Soenartiningsih Soenartiningsih, Soenartiningsih
Balai Penelitian Tanaman Serealia Jl. Dr. Ratulangi No. 274, Maros, Sulawesi Selatan

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Potensi Cendawan Mikoriza Arbuskular sebagai Media Pengendalian Penyakit Busuk Pelepah pada Jagung Soenartiningsih, Soenartiningsih
Buletin Iptek Tanaman Pangan Vol 8, No 1 (2013): Juni 2013
Publisher : Puslitbang Tanaman Pangan

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Abstract

Sheath blight is soil borne disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani, an important disease in maize. It could cause 100% yield loss on susceptible varieties. R. solani infects lower sheath, spreading upward to the ear, causing ear rot. Symbiosis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and maize, in addition to improving growth of plant by increasing the absorption of nutrients, especially P, was reported that the fungus was capable of inhibiting the growth of soil borne pathogens. Inhibition or control of soil borne pathogen was probably due to the increase of fenol, to stimulate the formation of flavonoids which increase the activation of phenyl alanine ammonium lyase (PAL) enzyme. Increasing flavonoid structure, however, was not directly involved in plant resistance, but it serves to synthesize chitinase and phenyl alanine ammonium lyase enzyme, which induces plant resistance. The association between AMF and maize was also causing the occurrence of lignified of the roots so that the plant was forming a physical barrier to the entry of pathogens. The development of disease caused by R. solani on the mycorrhizal roots was relatively lower compared with that of uninfected mycorrhiza. The AMF decreased the intensity of sheath blight disease up to 41% based on research conducted in the greenhouse. The AM fungi trial in the field was able to suppress sheath blight disease by 36% when in symbiotic growth with Glomus sp, while symbiosis with Acaulospora mellea suppresses the disease up to 28%.
Cendawan Tular Tanah (Rhizoctonia solani) Penyebab Penyakit Busuk Pelepah pada Tanaman Jagung dan Sorgum dengan Komponen Pengendaliannya Soenartiningsih, Soenartiningsih; Akil, M.; Andayani, N. N.
Buletin Iptek Tanaman Pangan Vol 10, No 2 (2015): Desember 2015
Publisher : Puslitbang Tanaman Pangan

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Abstract

Sheath blight is an important disease of maize and sorghum. Yield decrease on susceptible varieties of both commodities due to the disease is high. The fungus survives in the form of sclerotia or hyphae in the soil or remains on infected plants. The pathogen has a wide range of host plants including members of the families Leguminosae, Solanaceae, Cucurbitaceae, and Gramineae, hence causes the fungi difficult to control. Control of the disease could be done biologically using antagoistic microorganisms such as Trichoderma spp., Gliocladium spp., and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae, planting resistant varieties, as well as mechanically, physically, and chemically.
Cendawan Tular Tanah (Rhizoctonia solani) Penyebab Penyakit Busuk Pelepah pada Tanaman Jagung dan Sorgum dengan Komponen Pengendaliannya Soenartiningsih, Soenartiningsih; Akil, M.; Andayani, N. N.
Buletin Iptek Tanaman Pangan Vol 10, No 2 (2015): Desember 2015
Publisher : Puslitbang Tanaman Pangan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Sheath blight is an important disease of maize and sorghum. Yield decrease on susceptible varieties of both commodities due to the disease is high. The fungus survives in the form of sclerotia or hyphae in the soil or remains on infected plants. The pathogen has a wide range of host plants including members of the families Leguminosae, Solanaceae, Cucurbitaceae, and Gramineae, hence causes the fungi difficult to control. Control of the disease could be done biologically using antagoistic microorganisms such as Trichoderma spp., Gliocladium spp., and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae, planting resistant varieties, as well as mechanically, physically, and chemically.
Pengaruh Inokulasi Jamur Mikoriza Arbuskular Terhadap Penyakit Busuk Pelepah Pada Jagung Di Lapangan Soenartiningsih, Soenartiningsih; Harsoyo, Ambarwati Tj.; Pusposenjoyo, Nursamsi; Baon, John Baco
Majalah Ilmiah Biologi BIOSFERA: A Scientific Journal Vol 23, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : Fakultas Biologi | Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20884/1.mib.2006.23.2.161

Abstract

Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani is one of the important diseases in corn. A study on the effect of arbuscular  mycorrhizal  fungi in controlling  sheath blight disease was conducted at pilot project scale in Jambangan Village, Malang District. Three-replicated treatments were arranged in a split-split plot design. The results   showed that highest attack intensity occured at treatments without inoculation of  arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The mean of attack intensity for Wisanggeni variety  was 70,05%, while that for GM 30 line was 73,79%. The attack intensity at Wisanggeni variety inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was 45.39% to 49.46%, while that at GM 30 line was 47.52% to 56.12%. The infection of sheath  blight disease reduced the production in terms of knob part and seed  weight even  though the plant was inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of Glomus sp. or  Acaulospora mellea. The reduction of knob weight at Wisanggeni variety was 14.2% to 15.0% and that of seed weight was 21.4% to 23,0%.  At GM 30 line the reduction of knob part was 12.0% to 17.2%, while that of seed weight was 19.1% to 20.4%.
Isolasi dan Uji Efektivitas Beberapa Isolat Dekomposer Lokal dalam Mendekomposisi Limbah Tanaman Jagung Djaenuddin, Nurasiah; Faesal, Faesal; Soenartiningsih, Soenartiningsih
Majalah Ilmiah Biologi BIOSFERA: A Scientific Journal Vol 31, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Fakultas Biologi | Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20884/1.mib.2014.31.2.213

Abstract

Soil microorganisms are able to digest and degrade organic material present in the environment in to substances that available for plants to absorb. This research aimed to isolate and examine local bacteria that had the ability to decompose corn stover. Soil samples were taken from various natural habitats in which bacteria grow, including remains of corn planting area, pile of waste corncob and corn stalk, pile of rice husk and straw, and pile of used sorghum stalk. Which were collected from several locations across South Sulawesi. Bacteria was isolated by making soil suspension that being inoculated on to NA and CMC medium, and then incubated for 48 hours at room temperature. Bacterial colonies that grow were then incubated 50o C to obtain bacteria resistant to high temperature and able to produce cellulose. Bacterial isolates that produce cellulose was then examined for the effectiveness in decomposing corn stover waste. Isolates result were able to obtain 119 decomposers isolates with 29 isolates resistant to temperature above 50o C and had ability to produce cellulose. From 29 isolates, among 15 isolates collected from rice straw, 5 isolates from remains of corn planting area and 9 isolates collected from several natural habitats. Almost all isolates had good ability to decompose corn stover waste. From isolates tested in corn cob waste and corn leaves waste, only 16 bacterial isolates were proven to be effective as decomposer.
Potensi Jamur Mikoriza Arbuskular dalam Mengendalikan Penyakit Busuk Pelepah pada Tanaman Jagung Soenartiningsih, Soenartiningsih
Majalah Ilmiah Biologi BIOSFERA: A Scientific Journal Vol 29, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Fakultas Biologi | Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20884/1.mib.2012.29.1.232

Abstract

Sheath blight disease is important disease on maize, it caused by Rhizoctonia solani. biological control using arbuscular mycorrhizal is assumed can reduce expansion of the soil borne disease. The experiment was carried out using arranged in completely randomized design of factorial, with different density spore and two isolate of AM fungus ie: Glomus sp and Acaulospora mellea. There were three replicates arbuscular mycorrhizal at 100-300 spore per 10-30 grams propagule was inoculated to each planting hole and inoculated R. solani fungi 30 days after planting. Sheath blight disease observation was taken 10-50 days after inoculation R. solani, while observation their  histology stalk and root at 50 days after inoculation of R. solani. The result of the experiment that inoculation  of AM fungus with 100-300 spore have potential to control sheath blight disease on maize. At the plant infected by AM fungi isolate of Glomus sp its emphasis reach of 21,9%–40,98%, while infected by A. mellea emphasis reach 21,48%–39,93%. The damage of stalk tissue at the plant infected by R. solani was more acute than at the plant infected by both R. solani and mycorrhizal fungus even they had the same symptom, that was an necrosis at their stalk tissue. The plant infected by R. solani and mycorrhizal fungus were not different with the root tissue of healthy plant.
Uji Ketahanan beberapa Varietas Unggul Jagung terhadap Penyakit Gibberella dan Diplodia Soenartiningsih, Soenartiningsih
Majalah Ilmiah Biologi BIOSFERA: A Scientific Journal Vol 32, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Fakultas Biologi | Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20884/1.mib.2015.32.2.301

Abstract

Gibberella and Diplodia ear rot is a disease that can damage the corn cobs and corn kernels resulting in lower quality and quantity of seed. The objective of the research are to find the varieties of corn which are resistant  the ear  rot disease Gibberella and Diplodia. This study was conducted in Limang Karo regency, North Sumatera, a randomized block design with three replications, each treatment comprised 4 rows and each row contained 25 plants with a spacing of 75 x 20 cm. The results showed 25 Hybrid maize tested against Gibberella ear rot there are 7 Hybrid corn hybrids that are resistant to ear rot  Kenia-2, NK33, Bima 3, Bima 10 Bima 12 Q, NEI-9008 and X8B649 (check resistance) and moderately resistance there are 9 hybrid that Kenia-3, DK979, NK22, P12, Gumarang, Srikandi putih, Lamuru and Sukmaraga  and 9 hybrid to ear rot disease were reacted susceptible and highly susceptible. Whereas from 25 Hybrid maize tested against Diplodia ear rot there are 6 Hybrid corn hybrids resistant to ear rot disease is Kenia - 2, NK33, Bima 3, Bima 12 Q, NEI-9008 and X8B649 (check resistance) while that is moderately resistancet there are 11 hybrid that is Kenia-3, DK979, NK22, P29, Bisi 2, P12, Bima 10, Gumarang, Srikandi putih, Lamuru and Sukmaraga, while 8 hybrid others were reacted susceptible and highly susceptible.