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Journal : Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research

Performance Evaluation of Four Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time Reagents Yuzaqi, Peppi Z.; Halimah, Eli; Noviani, Tatat
Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research Vol 3, No 2
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (409.634 KB) | DOI: 10.15416/pcpr.v3i2.18103

Abstract

Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) is a hematological examination to identify hemostatic abnormalities. This study aimed to compare the performance evaluation of four APTT reagents, i.e., CK Prest, Pathromtin SL, Actin SL, and Cephascreen. The methods used were photo optical, percent detection, and viscosity-based detection system (VDS). The analysis was performed on blood specimen of 43 subjects. The results indicated that the accuracy and precision in normal plasma control using C. K. Prest reagent in Coag-A-Mate® MTX II were d% -0.605 and CV% 2.252%, Pathromtin SL reagent in CA 560® (Sysmex®) were d% 6.9345 and CV%1.687, Actin FSL reagent in CA 560® (Sysmex®) were d% -1.51 and CV% 1.74, and Cephascreeen reagent in STA Compact® were d% 10.81 and CV% 1.60. The accuracy and precision in pathological plasma control using Pathromtin SL reagent in CA 560® (Sysmex®) were d% -1,11 and CV% 8.82, Cephascreen reagent in STA Compact® were d% 4.64 and CV% 2.72. The coefficient of correlation between C. K. Prest reagent and Pathromtin SL reagent was 0.880 with the regresion equation y=2.31x–33.70. The coefficient of correlation between C. K. Prest reagent and Actin FSL reagent was 0.986 with the regretion equation y=0.78x+2.93. The coefficient of correlation between C. K. Prest reagent and Cephascreen reagent was 0.987 with the regretion equation y=1.70x–3.97. In conclusion, the best precision was obtained from Cephascreen reagents in STA compact®devices for both normal and pathologic control plasma, with eligible accuracy.Keywords : Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT), Photo-optical, Viscosity-based Detection System (VDS)
Inhibitory Activity of Andrographolide and Andrograpanin on the Rate of PGH2 Formation Sumiwi, Sri A.; Halimah, Eli; Saptarini, Nyi M.; Levita, Jutti; Nawawi, Asari; Mutalib, Abdul; Ibrahim, Slamet
Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research Vol 1, No 3
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (303.747 KB) | DOI: 10.15416/pcpr.v1i3.15246

Abstract

Cyclooxygenase (COX) or prostaglandin H2 synthase (PGHS) catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) work by inhibiting both COX-1 and COX-2 isoforms, thus disturbing this reaction. In Indonesia, Andrographis paniculata (local name: sambiloto), is empirically used to reduce inflammation by consuming the herb tea of this plant. This work studied the inhibitory activity of andrographolide and andrograpanin, diterpenoids of the plant, on the rate of prostaglandin formation. Previous works have proven that andrographolide inhibited PGE2 production in LPS-induced human fibroblast cells. This study was performed by measuring the absorbance of TMPD (tetramethyl-p-phenyldiamine) oxidized by andrographolide and andrograpanin. Acetosal was used as a control drug. The rate of PGH2 formations on either COX-1 or COX- 2 was affected by andrographolide and andrograpanin. Andrographolide and andrograpanin interact longer with COX-1 than COX-2. Andrographolide shows weak inhibition on the rate of PGH2 formation, whilst andrograpanin might be further developed for potential antiinflammatory drugs.Keywords: Andrographis paniculata, anti-inflammatory, COX, cyclooxygenase, prostaglandin
Economic Evaluation of the Use of Cefotaxime and Ceftazidime in the Treatment of Pneumonia in Pediatric Patients Ruterlin, Valen; Sinuraya, Rano K.; Halimah, Eli; Barliana, Melisa I.; Hartini, Sri
Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research Vol 2, No 1
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (229.785 KB) | DOI: 10.15416/pcpr.v2i1.15741

Abstract

The prevalence of pneumonia is particularly high among pediatric patients. Appropriate antibioticsselection is required to reduce mortality and morbidity rates associated with thesediseases. However, information on cost-effectiveness of empirical antibiotics treatment forpneumonia was limited. This study was aimed to evaluate cost-effectiveness of cefotaximeand ceftazidime for pneumonia in pediatric patients. This study was a retrospective crosssectional study conducted at a hospital in Bandung during January-December 2012. Datawere derived from medical records of pediatric pneumonia inpatients during study period.Cost was calculated based on direct medical cost, i.e., inpatient care, medical support, andmedicines that were used from admission until hospital discharge. The results showed thatthere was no statistical difference in the average medical cost of the treatment using cefotaxime(1,197,017 IDR) and ceftazidime (2,245,748 IDR). Incremental cost effectivenessratio (ICER) showed that cefotaxime is more cost effective than ceftazidime with greaterreduction of leukocytes level (576 IDR/mm3 ). The use of cefotaxime is recommended forthe treatment of pnuemonia in pediatric patients.Keywords: cost minimization, cost effectiveness, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, pneumonia
Pharmaceutical Counseling Has a Positive Impact on Quality of Life of Hypertension Patients Aulia, Gina; Halimah, Eli; Lestari, Keri
Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research Vol 3, No 1
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (270.668 KB) | DOI: 10.15416/pcpr.v3i1.16449

Abstract

Pharmacists play a major role in educating patients regarding drug therapy, in order to achieve optimal health outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pharmaceutical counseling on quality of life (QoL) of hypertensive patients with renal impairment at one of public hospital in Bandung, Indonesia. This study used a prospective experimental design with pretest-posttest design for 2 months. Inclusion criteria in this study were hypertensive patients with renal impairment who received antihypertensive drugs, aged >18 years, and signed the informed consent. Exclusion criteria were patients who were not able to fill in the questionnaire, patients with end stage renal diseases, diabetes, and pregnant or lactating patients. Pharmaceutical counseling was given during 2 months of the therapy. Pharmaceutical counseling consisted of education on the appropriate use of drugs and disease management. Schedule of their own medication and leaflet containing educational information were given to the subjects. QoL was assessed using a previously validated Mini-Questionnaire of QoL in Arterial Hypertension (MINICHAL). The questionnaire consisted of 16 two dimensions questions, i.e., mental health and somatic manifestation. We found that the mean increase in mental health status (49.5±5.3) was higher than that of somatic dimension (32.7±3.6). Both dimensions had statistically significant improvement (P value <0.05). In conclusion, pharmaceutical counseling is beneficial to improve QoL of hypertension patients.Keywords: hypertension, renal impairment, quality of life 
Performance Evaluation of Four Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time Reagents Yuzaqi, Peppi Z.; Halimah, Eli; Noviani, Tatat
Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research Vol 3, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (409.634 KB)

Abstract

Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) is a hematological examination to identify hemostatic abnormalities. This study aimed to compare the performance evaluation of four APTT reagents, i.e., CK Prest, Pathromtin SL, Actin SL, and Cephascreen. The methods used were photo optical, percent detection, and viscosity-based detection system (VDS). The analysis was performed on blood specimen of 43 subjects. The results indicated that the accuracy and precision in normal plasma control using C. K. Prest reagent in Coag-A-Mate® MTX II were d% -0.605 and CV% 2.252%, Pathromtin SL reagent in CA 560® (Sysmex®) were d% 6.9345 and CV%1.687, Actin FSL reagent in CA 560® (Sysmex®) were d% -1.51 and CV% 1.74, and Cephascreeen reagent in STA Compact® were d% 10.81 and CV% 1.60. The accuracy and precision in pathological plasma control using Pathromtin SL reagent in CA 560® (Sysmex®) were d% -1,11 and CV% 8.82, Cephascreen reagent in STA Compact® were d% 4.64 and CV% 2.72. The coefficient of correlation between C. K. Prest reagent and Pathromtin SL reagent was 0.880 with the regresion equation y=2.31x–33.70. The coefficient of correlation between C. K. Prest reagent and Actin FSL reagent was 0.986 with the regretion equation y=0.78x+2.93. The coefficient of correlation between C. K. Prest reagent and Cephascreen reagent was 0.987 with the regretion equation y=1.70x–3.97. In conclusion, the best precision was obtained from Cephascreen reagents in STA compact®devices for both normal and pathologic control plasma, with eligible accuracy.Keywords : Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT), Photo-optical, Viscosity-based Detection System (VDS)
Comparison of Effectiveness between Combination of Beta-Lactam with Azyhtromycin or Levofloxacin for Adult Pneumonia Patients Arifah, Gina; Halimah, Eli; Abdulah, Rizky
Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research Vol 3, No 1
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (312.673 KB) | DOI: 10.15416/pcpr.v3i1.16451

Abstract

Treatment for pneumonia has always been a challenge due to the difficulties in diagnosis and the growing incidence of antibiotic resistance. Beta-lactam antibiotics are the first line treatment for pneumonia. The combination of beta-lactam with other antibiotics are preferred than single antibiotic therapy. However, there was limited information regarding the effectiveness of combination between beta-lactam with either macrolides or fluoroquinolone for the treatment of pneumonia.The purpose of this study was to determine the most effective combination of antibiotics for hospitalized adults pneumonia patients. This was a cross-sectional study with prospective data collection. The data source was the medical record of the subjects. We included adult pneumonia patients hospitalized at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital during June-August 2015. We found that mean reduction of body temperature in group who received combination of a beta-lactam antibiotic and azithromycin was 1.53 0C, while in levofloxacin group, the reduction was 1.22 0C (p=0.210). Reduction in leukocytes and respiratory rate were 7800 and 2.29 times/minute, respectively, in the former group, while in the latter group the reduction of leukocytes and respiratory rate were 2600 and 5 times/minute. The differences were not statistically significant in both parameters (p=0.036 and 0.149, respectively). In conclusion, better clinical outcomes were observed in patients treated with combination of beta-lactam and azithromycin compared to combination of beta-lactam and levofloxacin, although the difference was not statistically significant.Keywords: pneumonia, pneumonia therapy, combination therapy for pneumonia
Potential Nephrotoxicity of Lisinopril and Valsartan on Patients with Congestive Heart Failure Pani, Sarini; Barliana, Melisa I.; Halimah, Eli; Chaeriadi, Venice; Sholih, Mally G.
Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research Vol 2, No 1
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (231.357 KB) | DOI: 10.15416/pcpr.v2i1.16192

Abstract

Lisinopril (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) and valsartan (angiotensin II receptorblocker) are the first-line treatment for patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Thesetwo drugs potentially cause side effects on renal functions. However, limited informationwas available regarding the comparison of potential nephrotoxicity of these drugs in IndonesianCHF patients. This research was aimed to compare the potential nephrotoxicitybetween lisinopril and valsartan in outpatients with CHF at a hospital in Palu, Indonesia.This was an observational study conducted during April-May 2015. Potential nephrotoxicitywere assessed by measuring serum creatinin (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Datawere obtained from Cardiology Unit from a hospital in Palu, Indonesia. Statistical analysiswas conducted using T-test and Mann-Whitney test. The increasing trend of SCr and BUNwere observed in lisinopril-treated patients with the mean of increase were 21% and 59%,respectively. Relatively higher increase was observed in valsartan treatment group with 47%and 51% in SCr and BUN, respectively. The analysis showed that there were significant differencesin SCr level between lisinopril and valsartan groups (p=0.001), but the oppositeresults observed in BUN parameter (p=0.697). Therefore, valsartan was potentially morenephrotoxic than lisinopril based on the increase of SCr parameter. Thus, lisinopril is recommendedfor CHF patients who are particularly at high risks of having renal impairment.Keywords: lisinopril, valsartan, nephrotoxicity, congestive heart failure
Inhibitory Activity of Andrographolide and Andrograpanin on the Rate of PGH2 Formation Sumiwi, Sri A.; Halimah, Eli; Saptarini, Nyi M.; Levita, Jutti; Nawawi, As'ari; Mutalib, Abdul; Ibrahim, Slamet
Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research Vol 1, No 3
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (303.747 KB) | DOI: 10.15416/pcpr.v1i3.15246

Abstract

Cyclooxygenase (COX) or prostaglandin H2 synthase (PGHS) catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) work by inhibiting both COX-1 and COX-2 isoforms, thus disturbing this reaction. In Indonesia, Andrographis paniculata (local name: sambiloto), is empirically used to reduce inflammation by consuming the herb tea of this plant. This work studied the inhibitory activity of andrographolide and andrograpanin, diterpenoids of the plant, on the rate of prostaglandin formation. Previous works have proven that andrographolide inhibited PGE2 production in LPS-induced human fibroblast cells. This study was performed by measuring the absorbance of TMPD (tetramethyl-p-phenyldiamine) oxidized by andrographolide and andrograpanin. Acetosal was used as a control drug. The rate of PGH2 formations on either COX-1 or COX- 2 was affected by andrographolide and andrograpanin. Andrographolide and andrograpanin interact longer with COX-1 than COX-2. Andrographolide shows weak inhibition on the rate of PGH2 formation, whilst andrograpanin might be further developed for potential antiinflammatory drugs.Keywords: Andrographis paniculata, anti-inflammatory, COX, cyclooxygenase, prostaglandin
Comparison of Effectiveness between Combination of Beta-Lactam with Azyhtromycin or Levofloxacin for Adult Pneumonia Patients Arifah, Gina; Halimah, Eli; Abdulah, Rizky
Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research Vol 3, No 1
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (119.795 KB) | DOI: 10.15416/pcpr.v3i1.16451

Abstract

Treatment for pneumonia has always been a challenge due to the difficulties in diagnosis and the growing incidence of antibiotic resistance. Beta-lactam antibiotics are the first line treatment for pneumonia. The combination of beta-lactam with other antibiotics are preferred than single antibiotic therapy. However, there was limited information regarding the effectiveness of combination between beta-lactam with either macrolides or fluoroquinolone for the treatment of pneumonia.The purpose of this study was to determine the most effective combination of antibiotics for hospitalized adults pneumonia patients. This was a cross-sectional study with prospective data collection. The data source was the medical record of the subjects. We included adult pneumonia patients hospitalized at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital during June-August 2015. We found that mean reduction of body temperature in group who received combination of a beta-lactam antibiotic and azithromycin was 1.53 0C, while in levofloxacin group, the reduction was 1.22 0C (p=0.210). Reduction in leukocytes and respiratory rate were 7800 and 2.29 times/minute, respectively, in the former group, while in the latter group the reduction of leukocytes and respiratory rate were 2600 and 5 times/minute. The differences were not statistically significant in both parameters (p=0.036 and 0.149, respectively). In conclusion, better clinical outcomes were observed in patients treated with combination of beta-lactam and azithromycin compared to combination of beta-lactam and levofloxacin, although the difference was not statistically significant.Keywords: pneumonia, pneumonia therapy, combination therapy for pneumonia
Economic Evaluation of the Use of Cefotaxime and Ceftazidime in the Treatment of Pneumonia in Pediatric Patients Ruterlin, Valen; Sinuraya, Rano K.; Halimah, Eli; Barliana, Melisa I.; Hartini, Sri
Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research Vol 2, No 1
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (229.785 KB) | DOI: 10.15416/pcpr.v2i1.15741

Abstract

The prevalence of pneumonia is particularly high among pediatric patients. Appropriate antibioticsselection is required to reduce mortality and morbidity rates associated with thesediseases. However, information on cost-effectiveness of empirical antibiotics treatment forpneumonia was limited. This study was aimed to evaluate cost-effectiveness of cefotaximeand ceftazidime for pneumonia in pediatric patients. This study was a retrospective crosssectional study conducted at a hospital in Bandung during January-December 2012. Datawere derived from medical records of pediatric pneumonia inpatients during study period.Cost was calculated based on direct medical cost, i.e., inpatient care, medical support, andmedicines that were used from admission until hospital discharge. The results showed thatthere was no statistical difference in the average medical cost of the treatment using cefotaxime(1,197,017 IDR) and ceftazidime (2,245,748 IDR). Incremental cost effectivenessratio (ICER) showed that cefotaxime is more cost effective than ceftazidime with greaterreduction of leukocytes level (576 IDR/mm3 ). The use of cefotaxime is recommended forthe treatment of pnuemonia in pediatric patients.Keywords: cost minimization, cost effectiveness, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, pneumonia