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PENGARUH RASIO REAKTAN DAN JUMLAH KATALIS TERHADAP PROSES PEMBENTUKAN METIL ESTER DARI PALM FATTY ACID DISTILLATE (PFAD) Komariah, Leily Nurul; Diana, Juli; Holik, Hardi
Jurnal Teknik Kimia Vol 15, No 3 (2008): Jurnal Teknik Kimia
Publisher : Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Sriwijaya

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Abstract

Biodiesel adalah senyawa metil ester atau etil ester yang terbuat dari minyak nabati yang digunakan sebagai bahan bakar alternatif untuk mengurangi ketergantungan atas bahan bakar fosil. Biodiesel lebih merupakan bahan bakar yang ramah lingkungan karena bersifat terbaharukan dan tidak beracun. PFAD (Palm Fatty Acid Distillate) merupakan minyak nabati yang diperoleh dari hasil samping  industri minyak goreng yang non-edibel dan dapat dikonversikan menjadi biodiesel. Pembuatan Metil Ester dari PFAD dilakukan melalui dua tahap reaksi yaitu : reaksi esterifikasi dan transesterifikasi. Pada reaksi esterifikasi digunakan katalis asam yaitu H2SO4, sedangkan reaksi transesterifikasi menggunakan katalis basa yaitu KOH. Dari penelitian ini diketahui dengan variasi perbandingan ratio mol minyak PFAD : MEOH adalah 1:1; 1:1,5; dan 1:2, penggunaan katalis asam (H2SO4) (1%, 2%, 3%), serta penggunaan katalis basa (KOH) (1%, 2%, 3%). Waktu reaksi berlangsung kurang lebih 60 menit. Kondisi optimum reaksi metanolisis PFAD diperoleh pada penambahan 3% H2SO4 dan 3% KOH dengan ratio minyak : MEOH adalah 1:1
PENGARUH RATIO H2SO4 DAN WAKTU REAKSI TERHADAP KUANTITAS DAN KUALITAS BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK JARAK PAGAR Hasahatan, Dennis; Sunaryo, Joko; Komariah, Leily Nurul
Jurnal Teknik Kimia Vol 18, No 2 (2012): Jurnal Teknik Kimia
Publisher : Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Sriwijaya

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Abstract

Persediaan energi dari fosil saat ini sangat terbatas, sehingga perlu dicari alternatif energi lain dari bahan yang terbarukan. Salah satu alternative untuk menggantikan bahan baker fosil adalah dengan menggunakan biodiesel sebagai energi terbarukan dari minyak nabati. Jarak pagar (jatropha curcas linn) berpotensi sebagai bahan baku energi terbarukan, karena kandungan minyak pada bijinya tinggi sekitar 40 – 60%, selain itu tanaman ini juga merupakan tanaman nonpangan (nonedible oil). Biodiesel dari minyak jarak dapat dibuat dari minyak jarak pagar melalui proses esterifikasi atau transesterifikasi.Pengaruh waktu reaksi dan konsentrasi H2SO4 diukur dengan parameter kualitas biodiesel yaitu free fatty acid (FFA), angka penyabunan, viskositas, densitas, dan angka asam. Pada proses produksi biodiesel, terlebih dahulu dilakukan proses esterifikasi untuk membentuk metil ester dan mengurangi kandungan asam lemak bebas didalam minyak jarak pagar dengan mereaksikannya dengan methanol dan katalis H2SO4. Setelah esterifikasi, proses dilanjutkan dengan transesterifikasi untuk mengkonversikan trigliserida menjadi metil ester dengan menambahkan katalis NaOH. Produk yang diperoleh yaitu metil ester sebagai produk utama dan gliserol sebagai produk samping. Variabel proses yang digunakan adalah konsentrasi H2SO4, waktu reaksi (t = 1 dan 2 jam) dengan methanol 15 % berat dan temperature 60oC. Setelah membandingkan dengan standar mutu biodiesel, diperoleh kondisi optimum dari proses penelitian, yaitu pada konsentrasi H2SO4 1% dan waktu reaksi 2 jam dengan konversi 92,06%.
The Optimum Conditions of Fire Tube Boiler fuelled with Komariah, Leily Nurul
Sriwijaya International Seminar on Energy-Environmental Science and Technology Vol 1, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Sriwijaya International Seminar on Energy-Environmental Science and Technology

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Abstract

A various tests of biodiesel use in any combustion facility were conducted in order to comply the government mandatory regarding stages of biodiesel utilization, especially in industrial and commercial sectors. The higher biodiesel blends that applied in the boiler show a significant effect on emissions reduction but followed by a reduction in boiler efficiency and an increase in fuel consumption. This study was carried out using palm oil-based biodiesel in the fire tube boiler with 3 bar operating pressure and heat input of 60,000 kcal/hour. In this study, an adjustment scale of the fan damper is conducted in order to control the amount of excess air that enters the combustion chamber. This study showed that the more percentage of biodiesel in fuel blends, the amount of combustion air must reduced. This mechanism was effective through fine-tuning of the fan damper scale. This adjustment may result an increase in efficiency of 0.64 to 2.6%.
EFEK PEMANASAN CAMPURAN BIODIESEL DAN MINYAK SOLAR TERHADAP KONSUMSI BAHAN BAKAR PADA BOILER Komariah, Leily Nurul; Juliani, Winda Dwi; Dimyati, Moch. Farid
Jurnal Teknik Kimia Vol 19, No 4 (2013): Jurnal Teknik Kimia
Publisher : Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Sriwijaya

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Abstract

Along with the government’s mandatory regardings biofuel utilization in industrial equipments, the testing of biodiesel use in the boiler is developed. In anticipation of physical properties of biodiesel such as higher viscosity and density and lower calorific value than diesel fuel, it is important to make several attempts, one of them is by heating the fuel blends. Beside emissions and efficiency, one important performance indicators which considered in boiler operations is the fuel consumption. This study examined the use of biodiesel - diesel oil blends from the composition of biodiesel 10%, 20%, 30%, and 100 % in a fire tube boiler with pressure of 3 bars. Temperature variation is conducted by installing a oil heater in the fuel tank, which temperature set at intervals of 40-70 oC. The results showed fuel consumption is not linear with the increase of  heating temperature. For all the fuel blend compositions, the lower fuel consumption occured at 60 oC of heating. Keywords :  biodiesel, fuel consumption,  heating fuel, viscosity, water content 
TINJAUAN TEORITIS PERANCANGAN KOLOM DISTILASI UNTUK PRA-RENCANA PABRIK SKALA INDUSTRI Komariah, Leily Nurul; Ramdja, A. Fuadi; Leonard, Nicky
Jurnal Teknik Kimia Vol 16, No 4 (2009): Jurnal Teknik Kimia
Publisher : Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Sriwijaya

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Abstract

Destilasi didefinisikan sebagai sebuah proses dimana campuran dua atau lebih zat liquid atau vapor dipisahkan menjadi komponen fraksi yang murni, dengan pengaplikasian dari perpindahan massa dan panas. Umumnya proses distilasi dalam skala industri dilakukan dalam menara, oleh karena itu unit proses dari distilasi ini sering disebut sebagai menara distilasi atau kolom distilasi. Kolom distilasi biasanya berukuran 2-5 meter dalam diameter dan tinggi berkisar antara 6-15 meter. Masukan dari Kolom Distilasi biasanya berupa cair jenuh (cairan yang dengan berkurang tekanan sedikit saja sudah akan terbentuk uap) dan memiliki dua arus keluaran, arus yang diatas adalah arus yang lebih volatil (lebih ringan/mudah menguap) dan arus bawah yang terdiri dari komponen berat.  Dalam anatomi proses industri kimia, keberadaan Kolom Distilasi dalam tahapan pemisahan atau pemurnian produk sudah sangat banyak diaplikasikan. Perancangan Kolom Distilasi untuk Pra Rencana Pabrik bagi mahasiswa dan peneliti membutuhkan pemahaman mendasar tentang prinsip pemisahan dengan distilasi dan langkah-langkah perhitungan disian yang bersesuaian.
PEMBUATAN KARBON AKTIF DARI BONGGOL JAGUNG MANIS (ZEA MAYS SACCHARATA STURT) DAN APLIKASINYA PADA PEMURNIAN AIR RAWA Komariah, Leily Nurul; Ahdiat, Sacayudha; Sari, Novita Dian
Jurnal Teknik Kimia Vol 19, No 3 (2013): Jurnal Teknik Kimia
Publisher : Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Sriwijaya

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Abstract

Berbagai penelitian membuktikan bahwa arang aktif dapat dibuat dari bahan organik maupun anorganik yang mengandung kadar karbon tinggi, bonggol jagung manis merupakan senyawa organik yang memeiliki kadar karbon tinggi. Bahan ini berpotensi menjadi bahan baku produksi arang aktif karena tersedia dalam jumlah melimpah dan selama ini belum bernilai ekonomis.Proses pembuatan karbon aktif dari bonggol jagung manis dilakukan dengan beberapa tahap, yaitu : tahap dehidrasi, karbonisasi, dan aktivasi. Dengan variabel penilitian pada suhu karbonisasi, jeni aktivator yang digunakan, dan lama aktivasi yang dilakukan. Penelitian ini juga menguji pengaruh karbon aktif terhadap kejernihan air rawa. Karbon aktif  terbaik diperoleh pada suhu karbonisasi 600oC, dengan menggunakan activator CaCl2 0,3 M. Pengujian karbon aktif diterapkan pada air rawa, dengan melihat turbidity (kekeruhan air rawa) sebelum dan sesudah dilakukannya penelitian. Kata kunci : bonggol jagung manis, karbon aktif, air rawa. 
MONITORING FOULING DAN JADWAL PEMBERSIHAN CONDENSER DALAM CRUDE DISTILLER UNIT PADA PABRIK PENGILANGAN MINYAK BUMI Komariah, Leily Nurul; Heriyanto, Heriyanto; Ariko, A. Zulkarnain; Armando, Fitra
Jurnal Teknik Kimia Vol 24, No 2 (2018): Jurnal Teknik Kimia
Publisher : Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Sriwijaya

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Abstract

Crude Distiller Unit(CDU) is a key in oil and gas industry. CDU is usually the first processing equipment through which crude oil is fed, then the product serve as feedstocks for all other processing units at the refinery. The product of CDU such as crude butane, SR tops, Naptha II, Naptha III, Naptha IV, LKD, HKD, LCT, HCT, and feed high vacuum unit. SR tops from column 3-1 was condensed and flow to secondary process as feed. Type of condenser is vertical with condensation at outside tube. SR tops through shell and cooling water in tube. Fouling is one of a factor reduction heat transfer coefficient. Fouling is accumulation from deposit material at the wall heat transfer. Observation and interview’s method used to get actual operating condition of condenser 5-1.  Meanwhile reference method to get another data for calculation and study literature for make relation between result and theory. The Result of actual data show condenser should be cleaning about 39 months. This is compatible with theory operating time condenser about 3-4 years until next cleaning. Meanwhile, changed the cooling water from river water to treatment water make long operating time of condenser until 137 months. This is shown that changed cooling water have big influenced to increasing heat transfer coefficient.So for the optimal operation cooling water should change with treatment water.
Breakdown of Water-in-Oil Emulsion on Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Zen, Muhammad Rizky; Arita, Susila; Komariah, Leily Nurul
IJFAC (Indonesian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Chemistry) Vol 4, No 2 (2019): June 2019
Publisher : IJFAC (Indonesian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Chemistry)

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Abstract

The pyrolysis bio-oil which has been studied by many researchers has typically contained a high amount of water, around 20-30%. In this research, the effective bio-oil purification using chemical demulsification method has been studied to reduce the amount of water by breaking down the water-in-oil emulsion on pyrolysis bio-oil. A various dosage of chemical demulsifier (100 ppm, 150 ppm, 200 ppm, and 250 ppm) has been added into the pyrolysis bio-oil and the water separation over time also been observed. The temperature of bio-oil (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 °C) was also studied as a factor that could have a significant effect on the demulsification process of pyrolysis bio-oil. After the injection of 250 ppm of demulsifier at 30 °C, the water separation reached a maximum of 72% in 60 minutes and could reduce the water content from 25% to 8.5%. At the temperature of 60oC and 250 ppm of demulsifier, the water separation reached a maximum of 96% in 35 minutes, and successfully reduced the water content from 25% to 1.3%. Finally, it has been concluded that this bio-crude purification using chemical demulsification method could be applied to effectively reduce the amount of water from pyrolysis bio-oil product.
Synthesis and Characterization of ZSM-5 Catalyst for Catalytic Pyrolysis of Empty Fruit Bunches Rahmiyati, Lutfia; Arita, Susila; Komariah, Leily Nurul; Nazarudin, Nazarudin; Alfernando, Oki
IJFAC (Indonesian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Chemistry) Vol 4, No 2 (2019): June 2019
Publisher : IJFAC (Indonesian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Chemistry)

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Abstract

ZSM-5 is known as a heterogeneous catalyst in the process of petroleum cracking. Zeolite has narrow pores so it needs synthesis to form mesopore so that reactant molecules can enter the active site in ZSM-5 mesopore. In this study, mesopore formation was carried out by adding Si/Al components with a ratio of 20 derived from tetraethyl orthosilicate, aluminum isopropoxide and TPAOH template with hydrothermal process. The resulting ZSM-5 was characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning and electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD characterization results showed that the ZSM-5 synthesized to form mesopore was seen from a fairly high peak intensity in the range at 2-theta were 8.11, 9.01°; 23.27°; 23.49°; and 24.13°. The results of this study already have the same structure as the commercial ZSM-5. Characterization of SEM-EDS showed that Si-Al and Na elements in ZSM-5 were 96.43%, 3.56% and 0% wt, respectively. With a magnification of 20000x, this cluster is quite homogeneous even though the crystallization formed is not well aggregated. This ZSM-5 catalyst will be applied to the process of biomass into bio-oil.
The Effect of H-USY Catalyst in Catalytic Cracking of Waste Cooking Oil to Produce Biofuel Rosmawati, Rosmawati; Arita, Susila; Komariah, Leily Nurul; Nazarudin, Nazarudin; Alfernando, Oki
IJFAC (Indonesian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Chemistry) Vol 4, No 2 (2019): June 2019
Publisher : IJFAC (Indonesian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Chemistry)

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Abstract

The crisis in petroleum is caused by the diminishing supply of petroleum resources from nature. This phenomenon encourages researchers to continue to look for processes and methods to produce energy from other resources. One of these ways is to produce energy that can be utilized from waste, including converting waste cooking oil into biofuel. This method not only could provide a source of renewable energy, but also help resolve the issue of household waste. The process used to produce biofuel from waste cooking oil is by catalytic cracking, where waste cooking oil after pretreatment is converted into biofuel in the flow reactor with H-USY catalyst. In this research, the reaction temperatures used are 400 °C, 450 °C, 500 °C and 550 °C and reaction times are 30, 45 and 60 minutes with the mass ratio of the amount of waste cooking oil to the amount of catalyst used is 40:1 (w/w). The highest yield of liquid biofuel product was obtained at 60.98%. The use of H-USY catalyst shows that the distribution of components contained in biofuel are 28.02% of diesel products (C17 -C20), 23.96% of gasoline (C6 –C12) and 7.78% of Heavy oil (C20 >) in catalytic cracking of waste cooking oil with a reaction time of 45 minutes at a temperature of 450 °C.