Tjokorda Gde Agung Senapathi, Tjokorda Gde Agung
Bagian / SMF Ilmu Anestesi dan Terapi Intensif Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Udayana / Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Sanglah Denpasar Bali

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LOW DOSE SPINAL ANESTHESIA FOR CESAREAN SECTION IN GRAVIDA WITH RHEUMATIC HEART DISEASE

Bali Journal of Anesthesiology Vol 2, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : DiscoverSys Inc.

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Abstract

Cardiac disease in pregnancy remains an important etiology of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.1 Mitral stenosis is the most commonly acquired valve lesion encountered in pregnant women and is almost invariably caused by Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD).1 Pregnancy and peripartum period represent a physiologic burden that may worsen symptoms in even moderate degrees of cardiac disease.1 Consequently, many women are first diagnosed with cardiac disease during pregnancy.1 In this case report, we describe peripartum management of a 38 years old woman with Congestive Heart Failure functional class II, severe Mitral Stenosis, moderate Mitral Regurgitation, moderate Tricuspid Regurgitation because of Rheumatic Heart Disease. She successfully underwent cesarean section in low dose spinal anesthesia using 7 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine intrathecally. This report highlights that low dose spinal anesthesia remains a good option in anesthesia management for cesarean section in gravida with rheumatic heart disease, especially with severe mitral stenosis. 

Correlation Between Protein Intake and Nitrogen Balance of Surgical Patients in Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Installation, Sanglah General Hospital, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

BALI MEDICAL JOURNAL Vol 5, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : BALI MEDICAL JOURNAL

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Abstract

Background: A cell injury from surgical stress in a trauma or a non-trauma case will induce a hyper metabolic response in which the protein degradation increases, the somatic protein synthesis decreases and the amino acid catabolism increases. Thus, the pyper metabolic response contributes to nitrogen loss in urine. This response, without an adequate nutrition, will lead an iatrogenic malnutrition and deterioration. A balance nitrogen formula through urinary urea nitrogen is one of many nutrition evaluation methods. This method aids in evaluating the daily nutrition status and it can be the baseline data for daily intake. Objective: To find a correlation between the protein intake and the nitrogen balance of the surgical patients in anesthesiology and intensive care installation, Sanglah General Hospital, Denpasar, Bali. Methods: Fifty-one surgical patients with trauma and non-trauma cases were observed for their protein intake for 2-3 days continuously. Moreover, they were evaluated for their nitrogen balance based on the urinary urea nitrogen per 24 hours for 2-3 days. For statistical analysis, we utilized Shapiro-Francia, Shapiro-Wilk, Spearman Frank correlation, two-sample t test, and multivariate regression analysis in Strata SE 12.1. Results: The correlation between the protein intake and the nitrogen balance on the first day was ra=0.50 (p<0.05), on the second day ra=0.70 (p<0,05), and on the third day ra=0.740 (p<0,05) Conclusions: There is a correlation between the protein intake and the nitrogen balance of surgical patients in Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Installation Sanglah General Hospital Denpasar.

Cost Minimization Analysis of Hypnotic Drug: Target Controlled Inhalation Anesthesia (TCIA) Sevoflurane and Target Controlled Infusion (TCI) Propofol

BALI MEDICAL JOURNAL Vol 5, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : BALI MEDICAL JOURNAL

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Abstract

Background: Cost minimization analysis is a pharmaco-economic study used to compare two or more health interventions that have been shown to have the same effect, similar or equivalent. With limited health insurance budget from the Indonesian National Social Security System implementation in 2015, the quality control and the drug cost are two important things that need to be focused. The application of pharmaco-economic study results in the selection and use of drugs more effectively and efficiently. Objective: To determine cost minimization analysis of hypnotic drug between a target controlled inhalation anesthesia (TCIA) sevoflurane and a target controlled infusion (TCI) propofol in patients underwent a major oncologic surgery in Sanglah General Hospital. Methods: Sixty ASA physical status I-II patients underwent major oncologic surgery were divided into two groups. Group A was using TCIA sevoflurane and group B using TCI propofol. Bispectral index monitor (BIS index) was used to evaluate the depth of anesthesia. The statistical tests used are the Shapiro-Wilk test, Lavene test, Mann- Whitney U test and unpaired t-test (? = 0.05). The data analysis used the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows. Results: In this study, the rate of drug used per unit time in group A was 0.12 ml sevoflurane per minute (± 0.03) and the group B was 7.25 mg propofol per minute (±0.98). Total cost of hypnotic drug in group A was IDR598.43 (IQR 112.47) per minute, in group B was IDR703.27 (IQR 156.73) per minute (p>0.05). Conclusions: There was no statistically significant difference from the analysis of the drug cost minimization hypnotic drug in a major oncologic surgery using TCIA sevoflurane and TCI propofol.

PERBANDINGAN VALIDITAS SISTEM SKORING ACUTE PHYSIOLOGICAL CHRONIC HEALTH EVALUATION II, SEQUENTIAL ORGAN FAILURE ASSESSMENT, DAN CUSTOMIZED SEQUENTIAL ORGAN FAILURE ASSESSMENT UNTUK MEMPERKIRAKAN MORTALITAS PASIEN NON-BEDAH YANG DIRAWAT DI RUANG PERAWATA

Medicina Vol 46, No 3 (2015): September 2015
Publisher : Medicina

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Penerapan sistem jaminan kesehatan nasional (SJKN) dalam pelayanan di ruang terapi intensif (RTI) mendorong pelayanan di RTI untuk lebih efektif dan efisien. Prediksi hasil perawatan penting baik secara administrasi ataupun klinis dalam manajemen RTI. Pasien non-bedah meskipun jumlahnya tidak banyak, namun memiliki angka mortalitas yang tinggi. Untuk mendapatkan sistem skoring yang baik dan mudah diterapkan dilakukan penilaian missing value, dan diskriminasi dari masing masing sistem skoring. Penelitian ini melibatkan 184 pasien non-bedah yang dirawat di RTI RSUP Sanglah Denpasar yang diambil secara retrospektif dari data tanggal 1 Januari 2014 sampai dengan 31 Desember 2014. Semua pasien dilakukan penilaian APACHE II, SOFA, dan CSOFA. Uji analisis regresi logistik dilakukan untuk menilai pengaruh masing masing sub-variabel terhadap mortalitas, dan selanjutnya mencari cut off point dari analisis kurva ROC untuk mendapatkan sensitivitas dan spesifisitas masing masing. Area under receiver operating characteristic (AuROC) pada acute physiological and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II), sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA), dan customized sequential organ failure assessment (CSOFA) berturut turut didapatkan 0,892, 0,919, dan 0,9172. Missing value terbanyak didapatkan berturut turut pada SOFA, APACHE II, dan CSOFA sebesar 84,23%, 8,15%, dan 1,65%, dengan dominan sub-variabel hepar (bilirubin). Uji regresi logistik memperlihatkan sub-variabel neurologi, dan kardiovaskular memberikan hubungan bermakna terhadap mortalitas dengan RO 4,58, dan 2,24. Sub-variabel lain yang berpengaruh antara lain acute kidney injury (AKI), sepsis, dan penyakit kronis dengan RO 8,14, dan 3,89. Sistem skoring CSOFA lebih valid dalam memperkirakan mortalitas pasien di RTI RSUP Sanglah Denpasar, karena mempunyai nilai diskriminasi yang lebih baik dan missing value yang lebih sedikit dibandingkan dengan sistem skoring APACHE II dan SOFA. [MEDICINA 2015;46:145-51].Application of sistem jaminan kesehatan nasional (SJKN) in intensive care unit (ICU) service encourages ICU services for being more effective and efficient. Prediction of mortality is important either for administration or clinical in ICU management. Even non-surgical patient population is not large, but it has high mortality rate. To gain good and easy to used scoring system, we assessed missing value, and discrimination for all scoring system. This research enrolled 184 non-surgical patients in ICU of Sanglah Hospital restrospectively started from 1 st january to 31 december 2014. All patient assessed by acute physiological and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II), sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA), and customized sequential organ failure assessment (CSOFA). Analytic logistic regression test was used to determine each sub-variable correlation with mortality, and then to gain cut off point of ROC analytical curve to get sensitivity and specificity. Area under receiver operating characteristic (AuROC) for APACHE, SOFA, and CSOFA were 0.892, 0.919, and 0.9172 consecutively. The missing value for SOFA, APACHE II, and CSOFA is 84.23%, 8.15%, dan 1.65%, which was dominated by bilirubin parameter. Logistic regression analysis shows sub-variable neurology, and cardiovascular respiration gave significant correlation with mortality with OR 4.58 and 2.24. Other significant subvariable were AKI and sepsis with OR 8.14 and 3.89. Customized sequential organ failure assessment scoring system is more valid than APACHE II and SOFA to predict mortality, because it had better discrimination value and less missing value. [MEDICINA 2015;46:145-51].

EGDT MODIFICATIONS USING IVC DIAMETER AND IVC COLLAPSIBILITY INDEX TO PROVIDE INTRAVASCULAR ADEQUACY FOR SEPSIS MANAGEMENT IN REMOTE AREA

Bali Journal of Anesthesiology Vol 2, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : DiscoverSys Inc.

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Abstract

Early Goal Directed Therapy (EGDT) protocols can still be considered to provide clear guidelines for bedside clinicians to treat sepsis. The use of EGDT protocol requires Central Venous Catheter (CVC) installation to calculate Central Venous Pressure (CVP). In the field, especially in the remote area, the installation of CVC often cannot be done because of the unavailability of tools or other reasons. Wiryana, et al. found that there was a strong negative correlation between CVP and collapsibility index of Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) and that IVC Collapsibility Index (IVC CI) could replace CVP(1), so it could be used to replace the role of CVP on modified EGDT protocol. Five patients were measured IVC diameter and IVC CI after initial fluid therapy and had an expiratory IVC diameter and a collapsibility index belonging to the CVP group of 11-15cmH2O according to Katja, et al(2).

Efficacy of Subcutaneous Morphine Patient Controlled Analgesia Compared to Intravenous Morphine Patient Controlled Analgesia on Cesarean Section

Bali Journal of Anesthesiology Vol 1, No 3 (2017)
Publisher : DiscoverSys Inc.

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Abstract

Background: Cesarean section causes moderate to severe pain in the first 48 hours postoperatively, thus requiring an adequate perioperative pain management, not only so that the mother can be quickly discharged but also to perform daily activities after surgery such as breastfeeding and nurse the baby.Objective: To determine the efficacy of subcutaneous morphine patient controlled analgesia (SC-PCA) in lowering VAS (visual analogue score), total morphine consumption and postoperative side effect on cesarean section compared with intravenous morphine patient controlled analgesia (IV- PCA).Methods: This study is an experimental clinical trial using consecutive sampling technique. Sixty-four subjects were allocated into two groups of PCA morphine subcutaneously (SC-PCA) and the group PCA morphine intravenously (IV-PCA), each consisting of 32 subjects using permuted block randomization. Morphine concentration was 5 mg/ml (group SC-PCA) or the concentration of 1mg/ml (group IV-PCA). Both groups were then analyzed for VAS ratings, total morphine consumption, and adverse effects, post operatively at 4th, 8th, and 24th hour. Statistic analysis using repeated ANOVA test and t-test with p <0.05 onsidered significant.Result: Morphine consumption in IV-PCA group showed lower needs than SC-PCA (9.41 mg vs 4,9mg) p <0.001 24 at 24 hours postoperatively. The VAS at resting at 4th hours statistically significantly lower in IV-PCA group (1.06 ± 0.71 vs 0.81 ± 1.40, p=0.029) and at 8th hours (1.03 ± 0.59 vs 0.94 ± 0,9, p=0.048). The moving VAS at 4th hours statistically significant lower in IV-PCA group (2.31 ± 0.47 vs 1.45 ± 2.06, p=0.019) but the static or VAS at moving are not different clinically. Side effects of nausea and vomiting are more common in IV-PCA group. We conclude that SC-PCA provide analgesia more effective and decreases side effects in patients undergo sectio cesarea with spinal anesthesia.

REGIONAL ANESTHESIA IN MOLAR PREGNANCY WITH THYROTOXICOSIS IN A REMOTE HOSPITAL

Bali Journal of Anesthesiology Vol 1, No 3 (2017)
Publisher : DiscoverSys Inc.

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Abstract

Hydatidiform mole or molar pregnancy is a benign Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) that originates from the placenta. Treatment consists of vacuum evacuation but rarely hysterectomy may be required. One common complication of molar pregnancy is hyperthyroid. Anesthetic management is often complicated by the associated systemic complications. These complications cannot be prevented, but with a better understanding of the disease, some measurements to avoid maternal mortality can be performed.  

LOW FLOW ANESTHESIA WILL GAIN ERAS (ENHANCED RECOVERY AFTER SURGERY)

Bali Journal of Anesthesiology Vol 1, No 3 (2017)
Publisher : DiscoverSys Inc.

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ABSTRACT As we know, the volatile agent needs fresh gas flow to be carried out to the patient. It is very common in anesthesia practice, we use the fresh gas flow more than 2 liters per minute. In recent practice, the more flow we gave, the more volatile agent blew out to the patient. The present of APL (adjustable pressure limit) also leaks out of the circuit, we spend more gases, volatile agent, hence gave more pollutant to the operating theater. The consequences of those are an increase of anesthesia expenses and change the way of health care being delivered.ERAS (Enhanced Recovery After Surgery) is popular with its quick recovery after surgery, include quick emergence post anesthesia, that will reduce the time in the operating theater, recovery room, and as results, reduce the cost of anesthesia and surgery. 

EXTENDED GLASGOW OUTCOME SCALE AND CORRELATION WITH BISPECTRAL INDEX

Bali Journal of Anesthesiology Vol 1, No 3 (2017)
Publisher : DiscoverSys Inc.

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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health issue, which results in significant mortality and long-term disability. The profound impact of TBI is not only felt by the individuals who suffer the injury but also their caregivers and society as a whole. Clinicians and researchers require reliable and valid measures of long-term outcome not only to truly quantify the burden of TBI and the scale of functional impairment in survivors but also to allow early appropriate allocation of rehabilitation supports. In addition, clinical trials which aim to improve outcomes in this devastating condition require high-quality measures to accurately assess the impact of the interventions being studied. In this article, we review the properties of an ideal measure of outcome in the TBI population. Then, we will describe the measurement tools include: the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSe) in correlation with bispectral index (BIS).

Addiction in Anesthesiology : Sometimes Sh*t Happens

Bali Journal of Anesthesiology Vol 2, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : DiscoverSys Inc.

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Anesthesiology demands a vigilant and controlled cautious person with a good tempered manner and professional character. Those virtues and values were built through thousands of trials, errors, failures, chances and breakdowns. When some individuals could resist and thrive, others may fall and surrender. Anesthesiologists are responsible of patients beneficiary with the utmost point should be considered in patient physical safety and survival. The aim to become a good anesthesiologist who keeps the safety and patient wellbeing sometimes had taken its toll by sacrificing the wellbeing of the anesthesiologists themselves.