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STATE LIABILITY FOR VIOLATION OF CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS AGAINST INDIGENOUS PEOPLE IN FREEDOM OF RELIGION AND BELIEF Aditya, Zaka Firma; Al-Fatih, Sholahuddin
Brawijaya Law Journal Vol 4, No 1 (2017): Constitutional Issues and Indigenous Rights
Publisher : Faculty of Law, Universitas Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21776/ub.blj.2017.004.01.02

Abstract

The government is perceived as the main perpetrator on violations of freedom of religion and belief in Indonesia. As the state organizer, the government frequently issues discriminatory regulations and policies and tend to cause intolerance to minority religions and beliefs, particularly to indigenous peoples. While freedom of religion or belief is a constitutional rights that cannot be reduced and is guaranteed universally in constitution and laws, the law provides limitation that causes ambiguity in the fulfillment of the rights of religion and belief. In addition, the government mindset still adheres to the term of "official religion" and "non-official religion" in any policy-making, causing adherents of minority religions and beliefs to be considered as cultural heritage to be preserved. This creates injustice, discrimination, intimidation and intolerance in rights fulfillment in state and society life. This paper discusses the existence of the guarantee of freedom of religion and belief for indigenous people and state liability for violations of freedom of religion and belief. This research used normative juridical method with statute approach and conceptual approach.
KEWENANGAN MAHKAMAH KONSTITUSI DALAM MENYELESAIKAN PERKARA CONSTITUTIONAL COMPLAINT BERDASARKAN UNDANG-UNDANG DASAR TAHUN 1945 aditya, zaka firma
Unnes Law Journal Vol 3 No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Ilmu Hukum

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Abstract

Diadopsinya mekanisme constitutional complaint dalam sistem peradilan konstitusi adalah bagian dari perlindungan terhadap hak konstitusional warga negara. Tetapi, Mahkamah Konstitusi sebagai lembaga yudikatif yang bertugas mengawal tegaknya konstitusi belum diberikan kewenangan untuk mengadili perkara pengaduan konstitusional..Hasil dari penelitian skripsi ini adalah: secara legal formal, UUD Tahun 1945 tidak memberi peluang untuk MK RI dalam menyelesaikan perkara constitutional complaint tanpa melalui amandemen; MK memiliki prospek untuk menyelesaikan perkara constitutional complaint dimasa mendatang, karena banyak perkara pengujian undang-undang yang masuk ke MK secara substansi merupakan pengaduan konstitusional; Mekanisme constitutional complaint di Indonesia sama seperti mekanisme judicial review, yaitu dari pemohon, objek dan persyaratan. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini yaitu, MK tidak memiliki peluang menyelesaikan perkara constitutional complaint berdasarkan UUD 1945; MK memiliki prospek mengadili perkara constitutional complaint dimasa mendatang, karena banyak kasus constitutional complaint yang terjadi dimasyarakat tidak dapat diselesaikan sehingga membuat kekosongan hukum; mekanisme constitutional complaint di Indonesia di masa mendatang dapat mengadopsi mekanisme constitutional complaint Federal Jerman, berkaitan dengan legal standing pemohon, objek permohonan dan syarat permohonan.Adoption of the constitutional complaint mechanism in the judicial system is part of the constitutional protection of the constitutional rights of citizens . However , the Constitutional Court as a judicial body in charge of guarding the enforcement of the constitution has not been given the authority to adjudicate constitutional complaints. The results of this research are : a formal legal basis , the Constitution of 1945 did not provide an opportunity to resolve the Constitutional Court in the case of constitutional complaint without amendment ; The Court has the prospect to complete the constitutional complaint case in the future , because many cases testing laws that go into the substance of the Court in a constitutional complaint ; The mechanism of the constitutional complaint in Indonesia the same as the mechanism of judicial review , that is, from the applicant , objects and requirements . The conclusions of this study are , the Court does not have the chance resolve the constitutional complaint case under the 1945 Constitution; The Court has heard the cases of constitutional complaint prospects in the future, because many cases occur in the community constitutional complaint can not be resolved so as to make void the law; the mechanism of the constitutional complaint in Indonesia in the future to adopt the German Federal constitutional complaint mechanism , related to the legal standing of the applicant, the object of the petition and the petition requirements .
PERLINDUNGAN HUKUM TERHADAP IKAN HIU DAN IKAN PARI UNTUK MENJAGA KESEIMBANGAN EKOSISTEM LAUT INDONESIA Aditya, Zaka Firma; Al-Fatih, Sholahuddin
Jurnal Ilmiah Hukum LEGALITY Vol 24, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Faculty of Law University of Muhammadiyah Malang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22219/jihl.v24i2.4273

Abstract

The population of sharks and rays in Indonesia threatened with extinction. Based on the findings of WWF Indonesia that there are at least 10 million sharks caught in Indonesian waters each year for commercial purposes. Urgency of protection against sharks and stingrays are not only conservation activities related to efforts to save species of marine animals from extinction, but also related to global environmental issues. Until this time there has been no regulation of the Indonesian government, which specifically provides protection to the conservation of sharks and rays in Indonesia’s marine waters. In this paper, the author will discuss two findings. First, the lack of regulations that provide legal protection to sharks and stingrays from illegal fishing activity. Secondly, there are two efforts can be made by the government, repressive and preventive measures. A repressive measure carried out by law enforcement with a very heavy sanction the perpetrators of fishing of sharks and stingrays. Preventive efforts done by making shark conservation areas and through education and awareness to the community.
Tanggung Jawab Moral Pejabat Melalui Pemanfaatan Media Cetak dan Elektronik dalam Rangka Penyelenggaraan Pemerintahan yang Bebas dari KKN Aditya, Zaka Firma
Jurnal Universitas Paramadina Vol 13 (2016)
Publisher : Jurnal Universitas Paramadina

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Abstract

AbstrakTanggungjawab moral pejabat seringkali menjadi permasalahan umum dalam tata kelola pemerintahan yang baik yang sulit untuk ditemukan solusi. Beberapa permasalahan muncul akibat tanggungjawab moral pejabat yang rendah. Misalnya dalam kasus pelaksanaan Putusan Tata Usaha Negara (TUN) yang telah in kracht van gwisjde yang tidak berjalan secara efektif karena rendahnya pertanggungjawaban moral pejabat untuk mematuhi putusan tersebut. Pelaksanaan program kerja pejabat seperti kunjungan kerja, rapat dan sebagainya juga membutuhkan tanggungjawab moral sehingga dalam pelaksanannya tidak memuat unsur KKN. Kunjungan kerja yang tidak relevan, rapat di tempat yang tidak semestinya, pelaksanaan program kerja yang tidak sesuai kebutuhan adalah contoh kegiatan pejabat dengan pertanggungjawabn moral yang rendah. Untuk mengatasi hal ini, maka perlu dibuat strategi pertanggungjawaban moral pejabat yang aplikatif dan relevan, yaitu bagaimana pertanggungjawaban moral yang dibuat oleh pejabat yang berwenang (moral agent) nantinya transparan dan akuntabel..Undang-Undang Keterbukaan Informasi Publik sebenarnya telah memberikan mekanisme pelaporan kegiatan pemerintahan yang transparan dan akuntabel melalui pengumuman di media cetak maupun elektronik. Makanismenya adalah setiap kegiatan yang berhubungan dengan pemerintahan dilaporkan dalam media cetak ataupun elektronik, baik itu anggaran yang digunakan ataupun dokumentasi kegiatan.. Dalam tulisan ini akan dibahas mendalam mengenai dua permasalahan, yaitu: (1) bagaimana bentuk penyelenggaraan pemerintahan yang membutuhkan tanggungjawab moral pejabat; dan (2) mekanisme tanggungjawab moral pejabat melalui pemanfaatan media cetak dan elektronik agar bersifat transparan dan akuntabel.
Rekonstruksi Hierarki Peraturan Perundang-Undangan Di Indonesia (Reconstruction Of The Hierarchy Of Legislation In Indonesia) Aditya, Zaka Firma; Winata, Muhammad Reza
Jurnal Negara Hukum: Membangun Hukum Untuk Keadilan Vol 9, No 1 (2018): JNH VOL 9 NO. 1 Juni 2018
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian Badan Keahlian DPR RI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1383.103 KB) | DOI: 10.22212/jnh.v9i1.976

Abstract

The hierarchy of legislation in Indonesia has been amended 4 (four) times, but still contains juridical issues. The most common problems are related to the overlapping of existing rules. Law Number 12 Year 2011 as the guidance of hierarchy of legislation which is considered to improve the probability in the previous law, was also experiencing the same problem. Some of the problems contained in Law 12/2011 are related to the reposition of the People's Consultative Assembly decree (MPR's decree), the unclear position of the ministerial regulations, the state organs regulations, and local regulations of village. Even, as well as the content of the presidential regulation that is considered to be the same as the government regulation. This paper will discuss about (1) the legal historis and legal policy of the hierarchy of legislation in Indonesia and its problems; (2) the reconstruction of the hierarchy of legislation in Indonesia. The results of this paper that the establishment of a hierarchy of legislation in Indonesia has each political law in accordance with the regime at the time. Each hierarchy has its own problems, although the original aim is to discipline and correct the ambiguity of the previous legislation. Thus, the reconstruction of the hierarchy of legislation is important to ensure consistency and harmony of norms at various levels of legislation. The reconstruction in question is to rearrange the hierarchy of legislation by distinguishing between the legislation in the central and regional levels. AbstrakHierarki peraturan perundang-undangan di Indonesia telah diubah sebanyak 4 (empat) kali, namun masih mengandung permasalahan-permasalahan yuridis di dalamnya. Permasalahan yang paling sering terjadi berkaitan dengan tumpang tindihnya aturan-aturan yang ada. UU No. 12 Tahun 2011 tentang Pembentukan Peraturan Perundang-undangan sebagai pedoman hierarki perundang-undangan yang dianggap dapat mengatasi masalah dalam undang-undang sebelumnya, namun juga mengalami masalah yang sama. Beberapa problematika yang ada dalam UU No. 12 Tahun 2011 berkaitan dengan dikembalikannya kedudukan ketetapan MPR, tidak tegasnya kedudukan peraturan menteri, kedudukan peraturan lembaga negara, dan peraturan desa, serta materi muatan peraturan presiden yang dianggap sama dengan peraturan pemerintah. Tulisan ini akan membahas mengenai (1) legal historis dan politik hukum hierarki peraturan perundang-undangan di Indonesia beserta permasalahan-permasalahnnya; dan (2) rekonstruksi hierarki peraturan perundang-undangan di Indonesia. Adapun hasil penulisan ini bahwa pembentukan hierarki peraturan perundang-undangan di Indonesia memiliki politik hukum masing-masing sesuai dengan rezim pemerintahan pada saat itu. Setiap hierarki memiliki problematikanya masing-masing, meskipun tujuan awalnya sama yaitu untuk menertibkan dan memperbaiki kerancuan dari peraturan sebelumnya, sehingga rekonstruksi hierarki peraturan perundang-undangan penting dilakukan agar menjamin konsistensi dan keselarasan norma-norma pada berbagai tingkatan peraturan perundang-undangan. Adapun rekonstruksi yang dimaksud adalah dengan menata kembali hierarki peraturan perundang-undangan dengan membedakannya antara peraturan perundang-undangan tingkat pusat dan tingkat daerah.
ROMANTISME SISTEM HUKUM DI INDONESIA : KAJIAN ATAS KONSTRIBUSI HUKUM ADAT DAN HUKUM ISLAM TERHADAP PEMBANGUNAN HUKUM DI INDONESIA Aditya, Zaka Firma
Jurnal Rechts Vinding: Media Pembinaan Hukum Nasional Vol 8, No 1 (2019): April 2019
Publisher : Jurnal Rechts Vinding: Media Pembinaan Hukum Nasional

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Abstract

Sebagai negara hukum, Indonesia menganut tiga sistem hukum sekaligus yang hidup dan berkembang di masyarakat yakni sistem hukum civil,sistem hukum adat, dan sistem hukum Islam. Ketiga sistem hukum tersebut saling melengkapi, harmonis dan romantis. Hukum Islam mempengaruhi corak hukum di Indonesia karena mayoritas penduduk di Indonesia menganut agama Islam yang memungkinkan hukum Islam menjadi bagian yang penting dan berpengaruh dalam sistem hukum di Indonesia. Sedangkan hukum adat sebagai hukum yang asli yang tumbuh dan berkembang dari kebiasaan-kebiasaan masyarakat mempengaruhi proses berlakunya hukum di Indonesia. Bahkan, nilai-nilai yang terkandung dari hukum adat dan hukum Islam di Indonesia digunakan dalam pembentukan yurisprudensi di Mahkamah Agung. Tulisan ini akan menjelaskan bagaimana hukum adat dan hukum Islam yang berkarakter “tidak tertulis” mampu mengisi legal gapdari sistem hukum civil Indonesia. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam tulisan ini adalah metode penelitian hukum normatif dan menggunakan beberapa pendekatan yakni pendekatan undang-undang, pendekatan perbandingan, dan pendekatan sejarah. Tulisan ini menyimpulkan bahwa pluralisme hukum yang ada di Indonesia dapat menjadi solusi dari adanya legal gapyang tercipta karena kekakuan penerapan hukum civil. Kekakuan tersebut dapat diatasi dengan fleksibilitas dari norma dan nilai yang terdapat dalam hukum adat dan hukum Islam, sehingga dapat menciptakan ketertiban di masyarakat.
PENERAPAN MODAL SOSIAL DALAM PRAKTEK PERADILAN YANG BERBASIS KEPEKAAN SOSIAL Aditya, Zaka Firma
Legality : Jurnal Ilmiah Hukum Vol 25, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Faculty of Law, University of Muhammadiyah Malang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22219/jihl.v25i2.6002

Abstract

The judiciary is an institution that should reflect on justice sought by justice seekers. But the fact is different; justice becomes one of the institutions with a high level of public distrust. The actual social capital has been present and is present in the community but has not yet been functioned and used further, especially by law enforcement officers making law enforcement in Indonesia far from expectations. In fact, the concept of modern justice has been triggered at international meetings that not only prioritize formal legal aspects but also the intellectual, emotional and spiritual aspects of law enforcement as well as social capital. In an effort to bring about a legal state with progressive legal practice will greatly depend not only on good legislation but much more dependent on law enforcement officials as implementers of the law
ANALISIS YURIDIS KEDUDUKAN HUKUM LEMBAGA PEMBERI FATWA HALAL DI BEBERAPA NEGARA Aditya, Zaka Firma; Al-Fatih, Sholahuddin
Wacana Hukum Vol 25, No 1 (2019)
Publisher : Universitas Slamet Riyadi

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.33061/1.jwh.2019.25.1.3033

Abstract

AbstractConsuming halal and safe food products is a constitutional right of citizens. This right is realized through guarantee of halal products, the institution authorized to issue fatwa halla on a product is LPPOM MUI. The results showed that LPPOM MUI issued a halal certificate for a product after previously going through a trial process at the MUI Fatwa Commission. Although judicially the position of MUI is not a state institution, the presence of the MUI, especially LPPOM MUI, can answer the needs of the community. Halal certificates from LPPOM MUI can at least provide legal certainty for the community. Abroad, halal certification institutions are government or private institutions that have their own statutory regulations and standards.AbstrakMengkonsumsi produk pangan halal dan aman merupakan hak konstitusional warga negara. Hak tersebut diwujudkan melalui jaminan produk halal, lembaga yang berwenang mengeluarkan fatwa halla atas suau produk adalah LPPOM MUI. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa LPPOM MUI mengeluarkan sertifikat halal atas suatu produk setelah sebelumnya melalui proses sidang di Komisi Fatwa MUI. Meskipun secara yuridis kedudukan MUI bukan merupakan lembaga negara, namun kehadiran MUI, terutama LPPOM MUI, bisa menjawab kebutuhan masyarakat. Sertifikat halal dari LPPOM MUI setidakya bisa memberikan kepastian hukum bagi masyarakat. Di luar negeri, lembaga sertifikasi halal merupakan lembaga pemerintah atau swasta yang memiliki perundang-undangan dan standar resmi tersendiri.
THE LEGAL PROTECTION AGAINST TERRORISMSUSPECTS IN INDONESIA(CASE STUDY OF THE ARREST PROCESS OFTERRORISM SUSPECTS BY DENSUS 88) Al-Fatih, Sholahuddin; Aditya, Zaka Firma
Legality : Jurnal Ilmiah Hukum Vol 27, No 1 (2019): Maret 2019 - Agustus 2019
Publisher : Faculty of Law, University of Muhammadiyah Malang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22219/jihl.v27i1.8954

Abstract

Terrorism is a form of extraordinary crime that not only leads to lives and material losses, but also creates a continuing fear in society. Backed by the many cases of terrorism with suicide bombing mode, especially in the case of Bali Bombing 1 and 2, then born special datachment 88 (Densus 88) which has the obligation to combat terrorism. Unfortunately, in cracking down on the perpetrators of terror, even those still suspected as terrorist suspects, Densus 88 often uses violence and even shoots off on the spot. The late Siyono was one of the victims of repressive measures carried out by Densus 88. In other cases, Densus 88 is also often proven to mis-arrest after the suspect has lost his life. This condition is certainly contrary to the spirit of democracy and efforts to guarantee human rights protection in Indonesia. This paper discusses: (1) the Standard Operational Procedure of terrorist suspected arrest process by Densus 88 and its comparison with anti terrorism agency in other country; and (2) Guarantees and legal protection in the fulfillment of the rights of suspected terrorists.