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Dyah Ayu Kresnianingrum, Dyah Ayu
Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro

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HIDROLISIS ENZIMATIK KITOSAN DENGAN KOMBINASI ENZIM ENDO-GLUCANASE DAN CELLOBIOHYDROLASE Rokhati, Nur; Pramudono, Bambang; Istirokhatun, Titik; Sulchan, Mohammad; Kresnianingrum, Dyah Ayu; Dewi, Luthfi Kurnia
REAKTOR Volume 15 No.4 Oktober 2015
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/reaktor.15.4.261-267

Abstract

Abstract CHITOSAN ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS USING A COMBINATION OF ENDO-GLUCANASE AND CELLOBIOHYDROLASE. Chitosan is very promising in various fields including medicine, pharmacology, and the food industry. However, the application of this polysaccharide is limited by its high molecular weight resulting in its low solubility in aqueous media. In this respect, the chitosan with shorter chain length, display a reduced viscosity and are soluble in aqueous media at pH values close to neutrality. The aim of this study is the hydrolysis of chitosan to obtain a low molecular weight chitosan using enzymes endo-glucanase and cellobiohydrolase. The hydrolysis of chitosan was carried out under a temperature of 40° C and pH 5. Chitosan degradation was monitored by the analysis of reducing sugars and viscosity, whereas the chemical characterization of chitosan is done by using test FTIR (infrared spectroscopy). The results showed that enzyme treatment resulted in a substantial loss in viscosity of the chitosan solution shows depolymerization. Depolymerization using endo-glucanase took place very quickly during the initial 15 minutes. The rate of viscosity decrease on chitosan degradation using cellobiohydrolase is lower than using endo-glucanase. When the reaction time was 4 h, the lowest  viscosity is showed by cellobiohydrolase, and the highest solubility is showed by combination of endo-glucanase and cellobiohydrolase. Keywords: endo-glucanase; cellobiohydrolase; chitosan; hydrolysis Abstrak Kitosan dapat dimanfaatkan di berbagai bidang seperti kedokteran, farmasi dan industri makanan. Aplikasi kitosan sering dibatasi oleh berat molekul kitosan yang tinggi sehingga viskositasnya tinggi dan kelarutannya rendah. Kitosan dengan rantai polimer pendek, akan mempunyai viskositas rendah, dan mudah larut pada larutan/air dengan pH mendekati netral. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghidrolisis kitosan secara enzimatis menggunakan enzim endo-glucanase dan cellobiohydrolase. Hidrolisis kitosan dilakukan pada suhu 40 °C dan pH 5. Degradasi kitosan dipantau melalui analisa gula reduksi dan viskositas, sedangkan karakterisasi kimia kitosan dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji FTIR (infra red spectroscopy). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa hidrolisis enzimatis kitosan dapat menyebabkan terjadinya penurunan berat molekul yang ditandai dengan adanya penurunan viscositas larutan kitosan. Pada 15 menit awal hidrolisis terjadi penurunan viskositas yang sangat besar. Laju penurunan viskositas enzim cellobiohydrolase lebih rendah dibanding dengan enzime endo-glucanase. Setelah waktu reaksi 4 jam, viskositas terendah diperoleh pada enzime cellobiohydrolase, sedangkan kelarutan tertinggi diperoleh pada kombinasi enzime endo-glucanase dan cellobiohydrolase. Kata kunci: endo-glucanase; cellobiohydrolase; kitosan; hidrolisis