Jariah Masud, Jariah
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MEASURING POVERTY AMONG ELDERLY MALAYSIANS Masud, Jariah; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Haron, Sharifah A.
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 1, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Regional Network on Poverty Eradication

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Abstract

Poverty among the elderly should be measured using different methodology as to differentiate them based on the different dimensions of poverty and to reflect the true differences in needs and resource insufficiency among elderly. How poverty is measured will influence coverage of programs for older persons and to date no specific measurement is available to determine poverty among older persons. This paper is focus on poverty measurement among elderly in Malaysia. Household income data 2009/10 obtained from the Department of Statistic Malaysia were utilized to examine the incidence of poverty among older persons in Malaysia. Incidence of poverty among older persons was measured using two measurements; absolute poverty (Yearly Poverty line income (PLI) of RM8640) and relative poverty (Half Median income of Malaysia of RM21756). Two income measurements were compared; individual elderlyincome and income of households headed by older persons. Measuring poverty using individual income will support the philosophy of economic empowerment of older persons. Income of household headed by older persons will reflectthe economic situation of household headed by older persons, the proportion expected to increase in the future. Data of the study comprised of 184,447 individual member records of which 16325 were those age 60 and older (8.85%). There was also information on 43026 households, 7892 of which are headed by those ages 60 and older (18.3%). The incidence of absolute and relative poverty using the two measurements will be calculated and the implications of such measurement will be discussed.
INCOME COMPONENTS AND POVERTYAMONG OLDER MEN AND WOMEN IN MALAYSIA Ismail, Norisma Aiza; Masud, Jariah; Zainalaludin, Zumilah
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 1, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Regional Network on Poverty Eradication

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Abstract

The study aims to identify the income components and the incidence of poverty among older men and women in Malaysia. A national data on Household Income Survey (HIS) collected in year 2009-2010 was used in this study. Data from subsample of 16,325 out of 43,026 older persons was used in the analysis. The respondents comprised of 47.9% male and 52.1% female with an equal proportion living in urban and rural areas. The total net income was used to determine poverty status among respondents who reported receiving income. Income Per Capita was used to determine the poverty status. Resultsindicated thata there were 42.3% older persons did not receive any income and can be assumed to be dependent on others to support their living. Only 57.7% of the elderly received income from the four main sources namely paid employment, other earned income, property income and total current transfer income. Majority of the elderly received income from other earned income as well as total current transfer income. Overall, a higher proportion of men received income from all sources except transfer income. A small percentage of the elderly received income from paid employment. This reflects that majorityof the elderly are no longer employed. In addition, a large proportion of the elderly rely on other earned and transfer income in old age. Older women are more vulnerable to poverty in old age. Even though a higher percentage of olderpersons, especially women, received income from total current transfer, however this income component is still insufficient to address poverty among older persons. Thus, as part of productive ageing strategies, focus should be given on providing more job opportunities to enable older persons to increase their income.