Indonesia is one of the biggest archipelago country in the world, These islands lined up, stretching from Sabang to Merauke. Some government institutions studied the number of islands in Indonesia. In March 2nd 2017 President of Republic Indonesia issued Keppres No. 6 2017 about 111 numbers of outer islands. Two of the islands belongs to Bengkulu Province, i.e Enggano and Mega islands. Stretching in an east-west direction embracing nearly 18,000 islands, the Indonesian Archipelago features a seemingly endless array of marine habitats. The country is the global leader with regards to area occupied by coral reef, estimated at 51,090 km2. The total number of coral reef fishes around 2600 species. The highest diversity of coral reef fishes with about 1766 species is Papua Barat. The dominant family is Gobiidae with 405 species, Labridae about 200 species and Pomacentridae with about 176 species. The islands in Indonesia have a unique history and inhabit by numbers of endemic fish species, i.e Muna island, Aru islands, and Enggano island. LIPI conducted an expedition in Enggano in 2015, the result indicated some undescribed species there. The new species found in Indonesia since a long time ago, started on 16 century up to now. The research on freshwater fish in Indonesia found 66 new fish species. Until now there are still a lot of unexplore waters in Indonesia, and there are still awaiting undescribe fish species to be named. Fish conservation in the small islands need to be done, as most of them migrate to the sea. Some aphidromous species growth and reproduction in freshwaters but the juvenile migrate downstream towards the sea, spreading at sea, metamorphosis phase they enter upstream migration and settlement in the freshwater.AbstrakIndonesia merupakan negara kepulauan yang terbesar di dunia, pulau-pulau ini berjajar, membentang dari Sabang sampai Merauke. Kajian jumlah pulau di Indonesia telah diteliti oleh beberapa lembaga di negeri ini. Sebagai negara kepulauan, Indonesia seolah-olah merupakan habitat laut yang tak berujung. Terumbu karang negeri ini sekitar 51.090 km2 merupakan yang terluas di dunia. Jumlah total spesies ikan di perairan terumbu karang Indonesia sekitar 2600 spesies. Wilayah tertinggi keragaman jenisnya adalah perairan Papua Barat dengan 1766 spesies. Famili yang terbesar adalah Gobiidae 405 spesies, selanjutnya Labridae 200 species dan Pomacentridae 176 spesies. Banyak pulau mempunyai riwayat unik dan dihuni oleh spesies-spesies endemik, diantaranya Pulau Muna, Pulau di Kepulauan Aru, juga Pulau Enggano. Hasil penelitian LIPI di P. Enggano mengindikasikan adanya beberapa jenis baru ikan. Penemuan spesies baru telah berlangsung lama, sejak penelitian iktiofauna di Indonesia dimulai pada abad 16 sampai saat ini. Hasil penelitian ikan air tawar di perairan Indonesia telah mendapatkan 66 spesies baru, sampai saat ini masih banyak wilayah perairan belum diteliti dan kemungkinan besar ada spesies baru yang menanti diungkap keberadaannya. Konservasi spesies ikan di pulau-pulau kecil perlu dilakukan, mengingat banyak diantara-nya yang beruaya ke laut. Beberapa spesies gobiid bersifat amfidromus, memijah dan menetas di perairan tawar namun anakannya bermigrasi ke laut, mengalami metamorphosis dan kembali lagi ke perairan tawar.
Hadiaty, R.K. 2007. Scientific review of Gars, Family Lepisosteidae (Lepisosteusspp. & Atractosteus spp.): threat species for native Indonesian fish . ZooIndonesia 16 (2): 87-96. Indonesia is known as one of the countries with high fishdiversity. There are a lot of unexplore area which possibly have some undescribespecies. Damaging environment, poisoning and introduce species are very dangerousfor the sustainability of the native fish species in Indonesia. Gars are the alientpredator fish which prohibited to enter Indonesian waters since 1982, but the factsthere are many breeders of this species. This review paper is to discus the description,taxonomical history and the biology of gars. The aim of this paper is to build theawareness on the dangerous and destructive of this fish for Indonesian native species
Identifying and delineating species are the primary tasks of taxonomy. Owing to the decreasing interest of the nations for taxonomy and the inventory of living beings, funds have been drastically decreasing during the last two decades for taxonomic studies. As a consequence, the worldwide pool of taxonomists has dramatically decreased. DNA barcoding, as an automated tool for species delineation and identification, proved to rejuvenate the field of taxonomy and open new perspectives in ecology and conservation. In the present review, we will discuss how DNA barcoding established as a new paradigm in taxonomy and how DNA barcoding has been recently integrated in taxonomic studies. We will further detail the potential applications for species identifications and discuss how DNA barcoding may positively impact the inventory and conservation of living beings, particularly in biodiversity hotspots. We emphasise the benefit of DNA barcoding for the conservation of Southeast Asian freshwater fishes.
Southeast Asia is one of the most geologically complex tropical regions on Earth, in which the intricate interactions among plate tectonics, volcanism and Pleistocene climatic fluctuations led to complex patterns of species distribution. An increasing number of biogeographic studies of the Indonesian ichthyofauna have already partially uncovered the potential mechanisms at the origin of present day species distribution. These studies are currently scattered in the literature and the present review aims at presenting recent progress. Here, we propose a review of this literature with the aim to provide a broad overview of the current progress in the field of Indonesian freshwater fishes biogeography. First, we will briefly present the geology of the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) and highlight the time frame of the geographical settlement of the Indonesian archipelago. Second, we will present the palaeoecological history of Sundaland during the Pleistocene. Finally, we will present the results of recent biogeographic studies across the three biogeographic provinces (Sundaland, Wallacea, Sahul) and discuss how these results fit with geological and palaeoecological scenarios in Indonesia.
Osteochilus is a genus of fish with large lips,everted, sucker-like, covered with more or less folds of plicae bearing numberous unicellulair keratinous projections or uncuil. The structure of thr lipsÂ Osteochilus is divided into three from i.e. ectomorph, mesomorph and endomorph, based on the length and shape of plicae on the lateral portion of the upper lip, the distribution of uncuil and taste buds on the plicae , also from the size and shape of uncuil.Â Osteochilus partlilineatus is a small fish which has a nice colour patteern, so it is potential as an ornamental fish. it has an ectomorph lips, which the structure of plicae,uncuil and taste buds. The from of the taste buds redemble the rose flower which are very different with the structures of that 7 otherÂ Osteochilus that were examined by Roberts using scaning Electro Microscope (SEM).
Osteochilus jeruk is one of the two new species of Osteochilus occuring in Gunung Leuser National Park, Aceh, Sumatra, Indonesia.It has a big size and beautiful colour, so it is potential as food and aquarium fish. Notes on growth, food and reproduction were examined as base for the culture of this fish.
The fish research in Indonesian waters has been begun since 16 century ago. Most of the research collected fish around Batavia.Many new species was described and the type specimens deposited at the museums in Europe or America.The study of fish diversity and the lost of fish species was conducted at River Ciliwung and R. Cisadane in 2009. The aim of this study is to describe the recent fish diversity in both river drainages, then make a comparison with the number of species recorded based on the references data.The differences between the two datas show the number of species lost. The result of the study showed a total of 20 species of 13 families were collected in R. Ciliwung, while from the references data there were about 187 species, so the fish diversity lost in the Ciliwung river about 92.5%. The fish research in R. Cisadane were collected 39 fish species of 24 families. There were 135 species of 38 families of the references data, so the fish diversity lost in R. Cisadane is about 75.6%.
Marosatherina ladigesi is one of the famous rainbow fish species from Sulawesi.This endemic fish species from Sulawesi is one of the Indonesian export commodity since more than 30 years ago.All of the export specimens come from the wild habitat.The anxiousness of the extinction of this species stated in the redlist of IUCN since 1994. Two field work of Maros Karst Project conducted in 2006, 2007 and an international expedition in 2007 showed the decreasing population of this species.The results of the three field trips showed the difficulties to get M. ladigesi in the streams.Taxonomical status and classification, coloration, sex dimorphism and distribution discussed.
Mahalona, Lantoa and Masapi Lakes are three of the five beautiful lakes in South Sulawesi, the other two lakes are Matano and Town ti which bigger than those three. During the Dutch gouvemements there were several expedition to one, two or the five lakes. Rudolf Woltereck was the first biologist which visited and collected fishes from the all of the five lakes and published it in 1933. During 1988-1989, Dr, Maurice Kottelat recollected the fishes and found one new genus and about 8 new species, also designated the neotype of one species from Lake Towuti. A collaborative team between Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Bogor Agriculture University and Forestry Department received a grant from Asean Regional Center for Biodiversity Conservation (ARCBC) to conduct the research in the five lakes. The results of this research are being reported in a series of scientific journal. The fish biodiversity of Lake Matano already published. This paper is the result of our interesting adventure to reach the three lakes and reporting their fish biodiversity. Twelveof the 17 of Mahalona’s fishes are the endemic species, while in Lake Lantoa there was 4 of the twelve and in Lake Masapi was only one of the twelve endemic fish species.
The study of diversity and the fish species lost was conducted at the lakes of the Cisadane river drainage in 2010. The aim of this study was to describe the recent fish diversity in the lakes of Cisadane river basin, then make the comparison with the number of species recorded based on the references data. The differences between the two data show the number of species lost. The result of the study showed a total of 32 species of 19 families and 5 order, those species were collected from 34 sites. Twenty four of the 32 species or 75% are native species; while the other 8 species or about 25% are introduce species. Total of the number of collected specimens about 1812 exs. There were 86 species live in the lakes of Cisadane river basin, since there is only 24 left, so the fish diversity lost in the lakes is about 72.1%. AbstrakPenelitian diversitas dan kehilangan spesies ikan di danau-danau dari daerah aliran Sungai Cisadane dilakukan pada tahun 2010. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan gambaran keragaman jenis ikan di danau-danau pada daerah aliran Sungai Cisadane saat ini. Hasil ini kemudian dibandingkan dengan jumlah spesies ikan yang pernah hidup di wilayah perairan ini berdasarkan data pustaka. Selisih jumlah antara kedua data tersebut menunjukkan kehilangan spesies. Hasil penelitian di 34 stasiun mendapatkan 32 spesies ikan dari 19 famili dan lima ordo. Dua puluh empat jenis atau 75% diantaranya merupakan spesies asli, sedangkan delapan jenis atau 25% merupakan ikan introduksi. Studi pustaka menunjukkan ada 86 spesies ikan yang dulu hidup di danau-danau daerah aliran Sungai Cisadane, namun saat ini hanya dijumpai 24 spesies, dengan demikian laju kehilangan spesiesnya sekitar 72,1%.