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CONVERSION OF (±)-CITRONELLAL AND ITS DERIVATIVES TO (-)-MENTHOL USING BIFUNCTIONAL NICKEL ZEOLITE CATALYSTS Adilina, Indri Badria; Pertiwi, Ralentri; Sulaswatty, Anny
Biopropal Industri Vol 6, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Balai Riset dan Standardisasi Industri Pontianak

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Abstract

(±)-Citronellal and its derivatives were converted to (-)-menthol by a one-pot reaction system using zeolite based nickel catalysts. The catalysts were prepared by immobilization of nickel on natural zeolite (NZ) or synthetic zeolite (ZSM-5) by a simple cation exchange method. Calcination and hydrogen treatment procedures were able to significantly increase the surface area and pore volume of NZ based catalysts whereas negligible changes in the properties were observed for that of ZSM-5. Catalytic reactions were carried out at 70ºC by stirring the mixture in the air for cyclization of (±)-citronellal to (±)-isopulegol followed by hydrogenation towards the desired (-)-menthol at 2 Mpa of H2 pressure. The Ni/NZ catalyst was able to convert a (±)-citronellal derivative yielding 9% (-)-menthol (36% selectivity) with conversion up to 24%, whereas Ni/ZSM5 catalyst directly converted 65% (±)-citronellal to give 4% menthol (6% selectivity). These zeolite based catalysts are therefore potential materials for the conversion of biomass feed stock to value-added chemicals.
Patchouli Oil Production for Fixative Aromatheraphy: A Case Study Design of Condenser for Steam Distillation Agustian, Egi; Sulaswatty, Anny
Biopropal Industri Vol 6, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Balai Riset dan Standardisasi Industri Pontianak

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Abstract

Patchouli oil is an important material for aromatherapy industries and made from patchouli leaves by steam distillation. The important parts of steam distillation is condenser. The problem is process of farmers patchouli based on experience not used chemical process of steam distillation cause not effective and efficient. The study was designed of condensers on steam distillation for patchouli leaves. Specification of condenser type is shell and tube, stainless steel material and water as coolant. Tubing sized is ¼ inch with 500 mm of length and 24 pieces. Shell measuring 2.5 inch and 600 mm of length. The performance of condenser gave the efficiency at 94.51%. The process condition of ratio stems to leaves is 5:6 and 4.5 hours was considered ideal for steam distillation. The used of energy is lowest cause the efficiency condenser and yield will be higher. Patchouli oil yield of 2.39% and patchouli alcohol content is 35.65%.
NILAI TAMBAH MINYAK AKAR WANGI DENGAN PEMEKATAN KADAR VETIVEROL MENGGUNAKAN EKSTRAKSI CO2 FLUIDA SUPERKRITIK Sulaswatty, Anny; Agustian, Egi
Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Applied Chemistry) Vol 16, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1647.411 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jkti.v16i2.11

Abstract

Potensi Indonesia akan minyak akar wangi yang berorientasi ekspor dalam industri kosmetik, parfum, sabun, keperluan terapi, antiseptik, massage oil, farmasi dan pestisida memberikan peluang yang besar untuk memenuhi kebutuhan dunia. Guna nilai tambah minyak akar wangi dengan meningkatkan kadar vetiverol sebagai komponen utama, diaplikasikan teknologi ekstraksi fluida karbondioksida superkritik yang merupakan perpaduan ekstraksi, fraksinasi dan deodorisasi dengan didukung keunggulan karbondioksida sebagai pelarut yang inert, ramah lingkungan, mudah dipisahkan, dan berdaya larut tinggi.  Minyak akar wangi Garut (Java vetiver oil) sebagai bahan baku, mempunyai karakteristik  kadar vetiverol  39.03 %; Bobot jenis 0.9977; indeks bias 1.5247;  putaran optik +38.1; kelarutan dalam alkohol 95%  yaitu 1:1 jernih; bilangan asam 28.1; bilangan ester 24.6; bilangan ester setelah asetilasi 115.5; serta tidak mengandung minyak lemak dan  minyak keruing. Pemilihan kondisi proses guna menghasilkan kandungan vetiverol optimal dilakukan dengan memvariasikan laju alir gas CO2, tekanan dan suhu sebagai parameter penting dalam keberhasilan proses ekstraksi minyak akar wangi dengan fluida CO2 superkritik. Pemilihan laju alir konstan dan lebih stabil  diperoleh pada 5.5 liter/menit, sedangkan untuk variasi tekanan ekstraktor (1500, 1750, 2000 psi) dan suhu ekstraktor (40-50oC);  tekanan dan suhu separator  500 psi dan 25oC serta waktu proses selama lima jam dengan pengambilan ekstrak setiap jam. Tekanan dan suhu proses yang optimal diperoleh pada 1750 psi dan suhu 40oC  dengan  rafinat minyak akar wangi berkadar vetiverol  51.82 %,  bilangan ester 7.2 dan bilangan ester setelah asetilasi  172.4. Tingginya tekanan dan rendahnya suhu berpengaruh terhadap perolehan ekstrak; penurunan rafinat; peningkatan nilai  bobot jenis ekstrak dan rafinat; indeks bias ekstrak dan rafinat; putaran optik ekstrak dan rafinat; peningkatan viskositas ekstrak dan rafinat; peningkatan bilangan ester ekstrak, bilangan ester setelah asetilasi ekstrak, serta kandungan vetiverol.Kata Kunci: Minyak Akar Wangi, Vetiverol, Ekstraksi Fluida Superkritik Potential Indonesian vetiver oil export oriented industry of cosmetics, perfumes, soaps, therapeutic purposes, antiseptic, massage oil, pharmaceutical and pesticide presents a great opportunity to meet the needs of the world. In order to add value vetiver oil by increasing the levels vetiverol as the main component, was applied to carbon dioxide supercritical fluid extraction technology which is a combination of extraction, fractionation and deodorization with excellence supported carbon dioxide as an inert solvent, eco-friendly, easily separated, and the high solubility. Garut vetiver oil (Java vetiver oil) as raw material, has the characteristics vetiverol levels 39.03%, specific gravity of 0.9977; refractive index of 1.5247; optical rotation +38.1; solubility in alcohol 95% is a clear 1:1; acid number 28.1; ester number 24.6; ester number after acetylation 115.5; as well as fats and oils contain no oil keruing. The selection process conditions in order to produce optimal vetiverol content performed by varying the flow rate of CO2 gas, pressure and temperature as an important parameter in the success of vetiver oil extraction with supercritical CO2 fluid. The selection of a constant flow rate and more stable obtained at 5.5 liters / min, whereas for pressure variation extractor (1500-2000 psi) and extractor temperature (40-50oC); separator pressure and temperature of 500 psi and 25 °C as well as the processing time for five hours by taking extracts every hour. Pressure and temperature optimum process obtained at 1750 psi and a temperature of 40oC with rafinat vetiverol vetiver oil yield of 51.82%, ester number 7.2, and ester number after acetylation 172.4. The high pressure and low temperature affect the acquisition of the extract; rafinat decline; increase in the value of specific gravity and rafinat extracts; refractive index and rafinat extract; optical rotation and rafinat extract; increase in the viscosity of the extract and rafinat; increase in numbers ester extract, ester number after acetylation extracts, as well as the content vetiverol. Key word: Vetiver Oil, Vetiverol, Supercritical Fluid Extraction.
Simple Purification of Vetiver Oil by Multiglass Plate System for Quality Improvement Yanto, Evi; Agustian, Egi; Sulaswatty, Anny
Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Applied Chemistry) Vol 18, No 02 (2016)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14203/jkti.v18i02.86

Abstract

Vetiver oil is one of essential oil from Indonesia which no synthetic substitute is available. The drawback of vetiver oil from Indonesia is smoky odor and dark appearance. To increase added value of Indonesian vetiver oil, therefore it is need method with cheap production, simple and easy to operate. Multiglass plate system (MGS) is one method to increase added value of vetiver oil. The aim of this research is to improve the vetiver oil quality in terms of appearance, odor and the physicochemical properties by MGS method and also optimize the operation condition on the vetiver oil yield and total vetiverol contents. The process parameters used on this research are to optimize the flow rate, angular and amount of glass plate. As a result, was obtained the optimum condition in 0.38 ml/sec of flow rate, 3o of glass plate angular and 5 of glass plate to increase 15% of total vetiverol contents, while the yields decreased until 5.6%. Refined vetiver oil by MGS are almost meet fulfill with Indonesia National Standard number 06-2386-2006 except total vetiverol contents and odor. Even though, the total vetiverol content increased and the odor became slightly smoky compare to raw material. Based on the results, MGS method can give higher purification of vetiverol of increase vetiver oil quality with easy to handle, low cost operation and also can moved to anywhere due to portable unit and mobile system.
PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN GARAM NATRIUM DAN KALIUM METABISULFIT PADA MUTU SALE PISANG AMBON SULASWATTY, ANNY; ROESTAMSJAH, ROESTAMSJAH
Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia Vol 1, No 2 (1991)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14203/jkti.v1i2.303

Abstract

Techniques of improving the colour, aroma, texture and storage life of pisang sale or dried banana (Musa paradisiacal was conducted through sulphiting and drying. In this study, the sulphiting of ball all a fruit was done by soaking the fruit in O.S% sodium meta bisulfite solution (NazSzOs) or O.S% potasium metabisulfite solution (K2S2O5) for five minutes. Dehydration was conducted at 6OC for 44 hours in a tray dryer. The dried banana was put in plastic bag of O.5 mm film thickness and stored in a rack covered with transparent plastic film at ambient temperature (25 2C) and relative humidity of 70%. The experiment was done using random block design. Analysis of the dried banana products included chemical, microbiological an d organoleptic methods after storage for one day, three weeks, six weeks and 12 weeks. The results indicated that the artificial drying coupled with the metablsulphite treatment could improve the quality and shelf life of the dried banan a produced. The product quality characteristics include: water content (23-27%), total reducing sugar (41-49%), SO2 (3-S fpm), color/optical density (0,3-0,7); and total colony count (7-7.5 x 10(3)) per gram sample for the products stored up to 12 weeks.
Antibacterial and Antioxidant activities of Indonesian ginger (jahe emprit) essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation Azizah, Nurul; Filaila, Euis; Salahuddin, Salahuddin; Agustian, Egi; Sulaswatty, Anny; Artanti, Nina
Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Applied Chemistry) Vol 20, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (689.817 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jkti.v20i2.401

Abstract

The rhizome of ginger is commonly used as a spice, food, beverage as well as medicine. Plant essential oils including from ginger have been widely used for food preservation, pharmaceutical and alternative medicines.  Currently there are growing interest of consumer for natural sources such as essential oils for natural antibacterial and antioxidant.  Jahe emprit (Zingiber officinale var. Amarum) is one of Indonesian ginger variety used to obtain ginger essential oil. The objective of current study was to investigate the effect of solvent to feed (SF) ratio in hydrodistillation process on yield, chemicals content, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of ginger essential oils from jahe emprit.  SF ratio used in this study is 0.7: 1, 1.7: 1, 2.7: 1.  Chemicals content was conducted using GCMS analysis.  Antibacterial assay was conducted using disc diffusion method against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.  Antioxidant assay was conducted using DPPH free radical scavenging assay.  The results show that the highest essential oil yield was obtained from SF ratio 1.7:1 which gave yield of 3.7%.  GCMS analysis shows that camphene was always the major compound present in those 3 SF ratio, although the amount present was differed.  Besides, 4 other major compounds present were varied.  Antibacterial assay using 1% concentration showed ginger oil obtained from SF 0.7:1 and 2.7:1 have the same activities for S. aureus, whereas SF ratio 1.7:1 has the lowest activities.  However for E. coli, all SF ratio gave same results.  For antioxidant activities at 1000 ppm concentration, the highest activity was obtained from SF ratio 2.7:1
Finding the Most Efficient Technology Transfer Route Using Dijkstra Algorithm to Foster Innovation: The Case of Essential Oil Developments in the Research Center for Chemistry at the Indonesian Institute of Sciences Setiawan, Arief Ameir Rahman; Sulaswatty, Anny; Haryono, Agus
STI Policy and Management Journal Vol 1, No 1 (2016): STI Policy and Management
Publisher : Center for Science and Technology Development Studies, Indonesian Institute of Sciences

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (887.347 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/STIPM.2016.45

Abstract

Innovation is one of the most critical issues in research institutions which can be performed through certain routes within the technology transfer mechanism. As the demands of research implementation are increasing, a better mechanism should be deployed to foster innovation. This study will investigate the possibilities for technology transfer mechanism improvements by (i) identifying a number of steps required for innovation; (ii) measuring the efficiency of each step; and (iii) exploring the most efficient routes to innovate through the Dijkstra algorithm. Cases of research on essential oils and derivatives in the Research Center for Chemistry (RCC) of the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) will be examined as the working example for the study. As a result of this study, a model containing a recommended sequence for the most efficient steps to innovation can be proposed. Using the proposed model, the efficiency rate of the technology transfer mechanism was increased twice, suggesting the possibility of stimulating innovation performance.
KEBIJAKAN PENGEMBANGAN RISET ILMU PENGETAHUAN DAN TEKNOLOGI NANO Sulaswatty, Anny
Jurnal Sains Materi Indonesia Edisi Khusus, Oktober 2006
Publisher : Center for Science & Technology of Advanced Material - National Nuclear Energy Agency of

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1037.611 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/jusami.2006.0.0.4930

Abstract

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SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF ETHOXYLATED GLYCEROL MONOOLEATE AS PALM OIL BASED NONIONIC SURFACTANTS Adilina, Indri Badria; Agustian, Egi; Meliana, Yenny; Sulaswatty, Anny
Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Applied Chemistry) Vol 17, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (438.511 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jkti.v17i1.22

Abstract

Palm oil based nonionic surfactants were synthesized by reacting glycerol monooleate with ethylene oxide at 80 ºC in the prescence of an alkaline catalyst. Purification of the products was conducted by use of acetic acid and black carbon which gave ethoxylated products (EGMO) with a higher level of viscocity and greater solubility in water. Physical and chemical properties of the product such as surface activity, cloud point, acid value, ester value, hydroxyl value, and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance was also determined and results varied depending on the reagent molar ratio. The synthesized EGMO were soluble in water and therefore show potential use as surface active agents in personal care and cosmetic products.Keywords:   nonionic surfactant, ethoxylation, glycerol monooleate, palm oil
Esterification of Waste Cooking Oil Using Ultrasonic: Kinetic Study Agustian, Egi; Jessica, Jessica; Untoro, Pudji; Sulaswatty, Anny
Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Applied Chemistry) Vol 20, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (521.053 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jkti.v20i2.397

Abstract

Waste cooking oil (WCO) have a great potential as an alternative raw material for producing biodiesel. The literatures kinetic of the esterification of WCO in the presence of phosphoric acid catalyst with ultrasonic assisted are rare and most literatures used conventional method. This study aims to determine the optimum condition and the parameters of first and second order kinetics of the WCO esterification which was assisted by ultrasonic bath. Variables that used in this study are methanol/oil mole ratio, acid catalyst concentration and reaction temperature. The highest conversion was 42.08% with methanol/oil mole ratio of 15:1, a catalyst (phosphoric acid) concentration of 9% wt and temperature of 50oC within 90 minutes. The reaction time was reduced to 3 times (minute) compare to conventional method and fatty acid reduced 42%. Kinetic parameters were calculated with assumption that the esterification was the irreversible reaction. The reaction rate constant increasing with temperature. The value of activation energy for esterification of WCO is 42.94 kJ/mol for first order reaction and 35.30 kJ/mol for second order reaction.