Ratri Retno Utami, Ratri Retno
Unknown Affiliation

Published : 2 Documents
Articles

Found 2 Documents
Search

Optimasi Sintesa Ester Maltitol Asam Lemak Dari Minyak Kelapa Sawit Menggunakan Lipase Getah Pepaya sebagai Katalisator

Jurnal Riset Teknologi Industri Vol 7 No 13 Juni 2013
Publisher : Balai Riset dan Standardisasi Industri Samarinda

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (7861.194 KB)

Abstract

Research optimization of the ester Maltlitol Fatty Acid (EMALTAL) synthesis from palm as biosurfactant has been conducted. Papaya latex lipase used as a catalyst in the synthesis. This research aims to study the optimization of biosurfactant synthesis Maltitol Fatty Acid Esters (EMALTAL) from palm oil using papaya latex lipase as a catalyst. Before the synthesis carried out, palm oil is converted into methyl esters Fatty Acids (EMAL). Optimal conditions needed to form EMALTAL determined by Response Surface Method / RSM. To get the optimum conversion EMALTAL synthesis, the reaction is affected by three variables: time, papaya latex lipase levels and temperature as well as the response variable is called the optimum conversion EMALTAL synthesis. By using response surface methods (RSM), the optimal synthesis conditions obtained at a temperature of 0C 39.4490, 53.2440 minutes of time and concentration of crude papaya latex 7.6600% to 28.6806% conversion of surfactant in the form of monoester. Characterization of EMALTAL shows the melting point of 24.5-27oC, 180oC smoke point and refractive index of 1.441. EMALTAL produced a monoester that serves as an emulsifier

Aktivitas Antioksidan Kulit Biji Kakao dari Hasil Penyangraian Biji Kakao Kering pada Derajat Ringan, Sedang dan Berat

Agritech Vol 37, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Cocoa bean shell is waste from chocolate industry that containing polyphenol 5.78 % and can be used as natural antioxidant source. The most important step in cocoa processing is roasting. Roasting is needed for developing the chocolate flavor. Chocolate industries do their roasting with low, medium and high degree, depend on product’s necessity. The objective of this research is to determine the effect of roasting degree toward cocoa bean shell antioxidant activity. Cocoa bean roasted at low degree (110 ºC for 60 minutes), medium (140 ºC for 40 minutes) and high (190ºC for 15 minutes). Cocoa bean shell polyphenol was extracted with acetone 70 %. Yield, total phenolic, DPPH free radical scavenging activity as IC50 and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation was analyzed from crude polyphenol extract. The result shows that the increasing of roasting temperature leads to low yield. Cocoa bean shell polyphenol extract with high roasting degree has the lowest yield (8.07 % b/b). While cocoa bean shell polyphenol extract using medium roasting degree has the highest total phenolic and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of 21.23 ± 0.39 mg GAE/g dry extract and IC50 74.31 ± 0.72 μg/mL, respectively. Cocoa bean shell polyphenol extract is able to inhibit the linoleic acid oxidation. Roasting enhance the inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation compared to extract without roasting about 6%. For the future study, it is needed to identify the cocoa bean shell antioxidant compound during roasting. ABSTRAKKulit biji kakao merupakan limbah dari industri pengolahan cokelat yang mengandung polifenol sebesar 5,78 %, sehingga berpotensi untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber senyawa antioksidan alami. Tahapan penting dalam pengolahan biji kakao kering adalah penyangraian yang berguna untuk pengembangan citarasa khas cokelat. Industri pengolahan cokelat melakukan penyangraian dengan derajat ringan, sedang dan berat, berdasarkan produk yang dikehendaki. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh derajat penyangraian terhadap aktivitas antioksidan kulit biji kakao. Biji kakao kering disangrai pada derajat ringan (110 ºC selama 60 menit), sedang (140 ºC selama 40 menit) dan berat (190 ºC selama 15 menit). Polifenol kulit biji kakao diekstrak menggunakan aseton 70 %. Ekstrak polifenol kering dianalisis rendemen, total fenolik, RSA DPPH yang dinyatakan sebagai IC50 dan penghambatan oksidasi asam linoleat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semakin tinggi suhu penyangraian, rendemen yang diperoleh semakin kecil. Ekstrak polifenol kulit biji kakao dengan penyangraian derajat berat mempunyai rendemen paling kecil (8,07 % b/b). Ekstrak polifenol kulit biji kakao dengan penyangraian derajat sedang mempunyai total fenolik dan aktivitas antioksidan penangkap radikal DPPH paling tinggi yaitu sebesar 21,23 ± 0,39 mg EAG/g ekstrak kering dan nilai IC50 74,31 ± 0,72 μg/mL. Ekstrak polifenol kulit biji kakao mampu menghambat oksidasi asam linoleat. Penyangraian meningkatkan aktivitas penghambatan oksidasi asam linoleat sebesar 6 % bila dibandingkan dengan ekstrak polifenol kulit biji kakao tanpa penyangraian. Perlu dilakukan penelitian selanjutnya untuk identifikasi senyawa antioksidan kulit biji kakao dari hasil penyangraian.