text and the researcher equipped with a set of concepts needed to answer the problem formulation. Data are collected by observation technique, while the data analysis technique applied is descriptive qualitative analysis technique. The result of the research is as follows. The main character of Pingkan Sehangat Mentari Musim Semi novel is Pingkan Rahma because her thought, attitude, and behavior connected each other with the theme of the novel, having the most interaction with other characters, and need much time to tell her story, as a loyal Moslem woman. Pingkan has an autonomous personal, optimistic, surrender to Allah SWT, shalihah, firm, rationalistic, courage, spoiled, helper, wide thought, critics, stiff, diligent, positive thinking, funny, honest, and feministic. The main place setting is in Australia, the time setting is at the end of a new era, while the social setting is described as an individual, liberal, heterogenous, and racial society. The problems of communicating using English is solved by Pingkan with increasing direct communication to Tom and Berth. The problem of free sex is solved by drawing near to Allah, the lack of a place to pray is solved by seeking room but pure, the heterogenous problem is solved by tolerance, attention, and empathy to other people, the problem of feminism demonstration is solved by reject through oration and discussion. Based on her feminism view, it shows clearly that Pingkan is a feminism Moslem.
This research aims to describe: (1) Plot used the author to convey a psychological dimension. (2) the characters and characterizations author used to convey a psychological dimension. (3) setting that is used to convey the author's psychological dimension. (4) the personality of the characters in the novel Tuhan Maaf Engkau Kumadu by Aguk Irawan M.N. based on aspects of psychology. (5) the factors affecting psychological personages Ridho. The data of this research in the form of documentation in the form of a quote with the data source is a novel Tuhan Maaf Engkau Kumadu by Aguk Irawan M.N. Data collection is done with the technique of reading and note, while data analysis is done by qualitative descriptive analysis techniques with three steps, namely (1) reading the repetitively novel Tuhan Maaf Engkau Kumadu. (2) reading and studying literature, reference or references that have relationships and support towards issues and problems in this research. (3) records and entering data into the data analysis instruments. The data was then validated by the method of triangulation, i.e. the Act test or check the data findings with other findings while the absence of contrasts or the origin of the congruency between one another. Descriptive research results indicate that: (1) flows into three stages, namely the beginning, middle, the end. Ridho has internal and external conflict. (2) the main character Ridho most involved with the significance and themes, most related to other figures, most require time-telling. Explanatory character Eva Ratu Nisa, Afandi Irwan, Shaykh Radullah al Farghani, Nabila al Farghani, Mr. Ardiansyah, Sutirman, Sumaryati affecting the psychological dimension figure Ridho. Characterizations Ridho, i.e. believe in dreams, belief in omens, stubborn, strong-willed, timid, concerned, hard-working, smart, good-natured, polite, and polite. (3) social background affects the psychological dimensions of Ridho as a hard worker. (4) the personality of the Ridho is dominated by a repressed id resulting in the appearance of a conflict on the structure of personality. The conflict caused the psychotic hallucinations. In terms of psychology, Ridho suffered from schizophrenia. (5) there are two factors that influence psychological factors, i.e. endogenous Ridho, and exogenous factors. Endogenous factors in the form of a trust to excessive dreams and omens, as well as introjection of the elderly. Exogenous factors of experience of life and psychological pressure jilted from the family environment.
The objectives of the research are to find out: (1) the use of figurative language, (2) the function of each figurative language to build the essence of the novel. The research is descriptive qualitative. The research data are the series of events using figurative language. The source is a novel entitled ‘Anak Semua Bangsa’ by Pramoedya Ananta Toer published by Hasta Mitra Jakarta. The research instrument is independent research concentrating on the types and the functions of figurative language. The technique of collecting data is observation; meanwhile, the technique of analyzing data is descriptive qualitative. Based on the analysis, research results can be drawn. Firstly, 70 (97.2%) of 72 figurative languages are a figure of speech. Secondly, 35 (50%) of 70 figure of speech, are simile and epic simile, 6 (8.6%) hyperbolic, and 1 (1.4%) synecdoche. The functions of simile are to express purity, surprise, and description. The functions of metaphor are to raise internal emotion and build concrete sense. The dominant functions of personification are to revive imagination, explain elaboration, and reflect the inanimate objects. The functions of hyperbolic are to strengthen the meaning and empower the impression. The function of synecdoche is to point out the essential part of an object.
The aim of the study is to describe (1) plot of the story used by the writer to convey politics constellation in Roro Jonggrang novel, (2) character and characterization used by the writer to convey politics constellation in Roro Jonggrang novel, (3) background of the story used by the writer to convey politics constellation in Roro Jonggrang novel, and (4) politics constellation contained in Roro Jonggrang novel. The kind of this research is qualitative research. The data is phenomenon unit in Roro Jonggrang novel that accommodates plot, character, characterization, background, and constellation politics. The source of the data is a novel entitled Roro Jonggrang by Budi Sardjono. The instrument of the research is the researcher that has given a theory about the plot, background, character, characterization, background, and constellation politics, especially sociological politics. the technique of collecting data are observation, reading technique, and taking a note. The technique of data analysis is descriptive qualitative technique. The result of this study is as follows. (1) The plot used in Roro Jonggrang novel is a chronological plot. (2) The main character is Roro Jonggrang, beside that there is another character as an addition. (3) Background of the study happens in Gedono temple, Prambanan temple, Suruh Ijo village, Kalibawang village, Kaswargan hill, Pengging square, Cepogo temple, dan Ciwa temple. The time of the story is described in the ninth century when mataram kingdom holds the power. The events are taken during morning, afternoon and evening time. social background in this novel is society and Javanese culture. (4) Politics constellation in this novel is: (a) Politics communication happens between Pengging and Prambanan kingdom. In pengging kingdom, politics communication is done by Prabu Damar Maya, Bandung Bandawasa, Demang Selo, Demang Tegalrejo, Lurah prajurit Pengging, and Tumenggung Gagak Sabrang, whereas in prambanan kingdom politics communication is done by Roro Jonggrang, Dyah Mranti, Lurah Berbah, Lurah Kretek, and Prabu Baka Geni. In this politics communication, there are some functions done by each kingdom. the function of politics communication is information function, instruction function, and persuasive function. (b) Politics participation happens between Pengging and Prambanan kingdom. Politics participation in pengging kingdom is marked by the participation of group soldier of Adipati Wono Goro, Loda Nyang, and Pengging soldier, whereas politics participation in Prambanan kingdom is marked by village chief participation. (c) There are two social movements in Roro Jonggrang novel. They are regressive and expressive movement. Each kingdom did both of the movement.
The purpose of this study is as follows. (1) Describe the character and background of the novel redeem dream. (2) Describe the position of women in Islamic feminism in the novel makes up the dream. (3) Describe the struggle of women according to Islamic feminism in the novel make up the dream. The research is qualitative studies. Based on the research of the information from the text consisting of novel penetrating dreama paragraph or an event in novel penetrating dreama. The data source of this research is a novel Penetrate Dream. The instrument in this study is the researchers themselves who in Arm-specific set of science concepts related to the problems examined. Data collection techniques using the technique of reading the log. Data obtained through reading, concluded all data required for research purposes. The results obtained in this study, (1) the main character and background of the novel is the dream penetrating Nur figure adds Kumalajati young, beautiful, unyielding, independent, kind, friendly, thoughtful, sympathetic, strong in character, and student intelligent, while background is in a village where Sitibinangun, but moved to the city in Gang Mawar. (2) the position of female characters in the novel by the Islamic feminism redeem the dream, the position of women is closely related to the origin of the creation, recognition of Almighty God for the glory of women. Owned the rights and dignity of women equal to men. Nur Kumalajati so that to achieve success and pursue his dream he must work and strive aqual men, but did not leave their nature as female. (3) the struggle of famele characters in the novel by the Islamic feminism redeem the dream. Nur Kumalajati struggles to realize his dream finally realized that one hectare donating land to the boarding school, as well as other social activities.
This research aims to describe the process and form of resistance done by the natives to colonialism. This study belongs to qualitative descriptive research. The data are in the form of units of event containing the relations that include the process and form of resistance made by the natives to colonialism. The qualitative data used in this research are collected through observation, while the source of the data is a document in the form of novel Jejak Langkah published by Hasta Mitra Jakarta. The instrument used in this research is the researcher himself equipped with a set of postcolonial theory, particularly the concepts of mimicry and resistance. The technique used in collecting the data is observation, while the technique applied in analyzing the data is qualitative, descriptive, and interpretative one on the basis of postcolonial theories, mainly the theories of mimicry and resistance. In this novel, the resistance of the natives is done by the figure of resistance, that is Minke. The process of resistance begins with soft resistance called mimicry (language of technology and life devices,livelihood systems, arts, and systems of knowledge/ways of thinking). After reaching the power of quality to resist, the resistance is done radically, both through actual actions and textual productions.
This study aims to find out 1) what is the inner conflict in the Lelaki Harimau novel by Eka Kurniawan? 5) What causes the inner conflict of the character in the Lelaki Harimau novel by Eka Kurniawan ? The theory used is the psychology of literature. The method used is descriptive qualitative. The results of the study show that inner conflicts occur because of two factors, internal and external.