Henry Setyawan, Henry
Program Studi Epidemiologi Program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro Semarang

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Journal : Jurnal Epidemiologi Kesehatan Komunitas

Berbagai Faktor Risiko Kejadian Bayi Berat Lahir Rendah (BBLR) (Studi di Beberapa Puskesmas Kota Makassar)

Jurnal Epidemiologi Kesehatan Komunitas Vol 3, No 2: Agustus 2018
Publisher : Master of Epidemiology, School of Postgraduate Studies, Diponegoro University, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Low-birth-weight (LBW) as community health problem have remained as the main cause of prenatal morbidity and mortality. In Indonesia, the occurrence rate of LBW has reached 10,2%. LBW has caused by multifactors such as maternal factor, fetus factor, and environmental factor. The aim of the study was to elaborate if maternal factor and environmental factor are the risk factors contributing to LBW occurrence.Method: The study was based on case control design. The number of samples was 138 respondents who were categorized into 69 cases and 69 controls fulfilling the criteria of inclusion and exclusion. The cases were mothers with babies having birth weight <2500 grams regarding the gestational age, and the controls were mothers with babies having birth weight ≥2500 grams regarding the gestational age. Sampling method to the cases was conducted by consecutive sampling while sampling to the controls was conducted by simple random sampling with matching to sex and location.Results: Maternal factors observed as risk factors contributing to LBW are low nutritional status (OR=5.357; 95%CI=1.985-14.457), illness pregnancy (OR=3.976; 95%CI=1.669-9.476). Maternal factors and environmental factors observed as non-risk factors to LBWN are age < 20 years old or age > 35 years, the spacing of pregnancy < 2 years, the of family members smoking at home, the of a food taboos culture, ANC status < 4x , low social economy status.Conclusion: Low nutritional status, illness pregnancy are risk factors contributing to LBW occurrence. The probability of LBW occurrence when those risk factors observed are 68,87%.

Faktor Risiko Kejadian Infeksi Cacing Tambang pada Petani Pembibitan Albasia di Kecamatan Kemiri Kabupaten Purworejo

Jurnal Epidemiologi Kesehatan Komunitas Vol 1, No 1: Februari 2016
Publisher : Master of Epidemiology, School of Postgraduate Studies, Diponegoro University, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background : The prevalence of hookworm infection in Indonesia in 2002 - 2006 amounted to 2,4% ; 0,6% ; 5,1% ; 1,6% and 1,0%. No data reports on de-worming of DHO Purworejo. The results of a preliminary study of the month January 2014 shows the proportion of de - worming of 94,1% of the population of farmers plant nursery albasia 51 people, with the proportion of 41,2% hookworm.Methods : This study is observational analytic study with cross-sectional design. The study sample as many as 101 people, with purposive sampling. Samples taken from population studies that met the inclusion criteria (job as Albasia nursery growers, willing as respondent, place of residence in the territory of the district health center Kemiri, aged 18-64 years) and criteria exclusion (habit of consumption of raw vegetables, travel/resettled in a long time, not willing to be made respondents).Results : The proportion of patients with hookworm infection (64,3 %) or 65 people. The risk factors are shown to affect the incidence of hookworm infection among others ; wash feet after work (OR = 4,41), available toilet at work (OR = 3,77), wash hands after work (OR =3,74) and wear footwear when working (OR = 3,56).Conclusion : Several risk factors that influence the incidence of hookworm infection in nursery growers in the district albasia hazelnut is to wash the feet after work, lack of latrines in the workplace, wash hands after work and do not use footwear when working with a probability of 99,03%.

Faktor Risiko yang Berpengaruh Terhadap Status Kontrol Glikemik pada Kehamilan dengan Diabetes Melitus (Studi Kasus Kontrol Pasien di Beberapa RS di Kota Semarang)

Jurnal Epidemiologi Kesehatan Komunitas Vol 1, No 2: Agustus 2016
Publisher : Master of Epidemiology, School of Postgraduate Studies, Diponegoro University, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background : The number of diabetes patients was higher in women than men. The high prevalence in women occurs in pregnant women because of the increasing age of childbearing. Commonly, pregnancy in women with diabetes was associated with morbidity and mortality.  Data obtained from Diabetic  Department  King’s  College  Hospital mentioned that  during  pregnancy, a good control of maternal diabetes cause a progressive decline in blood glucose control. The purpose of this research is to explain some risk factors related to glycaemic control status in pregnancy with diabetes mellitus. Methods : This research was an observational study using case control design by using retrospective approach. The population of this study is all cases of pregnancy with diabetes with  the number of sample was 62 people, consist of 31 cases and 31 control with consecutive  sampling. In this research, cases sample selection was chosed from pregnant women with diabetes who come to Tugurejo Hospital, Semarang City Hospital and Roemani Hospital during 2015. Control sample selection was chosed from non pregnant women with diabetes who come to Tugurejo Hospital, Semarang City Hospital and Roemani Hospital during 2015. Results : The pattern of taking medications that was not good (p= 0,002; aOR= 7,2; 95%CI= 1,9-17,2) was risk factors of poor glycaemic control status with probability event amounted was 70,0%. Conclusion : The risk factors to glycaemic control status in pregnancy with diabetes was the pattern of taking medications that was not good. Background  :Thenumber  ofdiabetes  patients  washigher  inwomen  thanmen.Thehigh prevalence   in   women   occurs   in   pregnant   women   because   of   the   increasing   age   of childbearing.  Commonly,  pregnancy  inwomen  withdiabetes  wasassociated  withmorbidity andmortality.  Dataobtained  fromDiabetic  Department  King’s  College  Hospital  mentioned that  during  pregnancy,  agood  control  ofmaternal  diabetes  cause  aprogressive  decline  in bloodglucosecontrol.Thepurposeof thisresearchisto explainsomeriskfactorsrelatedto glycaemiccontrolstatusinpregnancywithdiabetesmellitus.Methods  :Thisresearch  wasanobservational  studyusingcasecontrol  design  by  using  a retrospective  approach.  Thepopulation  ofthisstudyisallcasesofpregnancy  withdiabetes with  the  number  of  sample  was  62  people,  consist  of  31  cases  and  31  control  with consecutive  sampling.  In  this  research,  cases  sample  selection  was  chosed  from  pregnant women   with   diabetes   who   come   to  Tugurejo   Hospital,   Semarang   City   Hospital   and Roemani  Hospital  during  2015.  Control  sample  selection  was  chosed  from  non  pregnant women   with   diabetes   who   come   to  Tugurejo   Hospital,   Semarang   City   Hospital   and RoemaniHospitalduring2015.Results:Thepatternoftakingmedications  thatwasnotgood(p=0,002;aOR=7,2;95% CI=1,9-17,2)was   risk  factors   of  poor  glycaemic   control   status  with  probability   event amountedwas70,0%.Conclusion  :Theriskfactorstoglycaemiccontrolstatusinpregnancywithdiabeteswasthe patternoftakingmedicationsthatwasnotgood.

Beberapa Faktor yang Berisiko Terhadap Hipertensi pada Pegawai di Wilayah Perimeter Pelabuhan (Studi Kasus Kontrol di Kantor Kesehatan Pelabuhan Kelas II Semarang)

Jurnal Epidemiologi Kesehatan Komunitas Vol 4, No 1: Februari 2019
Publisher : Master of Epidemiology, School of Postgraduate Studies, Diponegoro University, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Hypertension is an increase in arterial blood pressure where systolic blood pressure is ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg. Hypertension is often called the silent killer because it does not cause symptoms so the treatment is often late. Occupational-related diseases one of which is hypertension. The type of work, work environment, lifestyle and individual characteristics can be a factor of hypertension.Methods: An analytical observational study using a case-control design with 76 samples consisting of 38 cases and 38 controls taken by consecutive sampling. The variables studied were age, gender, family history, type of work, years of work, workload, work schedule, sedentary behavior, coffee drinking habits, and smoking habits. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate with logistic regression method.Results: Significant factors for hypertension were sex (p=0,012; OR adjusted 6,582; 95% CI 1,522-28,456) and the work type (p=0,020; OR adjusted 5,248; 95%CI 1,292-21,316) as risk factors, while sedentary behavior (p=0,030; OR adjusted 0,311; 95% CI 0,108-0,895) as a protective factor. The factors that are not significant at risk are age, family history, years of work, workload, work schedule, coffee drinking habits and smoking habits.Conclusion: Male and structural work type are risk factors, while sedentary behavior ≥ 6 hours/day is a protective factor. Probability at risk of hypertension is 75%. 

Beberapa Faktor Risiko Gizi Kurang dan Gizi Buruk pada Balita 12-59 Bulan (Studi Kasus di Kota Pontianak)

Jurnal Epidemiologi Kesehatan Komunitas Vol 2, No 1: Februari 2017
Publisher : Master of Epidemiology, School of Postgraduate Studies, Diponegoro University, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Moderate and severe malnutrition cases in Pontianak City increases each year although a nutritional improvement program has been held by the Health Department of Pontianak City.Method: The type of research was observational using the quantitative study design of case control study and the qualitative study through in-depth interview (mixed method). The number of samples was 80 people consisting of 40 people from case and 40 people from control. Assessment of nutritional using anthropometry measurement based on weight for height. Height measurement using microtoise and measure weighting scale.Results: The multivariate analysis found 2 variables significantly associated with the prevalence of moderate and severe malnutrition in children under five years old aged 12-59 months, i.e.: poor of attitude toward food (OR = 6.980) and poor environmental health (OR =5.033). There were 9 variables which were not associated with nutritional status, not given exclusive breastfeeding, energy intake is less, protein intake is less, frequency of Severe Acute Respiratory Infection equal to over three times in the last two months, frequency of diarrhea equal to over three times in the last two months, low monthly family income, number of children more than two, low mother's education, and frequency of watching TV more than two hours a day.Conclusion: Based on the results above, it can be concluded that the risk factors associated with the prevalence of moderate and severe malnutrition are poor of mother's attitude toward food is poor health and poor environmental.

Faktor-Faktor Risiko Kejadian Kaki Diabetik pada Penderita Diabetes Melitus Tipe 2 (Studi Kasus Kontrol di RSUP dr. M. Djamil Padang)

Jurnal Epidemiologi Kesehatan Komunitas Vol 1, No 2: Agustus 2016
Publisher : Master of Epidemiology, School of Postgraduate Studies, Diponegoro University, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background : Diabetic foot is one of the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus and are the most feared by people who suffer of diabetes mellitus as it can lead to disability or even death. This more specific research on risk factors of the ethnic communities of the Minangkabau society. The purpose of this research is to prove the factors related to the incidence of diabetic foot in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods : The research applied with mix method were quantitative as the main approach (case control design) and qualitative as support (indepth interview). Target population is all people with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Padang City, West Sumatera Province there were 172 respondent involved, consisting of 86 cases and 86 controls with concequtive sampling technique. Data analysis included univariat and bivariat analysis using the chi square test and mu ltivariate analysis using multiple logistic regression test.Results : Factors proven to correlate with the incidence of diabetic foot in patients with type 2diabetes mellitus are deformities in legs (p=<0,001), habit of smoking (p=<0,001), age ≥45 years (p=<0,001; OR=27,6; 95%CI=3,96-193,23), a series of ulceration on the legs (p=0,001;), and hypertension (p=0,001), with the probability of 95,88%. Protective factors on the incidence of diabetic foot in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is a gender (p=0,002).Conclusion : Risk factors to the incidence of diabetic foot are related of the deformities in the foot, smoking, age, leg ulceration and hypertension

Hubungan Karakteristik Demografi, Faktor Keselamatan Dan Kesehatan Kerja (K3) Dan Lingkungan Terhadap Kejadian Leptospirosis (Studi Pada Pekerja Sektor Informal di Kota Semarang Tahun 2013-2016)

Jurnal Epidemiologi Kesehatan Komunitas Vol 3, No 1: Februari 2018
Publisher : Sekolah Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro Semarang

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Abstract

Background: Leptospirosis is a disease caused by pathogenic bacteria called Leptospira, which is transmitted directly or indirectly. There were many of Leptospirosis study. However, the relation between demographic characteristic, occupational health and safety, and environmental factors foccusing on the workers of informal sectors was unclear. The objectives of study were to measure the association between demographic characteristics, Occupational, Health and Safety, and environmental factors with Leptospirosis in the workers of informal sectors.Methods: An observational study with case-control design. Popupation of the study were all of workers of the informal sectors in Semarang City, it is including, but not limited to farmers, cleaning worker, laborers (farming, construction, handyman) and traditional market worker. Sample of the study were 82 persons, consist of 41 cases and 41 controls. Sample were taking by consecutive sampling. Data analysis perform by univariant, bivariant, and multivariant.Results: The main risk factors were age (18–40 years old) p=0,017; aOR=42,22;95%CI=1,96- 906,55; Gender (male) p=0,017; aOR=37,01, 95%CI=1,9- 718,6; history of open wound during working p=0,042; aOR=10,85; 95%CI=1,08-108,24; home sanitation (poor, with score <60%) p=0,025; aOR=25,25; 95%CI=1,5-423,3; and history of contact with the source of infection p=0,003; aOR=56,98; 95%CI=3,8-849,2.Conclusion: Demographic characteristics, Occupational, Health and Safety, and environmental factors were associated with Leptospirosis.

Faktor-Faktor Risiko Status Imunisasi Dasar Tidak Lengkap pada Anak (Studi di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas II Kuala Tungkal)

Jurnal Epidemiologi Kesehatan Komunitas Vol 2, No 2: Agustus 2017
Publisher : Master of Epidemiology, School of Postgraduate Studies, Diponegoro University, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background : Basic immunization is a program conducted to protect the body from disease. Mother behavior, health care and environmental factor serve as a benchmark in the basic immunization status. This study aimed to analyze the risk factors of incomplete basic immunization in children.Methods : The research used observational analytic and cross sectional studynsupported by qualitative approach of in-depth interview method. The research population was all mothers with children aged 12 to 24 months with sample size of 92 respondents. Sampling method was conducted by purposive random sampling. Data collection was done by interviewing and the measuring instrument used is an questionaire. Data was analyzed by univariate, bivariate and multivariate.Results : Multivariate analysis showed poor maternal knowledge (p=0.0001) and lack of supportive attitudes of mothers toward immunization (p=0.0001), is a risk factor for incomplete basic immunization status in children. While mother's age, mother's education, mother's occupation, mother's perception of health facility condition, mother's perception on immunization staff role, number of child in the household and information media are not the risk factors of incomplete basic immunization status in children. A qualitative approach with in-depth interviews indicates that poor knowledge of immunization and the lack of supportive attitude of mothers toward immunization resulting in an incomplete basic immunization status.Conclusion : Risk factors for incomplete basic immunization status in children are poor mother's knowledge and lack of supportive attitudes of mothers toward immunization

Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Kepatuhan Bidan Desa Melaksanakan Rujukan Kehamilan Risiko Tinggi (Studi Kasus di Kabupaten Kudus)

Jurnal Epidemiologi Kesehatan Komunitas Vol 1, No 1: Februari 2016
Publisher : Master of Epidemiology, School of Postgraduate Studies, Diponegoro University, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Pregnancy is a high risk of having a high probability of experiencing maternal mortality events. In the procedure management of high risk pregnant women, midwives are required to perform high-risk pregnant women referral to higher care unit. The purpose of this study was to determine some of the factors that affect adherence midwives in performing high-risk pregnancy referrals.Methods: The study was observational analytic cross-sectional design. Sampling proportionate stratified random sampling. Total sample is 60 midwives. The research instrument was a questionnaire. Data analysis using univariate, bivariate (chi-square) and multivariate (logistic regression).Results: The variables that proved influential is the detection of high-risk pregnancy competence good (PR = 0.2; p = 0.023) and age midwife more than 28 years (PR = 0.2; p =0.024). Variables that are not proven effect is the level of education, years of service, supervision supervisor, employment status, work motivation, perceptions of workload, perceived benefits, leadership perceptions and perceptions of the profession midwife.Conclusion: Factors that influence the adherence proved midwives carry out the referral of high-risk pregnancy is high risk pregnancy detection competence good and village midwives age more than 28 years with a probability of 66.0% to obey. 

Higiene Genetalia sebagai Faktor Risiko Infeksi Menular Seksual (IMS) pada Ibu Rumah Tangga di Puskesmas Bandarharjo Semarang

Jurnal Epidemiologi Kesehatan Komunitas Vol 1, No 2: Agustus 2016
Publisher : Master of Epidemiology, School of Postgraduate Studies, Diponegoro University, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background : STI (Sexual Transmission Infection) resulted in sexual and reproductive health issues that affect women, especially among housewives, children and the poor. Factors that may affect the incidence of STIs covers all aspects of epidemiology: age, race, education, occupation, economic status, marital status, knowledge, attitudes and practices in the treatment of genital hygiene. PHC Bandarharjo with the incidence of STI is quite high of 50 cases in 2014 and 90% are housewives. This study aims to prove hygiene genital factors affect the incidence of STI in housewives.Methods : This study used a mixed methods where quantitative was as the main approach with case-control design. Total sample of 80 with a ratio of 1:1 (40 respondents each group), in PHC Bandarharjo. As the case is positive housewife STI and control is negative h ousewife STI after physically examined at the PHC and laboratories Bandarharjo. Data was analyzed by univariate, bivariate (chi-square) and multivariate (logistic regression), followed by in-depth-interviews.Results : The result show the factors are shown to affect the STI on the housewife is not wash the vagina before sexual intercourse (OR = 7.7; 95% CI 2.0 to 29.1; p = 0.002), vaginal douching (OR = 7, 7; 95% CI 2.0 to 29.1; p = 0.002), low family income