Achmad Rifai RC, Achmad Rifai
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PENGEMBANGAN PEMBELAJARAN BLENDED MENGGUNAKAN MOBILE LEARNING BERBASIS FLASH LITE UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR MATA PELAJARAN TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI DAN KOMUNIKASI PADA PESERTA DIDIK KELAS VII SMP 1 KUDUS Widyaningsih, Wahyu; Binadja, Achmad; RC, Achmad Rifai
Innovative Journal of Curriculum and Educational Technology Vol 2 No 2 (2013): November 2013
Publisher : unnes press

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Abstract

Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian pengembangan dengan tujuan mengetahui efektifitas pembelajaran blended menggunakan mobile learning berbasis flash lite. Penelitian dilakukan di SMP 1 Kudus kelas VII tahun pelajaran 2012/2013. Hasil penelitian ini berupa pengembangan produk berupa mobile learning berbasis flash lite sebagai media yang dikembangkan untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar peserta didik. nilai rata-rata kelompok eksperimen 81 sedangkan nilai rata-rata kelompok kontrol 72. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut dapat dihitung ketuntasan klasikal kelompok eksperimen 74% sedangkan kelompok kontrol 22%. Hasil uji rata-rata postest antara kelompok eksperimen dan kelompok kontrol 0,000<α=0,05, artinya terdapat perbedaan rata-rata antara kelompok eksperimen dan kelompok kontrol. Adapun aktivitas belajar kelompok eksperimen 93% sedangkan kelompok kontrol 37%. Selain itu, guru dan peserta didik memberikan persepsi yang baik pada pembelajaran blended menggunakan mobile learning berbasis flash lite. Jadi, pembelajaran blended menggunakan mobile learning berbasis flash lite efektif dalam peningkatan hasil belajar peserta didik. Selanjutnya peneliti menyarankan untuk pengembangan produk mobile learning lebih lanjut, dapat dikembangkan mobile learning berbasis android.Pelitian ini merupakan penelitian pengembangan dengan tujuan mengetahui efektifitas pembelajaran blended menggunakan mobile learning berbasis flash lite. Penelitian dilakukan di SMP 1 Kudus kelas VII tahun pelajaran 2012/2013. Hasil penelitian ini berupa pengembangan produk berupa mobile learning berbasis flash lite sebagai media yang dikembangkan untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar peserta didik. nilai rata-rata kelompok eksperimen 81 sedangkan nilai rata-rata kelompok kontrol 72. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut dapat dihitung ketuntasan klasikal kelompok eksperimen 74% sedangkan kelompok kontrol 22%. Hasil uji rata-rata postest antara kelompok eksperimen dan kelompok kontrol 0,000<α=0,05, artinya terdapat perbedaan rata-rata antara kelompok eksperimen dan kelompok kontrol. Adapun aktivitas belajar kelompok eksperimen 93% sedangkan kelompok kontrol 37%. Selain itu, guru dan peserta didik memberikan persepsi yang baik pada pembelajaran blended menggunakan mobile learning berbasis flash lite. Jadi, pembelajaran blended menggunakan mobile learning berbasis flash lite efektif dalam peningkatan hasil belajar peserta didik. Selanjutnya peneliti menyarankan untuk pengembangan produk mobile learning lebih lanjut, dapat dikembangkan mobile learning berbasis android.AbstrakStudy was research and development with objectives was to find out the effectiveness of blended learning using mobile learning based on flash lite. Study was conducted in SMP 1 Kudus grade VII school year 2012/2013. For research and development a product of mobile learning model as development instrument to increase students learning outcomes. The average of the experimental groups 81 and the average of the control group 72. Based on these results can be calculated classical completeness 74% of the experimental group and the control group 22%. The avarage test results on postest between the experimental group and control group 0,000<α=0,05, based on these results there is difference on avarage between the experimental group and the control group. The learners’ learning activities on experimental group 93% and the control group 37%. In addition, more than teachers and learners gave good perceptions on blended learning using mobile learning. Thus, it can be concluded that blended learning using mobile learning based on flash lite is effective to increase students’ learning outcomes. Furthermore, researchers suggest for the development of mobile learning products which can be developed using mobile learning based on android.
The Management of the Tahfidz Al Qur’an Education Program in Children Tahfidh Yanbu’ul Qur’an Islamic Boarding School Kudus Chotimah, Chusnul; Rc, Achmad Rifai; Prihatin, Titi
Educational Management Vol 7 No 1 (2018): June 2018
Publisher : Educational Management

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The activity of memorizing the Qur’an is highly recommended to be done as it can balance the two hemispheres of the brain so as to encourage someone to excel. This study aims to analyze the planning, implementation, supervision of the Quranic Tahfidz education program for children aged 6-12 years. The research took place in Kudus City at Children Tahfidz Yanbu’ul Qur’an Islamic Boarding School Kudus. This research is under qualitative research; the data collection methods were taken from interviews, observation and documentation studies. To prove the validity of the data, source and method triangulation techniques were used in this research. Data analysis techniques use the stages of data reduction, data presentation, and verification. The results of this study indicate that (1) the planning begins with the selection of new students who have been able to read and write the Qur’an smoothly using the Sorogan method, planning is made for a period of 6 years and each year's achievement is broken down to obtain the minimum target. (2) The implementation is carried out with a breakdown system grouped according to the tahfidz class. (3) Supervision is carried out through memorization and evaluation of memorization of the Qur'an which is held every weekend by means of mudarosah ayatan. The management of a good education program results in children aged 6-12 years being able to memorize the Qur’an 30 juz accompanied by superior academic achievement.
Improving the Satisfaction of Guidance and Counseling Services through Service Quality, Service Demand, and Service Value Handayani, Dwi Asih Kumala; Wibowo, Mungin Eddy; Florentinus, Totok Sumaryanto; RC, Achmad Rifai
The Journal of Educational Development Vol 6 No 3 (2018): October 2018
Publisher : The Journal of Educational Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (310.335 KB) | DOI: 10.15294/jed.v6i3.25081

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In modern times, technology is always used in all activities in life including guidance and counseling as part of public services. A public service is a service that is based on customer satisfaction so it is important to pay attention to the achievement level of customer satisfaction. The sample of this research is 115 students of Vocational School (SMK) Semarang City, as recipient of the service. This is a quantitative study employing a Path Analysis technique. The result of normality test of the data indicates that all data are normally distributed, free from heteroscedasticity, and avoiding multicollinearity. This research finds facts about what is desired and needed by the recipients of the services to meet the satisfaction of the service they receive. The result of the T-test shows that partially the service quality gives a significant effect on service satisfaction (0.00 <0.05); the service demand gives no significant effect on service satisfaction (0.601> 0.05); as an intervening variable, the service value has no significant effect on service satisfaction (0.917> 0.05). The F-test result proves that simultaneously the service quality, the service demand, and the service value influence service satisfaction. The conclusion is that service quality, service demand, and service value contribute 99.6% to service satisfaction; the rest is a contribution of variables that are not taken into account in this study. It is recommended that the most important service satisfaction is enhanced through service quality with indicators including tangibility, reliability, responsibility, assurance, and empathy.
Manajemen Pembelajaran Tematik di Kelas Tinggi SD Percontohan Kabupaten Indramayu Amanaturrakhmah, Isna; Kardoyo, Kardoyo; RC, Achmad Rifai
Journal of Primary Education Vol 6 No 2 (2017): Agustus 2017
Publisher : Journal of Primary Education

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Penelitian ini dilatarbelakangi oleh banyaknya kendala yang dihadapi guru dalam melaksanakan pembelajaran tematik di SD kelas tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis: (1) Perencanaan pembelajaran tematik di SD kelas tinggi (2) Pelaksanaan pembelajaran tematik di SD kelas tinggi (3) Penilaian pada pembelajaran tematik di SD kelas tinggi (4) Hubungan antara perencanaan dengan pelaksanaan pembelajaran tematik di SD kelas tinggi (5) Hubungan pada perencanaan dengan penilaian pembelajaran tematik di SD kelas tinggi. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode survey dan sampling purposive sebagai teknik penentuan sample. Subyek penelitian adalah seluruh wali kelas untuk kelas IV, V dan VI SD percontohan di kabupaten Indramayu, terdiri atas 14 SD, sebanyak 45 responden. Variabel penelitian adalah: Perencanaan (variabel independen), Pelaksanaan pembelajaran (variabel dependen) dan pelaksanaan evaluasi (variabel dependen). Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan angket. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penyelenggaraan pembelajaran tematik di SD kelas tinggi di Indramayu berjalan baik. Hasil kuesioner menunjukkan 60% responden mengembangkan perencanaan pada kategori baik, 49% responden melaksanakan pembelajaran pada kategori baik dan 64% responden melaksanakan evaluasi pada kategori baik. Terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara perencanaan dengan pelaksanaan pembelajaran dengan nilai Pearson Correlation sebesar 0.906. Terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara perencanaan dengan penilaian dengan nilai Pearson Correlation 0.889.This research is motivated by the many obstacles faced by teachers in implementing the thematic learning in the upper grades of elementary school. The aims of the research are to analyze: (1) The thematic lesson plan in the upper grades of Elementary School, (2) The thematic learning mplemented in the upper grades of Elementary School, (3) The evaluation of thematic learning in upper grades of Elementary School, (4) the correlation between lesson plan and learning process in upper grades of Elementary School, (5) the correlation between learning process and evaluation in upper grades of Elementary School. This study uses survey as a method and purposive sampling technique in choosing the sample. The research subjects are all the teachers of IV, V and VI grades in pilot project elementary school of Indramayu district. They consist of 14 schools within 45 respondents. The variabels are: Planning (as independent), learning process (as dependent) and evaluation (as dependent). The result shows that the implementation of thematic learning in upper grades in Indramayu works well. The questionnaires result show that 60% of respondents planned the learning well, 49% of all respondents implemented thematic learning well and 64% do the evaluation well. There is a significant correlation between lesson plan and learning process by 0.906 value of Pearson Correlation. So that the correlation of learning process and the evaluation is correlated significantly by 0.889 value of Pearson correlation.
Leadership Guru Pendidikan Jasmani Olahraga dan Kesehatan di SMP Ogan Komering Ulu Timur Sumatera Selatan Darmawati, Diana; Rahayu, Tandiyo; RC, Achmad Rifai
Journal of Physical Education and Sports Vol 6 No 2 (2017): Agustus 2017
Publisher : Journal of Physical Education and Sports

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Leadership guru sangat penting dalam proses pembelajaran, karena dengan Leadership yang baik anak akan mencapai arah tujuan pembelajaran. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mendeskripsikan dan menganalisis Leadership guru Penjasorkes di Kabupaten OKU Timur Sumatera Selatan dan Fungsi dan Peran dari leadership guru dalam proses pembelajaran. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif. Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan teknik wawancara, pengamatan dan dokumen. Latar penelitian meliputi SMP negeri di kabupaten OKU Timur. Sumber data diperoleh dari kepala sekolah, guru penjasorkes. Kesahihan data dengan cara triangulasi data. Data dianalisis dengan cara mengumpulkan data, menyajikan data, mereduksi data dan penarikan kesimpulan. Hasil Penelitian pada enam sekolah dan sebelas guru olahraga ditemukan bahwa ada empat tipe leadership yang digunakan oleh guru dalam proses pembelajaran PJOK, yaitu Demokratis, Lassez Fire, Otoriter, Militeris. Dari ke empat tipe tersebut kecenderungan guru olahraga menggunakan tipe leadership Demokratis. Leadership guru dalam proses pembelajaran Pendidikan Jasmani Olahraga dan Kesehatan mempunyai peran yang penting dalam mencapai tujuan pembelajaran, dengan kepemimpinan yang tepat maka proses pembelajaran yang dilakukkan akan lebih meningkat dan tujuan dari pembelajaran akan tercapai. Penelitian ini merekomendasikan bahwa dalam terbentuknya Leadership guru dalam proses belajar mengajar penting untuk memperhatikan pengalaman mengajar guru, tingkat kesejahteraan, dan kompetensi yang dimiliki guru tersebut. Lingkungan yang mendukung juga merupakan satu faktor yang perlu diperhatikan, dan dalam proses pembelajaran guru hendaknya menerapkan tipe leadership demokratis.Leadership of teachers is very important part in the learning process. It helps the students to gain the goals of learning. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze the teacher leadership of physical education, sport and health in Ogan Komering Ulu (OKU) Timur regency, South Sumatera. This study used a qualitative approach. The data were collected by using interview, observation, and documentation techniques. The population was the principals and the teachers of physical education, sport and health at Junior High School (SMP). The validity of the data used data triangulation. The data were analyzed by using collecting, presenting, reducing the data, and drawing conclusions. The results showed that the teachers had democratic, Laissez Faire, military and authoritarian, of the four leadership types, teacher use the type of democratic.Teacher Leadership in the learning prosess of phycsical education sport and health have an important role in achieving the goal of learning, with the right leadership, student learning will be increased and the purpose of learning will be achieved. There were some important parts to build good leadership of teachers in the learning process such as teaching experiences, welfare, and competencies. Besides that, a good and conducive environment is also supporting factor that needs to be considered, and in the learning process teachers should apply the type of democratic leadership.
Pengaruh Gaya Mengajar Latihan dan Koordinasi Mata Tangan terhadap Hasil Pembelajaran Dribbling Bola Basket Rahayu, Puji; Rahayu, Tandiyo; RC, Achmad Rifai
Journal of Physical Education and Sports Vol 6 No 2 (2017): Agustus 2017
Publisher : Journal of Physical Education and Sports

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Proses pembelajaran pendidikan jasmani di kebanyakan sekolah masih kurang variatif, pemilihan gaya mengajar menjadi kunci keberhasilan pembelajaran. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimen dengan rancangan metode faktorial 2x2.Variabel dalam penelitian ini: variable bebas yaitu gaya mengajar latihan, variable terikat hasil pembelajaran dribbling bola basket, dan koordinasi mata tangan sebagai variabel atribut. Teknik analisis data digunakan teknik analisis varians (anava) α 0,05 dan uji tukey. Hasil penelitian (1). Terdapat perbedaan antara gaya mengajar latihan menggunakan video dan demonstrasi langsung Fhitung = 18,242 dan Ftabel = 3,21 (2). Terdapat perbedaan hasil pembelajaran dribbling bola basket antara kelompok siswa yang memiliki koordinasi mata tangan tinggi dan koordinasi mata tangan rendah Fhitung = 4,407 > Ftabel = 3,21 (3). Terdapat interaksi antara gaya mengajar latihan dengan koordinasi mata tangan terhadap peningkatan hasil pembelajaran dribbling bola basket Fhitung= 7,174 > Ftabel= 3,21. Kesimpulan secara keseluruhan hasil pembelajaran dribbling bola basket antara siswa yang diajar dengan gaya mengajar latihan menggunakan video lebih baik daripada menggunakan demonstrasi langsung. Secara keseluruhan hasil pembelajaran dribbling bola basket siswa yang memiliki tingkat koordinasi mata tangan tinggi lebih baik dibanding siswa yang memiliki tingkat koordinasi mata tangan rendah.Terdapat interaksi antara gaya mengajar dan koordinasi mata tangan terhadap hasil pembelajaran dribbling bola basket.The learning process of physical education at schools is still less varied. In fact, the use of teaching style determines the success of learning. This study used an experimental method with 2x2 factorial design. This study used two variables: (1) the practice teaching style as independent variable; and (2) basketball dribbling learning outcomes as the dependent variables and hand-eye coordination as an attribute variable. The data analysis techniques used in this study were variance analysis technique (anava) α 0.05 and Tukey test. The results showed that: (1) There was a significant difference in practice teaching style using comprehensive videos and videos feedback with Fvalue = 18.242 and Ftable = 3.21. (2) There was a difference in basketball dribbling learning outcomes between students who had high hand-eye coordination and the low ones with Fvalue = 4.407 > Ftable = 3.21 (3) There was interaction between practice teaching style and hand-eye coordination towards improvement basketball dribbling learning outcomes with Fvalue = 7.174 > Ftable = 3.21. It could be concluded that basketball dribbling learning outcomes of students who were taught through practice  teaching style using comprehensive videos was better than feedback videos. Overall, basketball dribbling learning outcomes of students who had high hand-eye coordination was better than the low ones. There was interaction between the practice  teaching style and the hand-eye coordination towards improvement of basketball dribbling learning outcomes.
Ragam Pemanasan dan Pendinginan pada Cabang Olahraga Bola Basket di Kota Semarang Arifin, Zenal; Soekardi, Soekardi; RC, Achmad Rifai
Journal of Physical Education and Sports Vol 6 No 3 (2017): Desember 2017
Publisher : Journal of Physical Education and Sports

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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui: (1) Ragam pemanasan pada cabang olahraga bola basket di kota Semarang; (2) Ragam pendinginan pada cabang olahraga bola basket di kota Semarang; (3) Struktur pemanasan pada cabang olahraga bola basket di kota Semarang; (4) Struktur pendinginan pada cabang olahraga bola basket di kota Semarang; (5) Hambatan dan kesulitan dalam pelaksanaan kegiatan pemanasan dan pendinginan pada cabang olahraga bola basket di kota Semarang. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif dengan pendekatan analisis deskriptif, sedangkan metode pengumpulan data yang digunakan oleh peneliti adalah observasi, wawancara, dan dokumentasi. Hasil observasi menggambarkan struktur pemanasan meliputi pemanasan umum, peregangan, dan pemanasan khusus, sedangkan struktur pendinginan terdiri dari fase penurunan suhu otot dan peregangan. Perbedaan program pemanasan dan pendinginan terdapat pada bentuk gerakan, durasi, dan pola pemanasan dan pendinginan. Kesimpulan dalam penelitian ini adalah: (1) Kegiatan pemanasan dan pendinginan di kota semarang beragam namun tidak mengurangi fungsi dan manfaatnya; (2) Kegiatan pendinginan di kota semarang beragam gerakan dan polanya; (3) Struktur pemanasan pada cabang olahraga bola basket di kota Semarang meliputi pemanasan umum, peregangan, dan pemanasan khusus; (4) Struktur pendinginan pada cabang olahraga bola basket di kota Semarang meliputi fase penurunan  suhu otot dan fase peregangan; (5) Hambatan alam pelaksanaan pemanasan dan pendinginan adalah pengetahuan, waktu dan kreatifitas pelatih dalam menyusun program pemanasan. Kegiatan pemanasan dan pendinginan harus dilakukan saat latihan. Pelatih sebaiknya membuat pola pemanasan dan pendinginan yang beragam agar lebih efektif dan menyenangkanThis study is aimed to know: (1) Kind of warming up in basketball in Semarang regency; (2) Kind of warming down in basketball in Semarang regency; (3) The structure of warming up in basketball in Semarang regency; (4) The structure of warming down in basketball in Semarang regency; (5) The difficulties in the implementation of warming up and warming down in basketball in Semarang regency. This research is a qualitative descriptive analysis approach, while the data collection methods used by researchers is the observation, interviews, and documentation. The conclusion of this study are: (1) The activity of warming up and warming down in Semarang regency diverse but does not reduce the functions and advantage; (2) The warming down in Semarang have various movements and patterns; (3) The structure of the warming up in the sport of basketball in Semarang regency include general warming up, stretching, and specific warming up; (4) The structure of the warming down in the sport of basketball in Semarang regency include muscle temperature decrease phase and stretching; (5) The difficulties in the implementation of warming up and warming down is the knowledge, time and creativity coach in preparing the heating program. Warming up and warming down  activities to be done during exercise. Coaches should make warming up and warming down patterns vary to make it more effective and enjoyable. The need for socialization and training programing warming up and warming down program for all coaches to understand and develop programs with both warming up and warming down.
The Effect of Soft Skills, Work Culture, and Service Quality in the Satisfaction Level of the Students of Anesthesia Specialist Study Program of Diponegoro University, Semarang Dwijatmiko, Heru; Samsudi, Samsudi; Rustono, Rustono; RC, Achmad Rifai
The Journal of Educational Development Vol 7 No 1 (2019): February 2019
Publisher : The Journal of Educational Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jed.v7i1.29892

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The lecturer’s soft skill is a part of personality competencies which becomes one of the competencies that must be possessed by lecturers. Basically, success in achieving an educational goal very much depends on the individuals' ability to carry out their duties. The main objective of this study is to analyze the influence of lecturer’s soft skills, work culture, and service quality on the satisfaction level of the students in the anesthesia specialist study program of Diponegoro University (UNDIP) Semarang. The study population is students of the anesthesia specialist program; the determined sample was 120 students selected using random sampling. Data was drawn using a questionnaire; they were then analyzed using the SPSS and the Lisrel 8.54 programs. The results show that (1) the effect of lecturer’s soft skills on service quality was 62.41%, and on student satisfaction was 59.29%; (2) the influence of work culture on service quality was 40.96%, and on student satisfaction was 43.56%; (3) the effect of service quality on student satisfaction was 50.41%; (4) the influence of the lecturer’s soft skills and work culture altogether on service quality was 51%; (5) the influence of lecturer’s soft skills, work culture, and quality of service altogether on students’ satisfaction was 72%. So, the satisfaction of the PPD UNDIP Semarang students very much depends on the dynamics of the lecturer’s soft skills, work culture, and service quality provided by the university, especially the medical faculty.
PENYELENGGARAAN PROGRAM KURSUS MUSIK (STUDI PADA LEMBAGA LILY’S MUSIC SCHOOL SEMARANG) Astorini, Indah Dwi; RC, Achmad Rifai
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Publisher : Universitas Sriwijaya

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Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mendeskripsikan penyelenggaraan program kursus musik LKP Lily’s Music School Semarang. Metode penelitian ini adalah deskriptif kualitatif dengan pendekatan fenomenologis. Subjek penelitian adalah tutor/instruktur, warga belajar, pemilik, dan kepala administrasi. Fokus penelitian adalah perencanaan, pelaksanaan, dan evaluasi program kursus musik. Teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah wawancara, observasi, dan dokumentasi. Keabsahan data diperoleh melalui triangulasi sumber, teori, dan metode. Analisis data meliputi pengumpulan data, reduksi data, penyajian data, dan verifikasi atau penarikan simpulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penyelenggaraan program LKP Lily’s Music School Semarang meliputi:Perencanaan meliputi tutor ahli di bidangnya, kurikulum dibuat sendiri, sarana prasarana memadai, dan anggaran dana dikelola secara ordonator; Pelaksanaan meliputi pembelajaran fleksibel dan sistematis, iklim pembelajaran kondusif, interaksi sosial berlangsung baik, media pembelajaran sesuai kebutuhan, stimulus berupa reward and punishment, monitoring dilakukan secara internal dan eksternal, supervisi belum terealisasi; Evaluasi  menggunakan formative-sumative evaluation model.
Model of Needs-Based Professionalism Development in Military Academy Magelang Hartono, Untung; Rachman, Maman; RC, Achmad Rifai; Prihatin, Titi
The Journal of Educational Development Vol 7 No 2 (2019): June 2019
Publisher : The Journal of Educational Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jed.v7i2.30586

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Lecturers are professional educators and scientists whose main task is to transform, develop, and disseminate science, technology and art through education, research, and community service. Therefore, lecturers are required to possess pedagogical, personal, social, and professional competencies. Article 60, Law No. 14/2005 concerning Teachers and Lecturers, requires lecturers to "improve and develop their academic qualifications and competencies in a sustainable manner in line with the development of science, technology and art". The obligation stated in this law must be carried out by lecturers, especially lecturers at the Military Academy Magelang. The findings of this study are (1) the policy of preparing lecturers' planning by institutions is still weak and not paying attention to aspects of mapping needs; (2) the implementation of lecturer competency management development activities is not based on aspects of fulfilling student service needs; (3) management development strategies for improving lecturer competency have not been well coordinated; (4) management supervision to improve professional competence of lecturers is less attention to management aspects; (5) fostering the development of professional competence of lecturers is not sustainable and takes into account the aspects of reward and punishment.