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UTILIZATION OF RICE HUSK CELLULOSE AS A MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLE BIOCOMPOSITE FIBER SOURCE FOR THE ABSORPTION OF MANGANESE (MN2+) IONS IN PEAT WATER Effendi, Emil Zacky; Hariady, Yudhi Christian; Salaahuddin, Muhammad Daffa; Irawan, Chairul; Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 22, No 6 (2019): Volume 22 Issue 6 Year 2019
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2720.31 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jksa.22.6.220-226

Abstract

Rice husk (RH) is an agricultural waste that contains cellulose. Rice husk fiber (RHF) can be used as a source of fiber in the manufacture of magnetic nanoparticle biocomposite. The purpose of this study is to synthesize and characterize magnetic nanoparticle biocomposite used as an adsorbent and evaluate its performance on the adsorption of  Mn2+ ions and Total Suspended Solid (TSS) in peat water. Rice husk fiber was delignified to eliminate lignin levels. Furthermore, the biocomposite was made through the solvothermal method with and without the addition of hexanediamine. The products produced are two types of adsorbents, namely magnetic nanoparticle biocomposite with an amino group (RHB-MH) and rice husk fiber biocomposite without an amino group (RHB-M). These biocomposites were used to adsorb Mn2+ ions in peat water. Evaluations were carried out at pH 5, 6, 7, and 8 with an optimum adsorption time of 60 minutes. The solutions at the time of adsorption were evaluated to determine the optimum conditions of the adsorption process carried out. The observation of magnetic nanoparticle biocomposite based on the analysis of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) shows magnetic nanoparticles formed on the surface of rice husk fiber with a diameter of 30-50 nm. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the delignification of rice husk increased Crystallinity Index (CrI) by 64.98% and reduced silica content by 78%. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectrometer show absorption peak at 570 cm-1 for Fe-O bonds and Fe3O4 peak around 1627 cm?1, indicating the presence of N-H bending. The optimum condition for Mn2+ adsorption was achieved at pH 5 and 60-minutes duration with an adsorption capacity of 54.7 mg/g and 190.78 mg/g for RHB-M and RHB-MH. The TSS reduction achieved the effectiveness of 60.2% and 90.3% for BSP-M and BSP-MH, respectively.
RECOVERY OF ALUMINUM FROM ALUMINUM COATED PLASTIC WASTE USING PYROLYSIS PROCESS Irawan, Chairul; Jelita, Rinny; Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari
Reaktor Volume 18 No. 1 March 2018
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (884.691 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/reaktor.18.1.38-44

Abstract

This study aims to separate aluminum metal in aluminum coated plastic waste so that it is known the obtained aluminum characteristics, to study the effects of temperature on the yield of solids and aluminum,  and to get the kinetic parameters that describe the effects of temperature on pyrolysis process rate. Plastic waste was cleaned, dried, cut, and weighed as much as 100 grams. Pyrolysis lasted in room temperature in 2 hours after the pyrolysis temperature was reached, i.e. 450oC. The formed smoke was condensed and weighed every 10 minutes from the first droplet until the pyrolysis time was completed. The remaining solids in the reactor were taken after the pyrolysis was completed and reactor temperature reached room temperature. The aluminum mixture was subsequently melted, molded and cooled. Experiments were repeated in various pyrolysis temperature variations (500°C, 550°C, 600°C and 650°C). The results show that the increase of pyrolysis temperature will decrease the yield of solids, while the aluminum yield remains. The obtained aluminum metal is 5.3% against the initial plastic mass in purity of 95.80%. The kinetic model representing plastic pyrolysis process is a single reaction model with the value of kinetic parameters of pre-exponential factor (A) 18.2689 min-1 and the activation energy value (E) 40.2310 kJ/mole.   Keywords: aluminum, pyrolysis, plastic wastes, temperature, kinetic parameter
PENGARUH KONSENTRASI HCl DAN Ph PADA EKSTRAKSI PEKTIN DARI ALBEDO DURIAN DAN APLIKASINYA PADA PROSES PENGENTALAN KARET Ristianingsih, Yuli; Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari; Ansari, Dian Sylvana; Putra, I Putu Andika
Konversi Vol 3, No 1 (2014): April 2014
Publisher : Universitas Lambung Mangkurat

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20527/k.v3i1.135

Abstract

Abstrak: Durian adalah tanaman yang tahan terhadap iklim kering sehingga dapat tumbuh di daerah tropis seperti Indonesia. Albedo durian merupakan sumber pektin yang potensial karena di dalamnya terkandung senyawa pektin. Untuk menguraikan pectin dalam albedo durian dapat dilakukan dengan proses ekstraksi asam karena kemungkinan terjadinya pectin jauh lebih sedikit daripada ekstraksi basa. Pada penelitian ini akan dilakukan ekstraksi pectin dengan bahan baku albedo durian yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh variasi kosentrasi pelarut dan PH dari albedo durian, mendapatkan kondisi operasi optimum dari ekstraksi pectin albedo durian dan membandingkan data waktu pengentalan karet dengan menambahkan pectin atau tanpa pektin. Penelitian dilakukan dengan waktu ekstraksi 60 menit dengan temperatur ekstraksi 90 0C dan massa albedo durian 20 gram. Variasi perubah yang digunakan adalah konsentrasi pelarut HCl (0,2; 025; 0,3 dan 0,35N) dan variasi PH (1,2; 2; 2,5 dan 3). Pectin yang diperoleh kemudian diaplikasikan untuk proses pengentalan karet dengan variasi pectin yang digunakan adalah sebagai berikut (1:5; 2:5; 3:5 dan 4:5). Kadar pektin yang didapat pada penelitian ini berkisar antara 3,09 g-17,91 g. Kadar metoksil yang dihasilkan dari penelitian ini adalah 2,430%-3,13%, sedangkan kadar galakturonat yang dihasilkan dalam penelitian ini adalah 67,65%-82,02% dan waktu pengentalan karet tercepat adalah 5 menit dengan rasio pectin dan karet adalah 5:5. Kata kunci : Pektin, ekstraksi asam, metoksil, galakturonat Abstract: Pectin is a complex polysaccharides compound which contained in plant cell walls. It is used in food manufacturing processes, adsorbent for waste water treatment and coagulant for rubber industry. Albedo durian was one of the potential sources of pectin, because albedo durian is consist of pectin compound. Acid extraction process was used to decompose pectin compound which contained in albedo durian. In this research, twenty grams of albedo durian was reacted with hydrochloric acid using stirred tank reactor. This process was conducted at temperature 90 0C for 1 hour in various solvent concentration and PH. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of solvent concentration and PH in pectin extraction process and the effect of adding pectin in process of latex coagulation. The result showed that the higher PH and solvent concentration, the higher yield of pectin. The maximum yield of pectin which was obtained in this research is 89.55%. The methoxyl contain and galacturonic which was obtained in this research between 2.430-3.13% and 67.65-82.02%, rescpectively. The Minimum time for latex coagulation about 5 minute using ratio pectin and latex 5:5.              Keywords : Pectin, acid extraction, methoxyl, galacturonic
PEMANFAATAN SERAT SELULOSA ECENG GONDOK (Eichhornia Crassipes) SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU PEMBUATAN KERTAS: ISOLASI DAN KARAKTERISASI Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari; Niawati, Helda; Muizliana, Choir
Konversi Vol 2, No 2 (2013): Oktober 2013
Publisher : Universitas Lambung Mangkurat

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20527/k.v2i2.75

Abstract

Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an aquatic weeds and as water pollution which can be reduced by using its celloluse fiber as raw material for paper production. In this work, the cellulose fiber which produced from water hyacinth stems by chemical pulping method was isolated and characterized. The operating conditions for produced the highest yield of water hyacinth’s fiber by variation of NaOH concentration and cooking time were also investigated. Dry hyacinth stems on liquor/crop ratio was 7:1 (mL/g) and mixed with 1-5% (w/v) NaOH then degested in an autoclave (120 0C; 14,5 Psi) for 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min. The operating condition which highest yield production was mixed with newspapers fiber with ratio 1:1, 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1. The NaClO 5.25% (v/v) was added into the mixture as bleaching agent, then pressed and dried as a paper. The highest water hyacinth  fiber yield was obtained about 32.31% (2.5%  w/v NaOH for 15 min). When mixed with newspaper fiber at loading ratio 2:1, the highest yield and density were obtained about 37.27% and 0.567 g/cm3, respectively. Base on observation by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), the diameter of water hyacinth’s fiber is 80-166 nm and waste newspaper fiber is ± 56 μm. In addition, in the presence of newspaper fiber in the product was increased the characteristic peaks of paper around 5.66% (cellulose I) and 8.26% (cellulose II) base on X-Ray Difraction (XRD) result. Keywords: Eichhornia crassipes, chemical pulping, autoclave, kertas
BIOKONVERSI SERAT KELAPA SAWIT MENJADI GLUKOSA DENGAN DILUTED-ACID HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari; Norlina, Norlina; Pangesti, Mira
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 5, No 1 (2016): June 2016 [Nationally Accredited]
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v5i1.5264

Abstract

Fiber cake (FC) is a one of effluent of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) industry. This effluent can be decreased by using FC for bioethanol production. FC is actually Palm Kernel Press Cake (PKC) a residue of palm oil extraction, which containing 57.9% cellulose and 18% klason lignin, and containing 14.94% hemicellulose. This study aimed to determined the effect of fiber concentrations and reaction time for  glucose production to investigate the structure of morphology and crystalinity of the fiber cake before and after hydrothermal treatment. Fiber cake was treated by hydrothermal reactor using catalysts 2% H2SO4 (v/v) and 150 oC for 2 hour. Variations concentration of fiber cake which is 2.5%; 5%; 7.5%; and 10% w/v and time variations for 1, 2, 3, 4 hours. The highest glucose concentration was found at  2.5% FC for 3 hour about 2.336 ± 0.015 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis results and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is known the smooth surface structure to be broken an rough after the hydrolysis process and also improvement of the crystal structure of fiber cake from 27.57% to 31.15%.
MINYAK KULIT JERUK PAKIS SEBAGAI ESSENTIAL OIL DALAM PEMBUATAN SABUN: EKSTRAKSI DAN KARAKTERISASI Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari; Herlina, Herlina
Konversi Vol 3, No 2 (2014): Oktober 2014
Publisher : Universitas Lambung Mangkurat

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20527/k.v3i2.162

Abstract

Abstrak- Kulit jeruk pakis (Citrus grandis) merupakan limbah yang dihasilkan dari kegiatan rumah tangga, industri dan pertanian. Dengan proses distilasi kulit jeruk pakis dapat diambil minyaknya sebagai citrus oil yang selanjutnya dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan baku pembuatan sabun. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan rendemen dan mutu citrus oil dari bahan baku kulit jeruk pakis segar dan dikeringkan (40 oC, 6 jam) dengan metode water distillation. Massa kulit jeruk yang digunakan adalah 200, 300, 400 dan 500 gram diekstraksi selama 3 jam pada 100 °C. Rendemen minyak yang diperoleh untuk kulit jeruk pakis segar berturut-turut pada massa kulit jeruk 200, 300, 400 dan 500 gram ialah  0,888 %, 0,619%, 0,178% dan 0,239% sedangkan untuk kulit jeruk yang keringkan diperoleh rendemen berturut-turut 0,214%, 0,029%,0,074% dan 0,023%. Minyak yang dihasilkan dari kulit jeruk segar dan kering dianalisa dengan Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) mengandung 82,136% limonen. Kulit jeruk pakis sebelum dan sesudah diekstraksi dianalisa dengan Scanning Electro Microscopy (SEM) dan X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) menunjukkan bahwa struktur permukaan setelah ekstrasi menjadi rusak dan struktur kristalinnya tidak mengalami perubahan yang signifikan. Minyak yang dihasilkan selanjutnya direaksikan dengan NaOH 30% untuk menghasilkan sabun. Kadar pH sabun pada konsentrasi (w/v) 1%, 5% dan 10% dalam 100mL air berturut-turut sebesar 9, 10 dan 10 sedangkan kadar air dalam sabun yang diperoleh sebesar 37,25%. Kata Kunci: jeruk pakis, minyak kulit jeruk, water distillation, sabun Abstract- Pakis orange peel is one of wasted product from household, industry and agriculture activities. Pakis orange peel can be extracted by distillation as citrus oil. Furthermore, it can be used as essential oil in production of soap. The purposes of this research  is to compare yield and quality of citrus oil base on fresh and dried  pakis orange peel (40°C, 6 hours) by water distillation methode. The variation mass of orange peel was used  200, 300, 400 and 500 gram then was extracted  for 3 hours at 100°C. The yield of citrus oil from fresh pakis orange peel with weight 200, 300, 400 and 500 gram are 0,888%, 0,619%, 0,178% and 0,239%,  respectively. The dried pakis orange peel was produced citrus oil 0,214%, 0,029%, 0,074% and 0,023%, respectively. The citrus oilwas analyzed by Gas Chromatoghrapy Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) which was contained ca. 82,13% of limonene. Pakis orange peel before and after extraction analyzed with Scanning Electro Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) were indicated the structure of surface area after extraction has become broken  and the sructure of crystalline structure was not significant changes. Furthermore, citrus oil obtained from extraction was reacted with 30% NaOH for soap production. The pH of soap at concentration 1%, 5% and 10% (w/v) in water  9, 10 and 10, respectively.  The water content in the soap about 37,25%. Keywords: pakis orange, orange peel oil, water distillation, soap
PRODUKSI BIOETANOL DARI ALKALI-PRETREATMENT JERAMI PADI DENGAN PROSES SIMULTANEOUS SACHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION (SSF) Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari; Prayogo, Jody Hartoto; Arianto, Toni
Konversi Vol 3, No 1 (2014): April 2014
Publisher : Universitas Lambung Mangkurat

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20527/k.v3i1.132

Abstract

Abstrak- Jerami padi merupakan limbah pertanian yang mengandung 39% selulosa dan 27,5% hemiselulosa, jika dihidrolisis jerami padi dapat dikonversi menjadi gula sederhana selanjutnya difermentasi menjadi bioetanol.  Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh pretreatment jerami padi dan kondisi operasi (jumlah enzim selulase dan Saccharomyces cereviseae) dalam produksi bioetanol dengan proses Simultaneous Saccharification Fermentation (SSF). Proses delignifikasi dilakukan dengan cara merendam jerami padi yang sudah dihaluskan dengan 2% NaOH (w/v) pada suhu 85oC selama 1 jam. Jerami padi dikeringkan setelah pretreatmen yang sebelumnya dicuci sampai pH filtratnya netral. Selanjutnya jerami padi kering digunakan sebagai substrat dalam SSF dengan menggunakan enzim selulase (20, 30 dan 40 FPU) dan S. Cerevisiae ( 2, 4 dan 6 ose) selama 3 hari dalam acetate buffer pH 5 serta penentuan konsentrasi etanol menggunakan Gas Chromatography (GC). Dengan analisis Scanning Electrom Microscope (SEM) dan X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), struktur permukaan yang rapi dan diselimuti oleh lignin menjadi kasar dan pecah yang diiringi dengan peningkatan struktur kristal sebesar 33,24% dari jerami padi setelah pretreatment dengan NaOH. Kadar bioetanol yang dihasilkan untuk 20 FPU, 30 FPU dan 40 FPU dengan kandungan S.Cerevisiae 2 ose berturut-turut adalah 0,45%, 0,44% dan 0,43%.  Dari variasi jumlah S. Cerevisiae 2,4 dan 6 ose dengan enzim selulase 20 FPU menghasikan bioetanol sebesar 0,45%, 0,46% dan 1,07%.  Kadar bioetanol yang dihasilkan dengan substrat yang di pretreatment dapat meningkatkan konsentrasi bioetanol sebesar 82,2% pada kondisi SSF yang sama. Pretreatment terhadap substrat memberikan efek terhadap produk SSF karena dengan penghilangan lignin akan memaksimalkan kerja enzime selulase mengkonversi sellulosa menjadi glukosa.  Kata Kunci : Jerami padi, delignifikasi, bioetanol, SSFAbstract- Rice straw is an agricultural waste which contains 39% cellulose and 27.5% hemicelluloses. Rice straw can be converted into bio ethanol by Simultaneous Saccharification Fermentation (SSF) process.  The aims of this research are to investigate the influence of rice straw pretreatment and operation condition (number of cellulose enzyme and Saccharomyces cereviseae) for bioethanol production. The bioethanol conversion was devided by 2 steps, there were delignification and SSF. Delignification process was done by soak rice straw in NaOH 2% heated at temperature 85 oC for 1 hour then washed with water. The pretreatment rice straw was used as substrate in SSF. SSF was conducted in the presence of cellulase enzyme (20, 30, and 40 FPU) and Sacharomyces Cerevisiae (2,4 and 6 ose) for 3 days. The bioethanol concentration produced for 20 FPU, 30 FPU, and 40 FPU in 2 ose S.careviseae are 0,45%, 0,44%, and 0,43%  respectively. The addition number of Saccharomyces cereviseae was gave high concentration of bioethanol. The result shown that bioethanol concentration of 2 ose, 4 ose and 6 ose are 0,45%, 0,46% and 1,07%, respectively. In the same concentration of enzyme (20 FPU) which pretreatment and non pretretament substrate was increased of bioethanol concentration up to 82,2%. The pretretment process was broken the structure of lignin and made enzyme easy to attached cellulose and converted to glucose. Keywords : Rice straw, delignification, bioethanol, SSF
Kondisi Optimum Pemisahan Aseton dari Campuran Aseton-Etanol-Air-n–Butanol Dengan Kolom Distilasi Vacuum Irawan, Chairul; Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari
INFO-TEKNIK Vol 6, No 1 (2005): INFOTEKNIK VOL. 6 NO. 1 2005
Publisher : Engineering Department, Lambung Mangkurat University

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Abstract

Fermenting molasses using clostridium acetobutilycum can produce a mixture of acetone (1)/ethanol (2)/water (3)/n-butanol (4). The fermentation products are then separated and purified in a series of distillation column. In this work the products are 99.5-wt % of acetone and 99 % recovery.This work is primarily concerned with the effect of operating pressure on the distillation column performance. Distillation columns were designed using computer programs written in VISUAL FORTRAN 5.0. A rigorous equilibrium based computation method due to Wang-Henke that taking into account the effects of non-equal molar overflow and non-ideal vapor-liquid equilibrium was used in study. UNIQUAC, a method of estimating activity coefficient in non-ideal liquid mixtures, was used to model the vapor–liquid equilibrium. The column performance was studied by varying the operating pressure that is constrained by the cooling water temperature in the condenser. The numbers of plates are 50 and feed plate location at 12th plate below the condenser for acetone column. Variation of pressure 0.7 to 0.6 atm for acetone column will decrease 6.03 % reflux ratios, 4.3% condenser and 4.78% reboiler duty. Optimum condition for acetone column was 0.6 atm. 
Produksi Glukosa Cair Fungsional dengan Ekstrak Jahe dari Hidrolisis Pati Kulit Singkong Dewi, Yuniza Shentiya; Laila, Noor; Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari
Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknik Kimia "Kejuangan" 2019: PROSIDING SNTKK 2019
Publisher : Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknik Kimia "Kejuangan"

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Abstract

The utilization of cassava's peel provides a great opportunity as starch resource and economically benefit. Cassava’s peel starch could be used as a substrate for liquid glucose production by hydrolysis reaction. The purpose of this research is to determine the optimum condition of cassava peel starch concentration (2.5%; 5% and 7.5% w/ v) to produce liquid glucose by hydrolysis in the presence of sulfonated carbon catalysts and to determine the concentration of liquid glucose ratio: red ginger extract (1: 1; 1: 2; 1: 3, and 1: 4 v/v) as the best formulation for antioxidant activity.The hydrolysis’ reaction was conducted at 100oC for 60 min then filtered. Total reducing sugar was detected by Dinitrosalisylic (DNS) method; the optimum concentration of glucose was achieved about 4.1389 mg/mL which contain 5% of Cassava’s peel starch. The good antioxidant activity of liquid glucose shown in ratio of liquid glucose and ginger is 1:4, approximately 39.34% of free radical of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) was consumed within 5 min and up to 48.63% was scavenged after 10 min. The functional liquid glucose can produce from Cassava’s peel and also eliminate free radicals.
Produksi Glukosa Cair Fungsional dengan Ekstrak Jahe dari Hidrolisis Pati Kulit Singkong Dewi, Yuniza Shentiya; Laila, Noor; Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari
Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknik Kimia "Kejuangan" 2019: PROSIDING SNTKK 2019
Publisher : Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknik Kimia "Kejuangan"

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

The utilization of cassava's peel provides a great opportunity as starch resource and economically benefit. Cassava’s peel starch could be used as a substrate for liquid glucose production by hydrolysis reaction. The purpose of this research is to determine the optimum condition of cassava peel starch concentration (2.5%; 5% and 7.5% w/ v) to produce liquid glucose by hydrolysis in the presence of sulfonated carbon catalysts and to determine the concentration of liquid glucose ratio: red ginger extract (1: 1; 1: 2; 1: 3, and 1: 4 v/v) as the best formulation for antioxidant activity.The hydrolysis’ reaction was conducted at 100oC for 60 min then filtered. Total reducing sugar was detected by Dinitrosalisylic (DNS) method; the optimum concentration of glucose was achieved about 4.1389 mg/mL which contain 5% of Cassava’s peel starch. The good antioxidant activity of liquid glucose shown in ratio of liquid glucose and ginger is 1:4, approximately 39.34% of free radical of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) was consumed within 5 min and up to 48.63% was scavenged after 10 min. The functional liquid glucose can produce from Cassava’s peel and also eliminate free radicals.