Erwiza Erman, Erwiza
Research Center for Society and Culture (PMB-LIPI)

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Chinese taukeh, labourer, and state control Case study of panglong in eastern region of Sumatra (1890-1930) Erman, Erwiza
Wacana Vol 18, No 2 (2017): Chinese Indonesians in historical perspective II
Publisher : Faculty of Humanities, University of Indonesia

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Abstract

Recently the flow of labour from China to Indonesia has fuelled many discussions but is not a new phenomenon. It can be traced back to the eighteenth century and continued until the twentieth century. In colonial Indonesia, the Chinese labour force was recruited to work in the economic sectors of mining, plantations, fisheries and forestry. Unfortunately, previous studies about Chinese society in Indonesia more focused on economic and political elites rather than the social history of the Chinese contract coolies. This article attempts to look at the labour history of the Chinese coolie in the forest exploitation companies, known as panglong. By focusing on the ways in which they were treated in the recruitment process and workplace, this article shows that changes for the better did take place in the appalling working conditions of the labourers. Until the second decade of the twentieth century, recruitment, food, and health care were rife with manipulations, exacerbated by arduous working conditions and insecurity in the workplace, abuse of power by mandors and forms of non-economic coercion like the use of opium. All these factors were meant to ensure that the Chinese contract labourers could not break loose from their indentures, a modern form of slavery. Hampered by budgetary restrictions, lack of personnel, and marine transport facilities, the state colonial officials were hamstrung. But in the second decade of twentieth century, when the abysmal working conditions of the Chinese coolies were debated on a higher level by politicians and bureauracts state control was tightened. More effectual control by the state had a positive effect on improving of the working and living conditions.
DINAMIKA KOMUNITAS WARUNG KOPI DAN POLITIK RESISTENSI DI PULAU BELITUNG Erman, Erwiza
Masyarakat Indonesia Vol 40, No 1 (2014): Majalah Ilmu-Ilmu Sosial Indonesia
Publisher : Masyarakat Indonesia

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Abstract

Dewasa ini bisnis warung kopi mengalami perkembangan yang pesat bersamaan dengan penciptaan selera, hasrat, dan gaya hidup baru kelas menengah kota. Jika dulu minum kopi identik dengan orangtua, kini melalui berbagai iklan, kopi hadir sebagai minuman supermahal, identik dengan kemewahan dan gaya hidup kelas menengah. Dengan memilih Kota Tanjung Pandan dan Manggar di Pulau Belitung sebagai studi kasus, artikel ini mencoba melihat faktor-faktor kemunculan, perkembangan, fungsi warung kopi, dan peran komunitasnya dalam konteks politik dan ekonomi yang lebih luas. Dengan menggunakan metode penelitian sejarah, observasi langsung dan wawancara mendalam dengan pemilik dan pelanggan serta masyarakat sekitar warung kopi, penelitian ini memperlihatkan bahwa warung kopi tidak hanya sekedar sebuah usaha bisnis dan ruang publik yang memuaskan keinginan, hasrat pencandu kopi, tetapi adalah sebagai tempat membentuk komunitas, solidaritas dan saluran politik resistensi untuk memperjuangkan keadilan. Perkembangan ini berproses dan itu tidak dapat dipisahkan dari perkembangan ekonomi dan politik lokal/nasional. Kata kunci: Warung kopi, perkembangan, komunitas, politik resistensi, Belitung
Remembering and Forgetting: The History of Sheikh Yusuf Struggle for Human Right Erman, Erwiza
Heritage of Nusantara: International Journal of Religious Literature and Heritage Vol 1, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Center for Research and Development of Religious Literature and Heritage

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Abstract

For 300 years,. the name of Sheikh Yusuf, son of Macassar was missing from the governments attention and public intellectual as well. But when Nelson Mandela, President of South Africa,. commemorated 300 years of the arrival of Sheikh Yusuf in Cape Town in 1994, since that time government institution civil society and academics from Indonesia and South Africa have been paying to attention to remember, understand and study him from various perspectives. By using concept of remembering and forgetting, this article shows that the process of remembering by the two countries did not take place in the empty space, but rely on psychological consideration of the individuals, communities and socio-political condition from the two countries. The process of forgetting constructed by the Dutch colonial state in 17th century became inversely proportional to the action of remembering the Sheikh Yusuf by African and Indonesian officials in 20th century. The proces of remembering shows its own dynamics ranging from individuals communities to public memory. When remembering Syekh Yusuf reached state memory or public memory it became a power that can define and plan a socio-political and economic agenda for the future by the countries.
CRISIS, GROWTH AND CHANGES IN SUB SAHARA AFRICA: EVIDENCE FROM KENYA Fuady, Ahmad Helmy; Erman, Erwiza; Kresna, Muzzar; Hakam, Saiful
Jurnal Kajian Wilayah Vol 8, No 2 (2017): Jurnal Kajian Wilayah
Publisher : Research Center for Regional Resources-Indonesian Institute of Sciences (P2SDR-LIPI)

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Abstract

Since 2008, the world economy has been overshadowed by a heavy pressure from the global financial crisis. With a relatively strong global relationship, it is difficult for Kenya to fully escape the global financial crisis. Kenya has also gone through a food crisis, the post-election political crisis and the security crisis. In fact, the Kenyan economy, since the early 2000s, continues to grow without much affected by the crises. With history and economics approach, this study departs from a simple curiosity, to know how Kenya’s economic development is during the crises. This study examines three sectors that survive and thrive during times of crisis, namely agricultural sector (tea, coffee and cut flowers), infrastructure, and financial technology. In addition, this study also describes the increasing role of China in the Kenyan economy, when other donor countries are in crisis.Keywords: Crisis, agricultural sector, infrastructure development, financial technology, ChinaAbstrakSejak 2008, perekonomian dunia telahdibayangi oleh tekanan krisis keuangan global. Dengan hubungan global yang relatif kuat, sulit bagi Kenya untuk sepenuhnya keluar dari krisis tersebut. Kenya juga mengalami krisis pangan, krisis politik pasca pemilu dan krisis keamanan. Namun, ekonomi Kenya, sejak awal tahun 2000an, terus bertumbuh tanpa banyak terpengaruh oleh krisis. Dengan pendekatan sejarah dan ekonomi, penelitian ini berangkat dari keingintahuan yang sederhanatentangbagaimana perkembangan ekonomi Kenya selama krisis. Studi ini meneliti tiga sektor yang bertahan hidup dan berkembang selama masa krisis, yaitu sektor pertanian (teh, kopi dan bunga potong), infrastruktur, dan teknologi keuangan. Selain itu, studi ini juga menggambarkan peningkatan peran China dalam perekonomian Kenya, ketika negara-negara donor lainnya berada dalam krisis.Kata kunci: Krisis, sektor pertanian, pembangunan infrastruktur, teknologi keuangan, China 
PENGGUNAAN SEJARAH LISAN DALAM HISTORIOGRAFI INDONESIA Erman, Erwiza
Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya Vol 13, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : P2KK LIPI

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Abstract

The professional historians tend to gather information more on the sources of archives and other documentary materials than unwritten sources through interviews. However, since the emergence of oral history in the 19th century in the West, the ongoing debates have been occurring between the pros and the cons with the use of oral sources for writing history. Nevertheless, the oral history activity continues, beginning from its focus on elite experience as found in the United States in 1948, to the experience of ordinary people in Britain in the 1950s and 1960s. Advances in recording technology and new approaches of other social disciplines such as antropology and sociology to oral history, have given a broad influence on historians in third world countries, including Indonesia. Gathering information from oral history, new data found and new historical analysis can be made. This paper tries to see the use and development of oral history in Indonesia. The first section will map the development of Indonesian historiography very briefly and the problem of sources. The next section focuses on the development of oral history in the West and then its influence in Indonesia. The third section describes the use of oral history and its approach, and finally concludes with some closing notes.Keywords: Indonesian historiography, oral history, object, context.