A. Samik Wahab, A. Samik
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Lateral-flow immunoassay as a diagnostic test for influenza type A and B in children

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 48 No 2 (2008): March 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

Background The diagnosis of influenza remains difficult toestablish because of its similar symptoms to those of respiratoryinfection caused by other viruses. The “gold standard” for thediagnosis of influenza is viral culture, which takes time to gainthe result and is expensive as well. A simple, rapid, and easilyused tool for detection of influenza virus type A and B is needed.Objective To assess the accuracy of lateral-flow immunoassay withQuick Vue Influenza A+B ® in detecting influenza virus of typeA and B.Methods This was an observational study designed for diagnostictest. The subjects were children aged 0-14 years old presentingwith acute respiratory infection in primary Health Care Jetis ,Godean I, Godean II and Prof. Dr. Sardjito Hospital Yogyakarta,from October 2005 to May 2007. Specimens were collected fromboth the anterior nares and the throat by physicians for lateral-flow immunoassay with Quick Vue Influenza A+B ® and viralculture as gold standard. Lateral-flow immunoassay was done ineach study centre, nasal specimen was placed in an extractionreagent tube and sent to NAMRU II laboratory.Results There were 255 children enrolled in this study. Lateral-flow immunoassay by Quick Vue Influenza A+B ® has sensitivity70% (CI95% 6;83%), specificity 93% (CI95% 90;97%), positivepredictive value 68% (CI95% 54;82%), negative predictive value94% (CI95% 91;97%), positive likelihood ratio 10,56 (CI95%6,14;18,19) and negative likelihood ratio 0,32 (CI95% 0,21; 0,51).Conclusion Lateral-flow immunoassay (Quick Vue InfluenzaA+B ® ), nasal swab specimen is not accurate to detect influenzavirus A and B in children.

Effect of egg avoidance diet by nursing mothers on the incidence of atopic dermatitis in infants

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 48 No 2 (2008): March 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

Background The prevalence of allergic and atopic diseases hasincreased rapidly and remains a social as well as an economicproblem for the patients on account of its chronic nature. In orderto decrease the atopic diseases, especially atopic dermatitis ininfants, nursing mothers should avoid allergenic foods as apreventive sensitization. Egg allergy is the most common cause offood allergy, and is closely related to atopic dermatitis in children.Objective To determine whether egg avoidance diet by nursingmothers could decrease the incidence of atopic dermatitis ininfants.Method We conducted a parallel randomized-controlled trial.Seventy-nine subjects eligible for the study were divided into twogroups: egg avoidance and non-egg avoidance group. Blockrandomization is used for random allocation. Intervention startedsince mothers had had delivery until their children were 4 monthsold. The primary outcomes were clinical atopic dermatitis.Result Atopic dermatitis incidence in maternal egg avoidancegroup was significantly lower than non-avoidance group. Non-avoidance, family history of asthma, and maternal allergy are thefactors significantly influencing atopic dermatitis incidence (OR6.17; OR 4.73; OR 0.14), respectively.Conclusion Egg avoidance by nursing mothers could decrease theincidence of atopic dermatitis in infants. Non-egg avoidance andasthma in the families are factors significantly inducing the incidenceof atopic dermatitis.

Association between the absence of colostrum feeding and symptoms of intestinal obstruction or neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 44 No 1 (2004): January 2004
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

Objective To assess the relationship between withholding colos-trum and symptoms of intestinal obstruction (SIO) or neonatal ne-crotizing enterocolitis (NNEC).Methods This was a longitudinal cohort study in four subdistrictsin West Lombok involving mothers and live newborns. Motherswere interviewed about prenatal care, delivery process, and prac-tice of colostrum feedings. Neonates were followed everyday for28 days by field assistants for signs of intestinal obstruction orNNEC. We used X 2 test to analyze the association between theabsence of colostrum feeding and the occurence of SIO and stu-dent t test to compare the average of colostrum feeding betweenthe SIO and the non-SIO group.Results 3420 live newborns between 1993-1994 were observed.1900 mothers gave colostrum while 1520 did not. The incidence ofSIO was 1.8%. There was a significant association between theabsence of colostrum feeding and the occurence of the SIO (RR1.816; 95%CI 1.08-3.06; p=0.028). No infants with NNEC weregiven colostrum.Conclusion The absence of colostrum feeding is an importantrisk factor for the occurence of SIO and NNEC in neonates

Types of allergen affecting asthmatic children

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 24 No 7-8 (1984): July 1984
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

An intracutane tuberculin test with several types of allergens was conducted on 110 asthmatic children under the age of 14 years at the Subsection of Allergic diseases and Immunology of the Internal Diseases Section, in cooperation with the Department of Child Health, Gajah Mada University, Pugemn Hospital, in Yogyakarta. The number of children found to be sensitive to house dust, human dander, grass pollen, fungus, collection of animal danders, "mite" (Pteronysinus pterygoideus), and bacteria vaccine were 82 (75,5%), 80 (72. 7%), 0 (0%), 3 (2. 7%), 1 (0,9%), 23 (20.9%), and 20 {18.1%), respectively. It was also found that four ( 3.6%) of the children did not develop any reaction to all allergen types. It was further concluded that the numbers of children being allergic to just one type of allergen were as follows : house dust 2 (1.8%); human dander 0 (0%), hence all patients allergic to the human dander were also allergic to house dust; fungus 1 (0.9%); collection of animal danders 1 (0.9%); "mite" 2 (1.8%); bacteria 19 (17.3%). The highest incidence of reaction to more than one allergen were to house dust+human dunders: 80 (72. 7%); to house dust+ "mite": 21 (21.91%); and to house dust+human dander +"mite": 17 ( 15.5%).

The Influence of Desensitization on The Recovery of Allergy, In articular Asthma

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 24 No 9-10 (1984): September 1984
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

An evaluation was carried out to determine the effect of desensitization on 62 asthmatic patients under the age of 14 years. Preceeding the evaluation, an intracutaneous skin test was conducted of which all patients produced positive reactions to one or more allergen types. Desensitization was carried out for at least 5 months (up to the 30th injection), .with the following results : good, 45 (72,57%); decreased symptoms 12 ( 19.03%), and constant (no change), 5 (8,4%). All patients reached the maximum dosage ( 1 cc ), except 2 patients whom, given the maximum dosage, become worse, therefore suitable dosages were maintained (0.5 - 0. 7 cc). Therapy for one type of allergen was also proven as follows: house dust, good 1 (100%); mite, good 1 (100%); bacteria, good 14 (87.5%), fungi, good 1 (100%). Result of therapy for 2 types of allergen : f , use dust +splinter of human dunder in 31 patients was : good 24 (77.4%); constant 7 (22.59%). Whilst therapy for 3 types of allergen : house dust + splinter of human dunder + mite revealed : good, 4 (33.4%); decreased symptoms, 3 (25%); and constant, 5 (41.6%). It may therefore be concluded that the greater the number of allergens, the less effective the desensitization becomes.

Pericarditis and Pleuritis Caused by Extramedullary Plasmacytoma

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 30 No 11-12 (1990): November 1990
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

The following illustrates a case study of a 9 years-old girl with combined pericarditis and pleuritis caused by solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma. Pericardiocentesis and permanent thoracocentesis were performed, both yielded serohemorrhagic and serous fluid in succession. In the beginning etiological diagnosis was made on the basis of the clinical pattern for tuberculosis infection and growth of three species of bacteria for bacterial infections and candida species for candidiasis. The initial treatment was in accordance with the etiological diagnosis mentioned above. The final diagnosis was establish in the fourth month after the discovery of plasmacytoma in the pleural fluid and CT scan examination disclosing masses in the right lung. Accordingly, cytostatic therapy was started. The result of therapy was very good, exudation into the pleural and pericardia/ sac regressed gradually and eventually ceased completely. According to the literature the prognosis of these neop/asma is good.  

Takayasu s Disease

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 30 No 11-12 (1990): November 1990
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

A fourteen years old girl developed Takayasu s arteritis (pulseless disease) since six months prior to investigation. This unusual form of arteritis is common in Japan and Korea but has rarely been reported in individuals born in the United States. In Indonesian literatu;e it has never been documented so far. The etiology is unclear. The literature currently but forward the hypothesis of an autoimmune basis and treatment with steroid. Although a tuberculin sensitization pathogenesis has been suggested, a close temporal relationship with the onset of a tuberculous process has not previously been documented. The likelihood of uncovering tuberculin sensitivity or active tuberculosis in patients with Takayasu, arteritis is substantially higher than in the general population in all countries analyzed. The natural history of his arteritis is highly variable. The adolescent described in this paper has demonstrated no response either  to antituberculosis therapy, or to heparin and corticosteroid as suggested by Ishikawa, 1987. The patient died on the 59th day of hospitalization after getting syncopal attacks followed by shock.

Liquid crystal thermometry for early detection of hypothermia in newborns in neonatology ward, Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 48 No 1 (2008): January 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

Background Hypothermia in neonates increases the risk ofmortality and morbidity such as infection, coagulation disorders,acidosis and hyaline membrane disease. Mercury thermometer iscommonly used to detect hypothermia in newborns, but it has itis not ecological acceptable, difficult to be sterilized, easily broken,difficult to find in some developing countries and needs sometraining before use. A simple, effective and easily used tool fordetection of hypothermia in newborns is needed.Objective To evaluate the ability of liquid crystal thermometry(LCT) in early detection of newborn hypothermia.Methods This study was conducted in the neonatology ward,Sardjito Hospital. The LCT was placed on the abdominal wall.Digital thermometer measurement and LCT observation wereconducted three times in each patient. LCT’s color and bodytemperature were documented by using a pre-coded questionnaire.Results A total of 268 newborns met the inclusion and exclusioncriteria. The pilot study showed that the inter-observer agreementof LCT was 0.75. Positive likelihood ratio during threemeasurements were 22.9 (95%CI 11.47;45.78), 18.97 (95%CI9.43;38.16) and 22.8 (95%CI 11.34;45.83) respectively.Conclusion LCT exhibits good accuracy and is safe to diagnosehypothermia in newborn.