Iwan Abdul Rachman, Iwan Abdul
Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran/Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung

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Factors Influencing the Success Rate of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

Althea Medical Journal Vol 2, No 4 (2015)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a series of actions performed on cardiac arrest patients. Not all patients receiving CPR can survive. The outcome of CPR is influenced by several factors. This study was conducted to determine the success rate of CPR and the factors influencing it in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital in 2013.Methods: This study was conducted by using 168 patient medical records who underwent CPR and met the inclusion criteria in the Resuscitation Room of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital from January to December 2013. The collected data consisted of age, gender, pre-arrest diagnosis, initial rhythm, response time and clinical outcome of CPR. The results were expressed in frequencies and percentage. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test.Results: The Success rate of CPR was 15.5%. The success rate was higher in patients with cardiac prearrest diagnoses (8.33%, p=0.024). The most common initial rhythm was unshockable rhythms (83.92%), yet patients with shockable heart rhythms had higher success rates (40.74%, p<0.001). All of the surviving patients had response time within the first minute from cardiac arrest.Conclusions: Success rate of CPR in the resuscitation room of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital during 2013 is still low. The factors influencing the survival rate are the pre-arrest diagnosis and initial heartrhythm. [AMJ.2015;2(4):615–9] DOI: 10.15850/amj.v2n4.657

Penatalaksanaan Anestesi pada Tindakan Bedah Tumor Fossa Posterior: Serial Kasus

Jurnal Neuroanestesi Indonesia Vol 5, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

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Abstract

Fossa posterior atau fossa infratentorial merupakan kompartemen yang padat serta kaku dan tidak dapat melakukan penyesuaian terhadap penambahan volume isinya. Sedikit penambahan volume isi misalnya akibat tumor atau hematoma, dapat mengakibatkan peningkatan tekanan yang signifikan di dalam kompartemen tersebut sehingga terjadi penekanan pada batang otak yang mengancam kehidupan. Tindakan operasi pada fossa posterior memberikan tantangan bagi ahli anestesiologi dikarenakan risiko tinggi terjadinya disfungsi batang otak, posisi pasien, pengawasan neurofisiologis intraoperatif, dan risiko potensial terjadinya emboli udara vena (venous air embolism/VAE). Berikut ini serial kasus mengenai pasien yang dilakukan tindakan kraniotomi pengangkatan tumor atas indikasi tumor infratentorial pada cerebellopontine angle (CPA) dan serebellar astrositoma. Data telah menunjukkan risiko terjadinya VAE pada posisi duduk yaitu antara 40%–45%, sedangkan pada posisi lateral, telungkup, park bench lebih rendah yaitu antara 10%–15%. Pada serial kasus ini posisi ketiga pasien diposisikan dengan posisi park bench dan tidak terjadi adanyaVAE. Kasus ini dapat memperkuat data dalam penurunan resiko terjadinya VAE adalah dengan posisi park bench. Oleh karena itu, pencegahan dari terjadinya VAE sangatlah penting diketahui oleh ahli anestesiologi untuk mengurangi mortalitas pada pasien dengan tindakan bedah fossa posterior.Anesthesia in Surgical Management Measures Posterior Fossa Tumors: Serial CaseThe posterior fossa or infratentorial fossa is a compact and rigid compartment with poor compliance. Small additional volumes (e.g. tumour, haematoma) within the space can result in significant elevation of the compartmental pressure resulting in life-threatening brainstem compression. Surgery in the posterior fossa presents the significant challenges in addition to special problems related to brain stem dysfunction, patient positioning, intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring, and the potential for venous air embolism (VAE). This serial case present anaesthetic management in tumor removal surgeries (infratentorial in cerebello pontine angle/CPA and cerebellar astrocytoma). Data have shown the risk of VAE in the sitting position 40% - 45%, lateral and park bench position 10% – 15%. In these three cases all the patient with park bench position. This case can strenghthen data in a decrease in the risk of VAE is the park bench position. Therefore, prevention of the occurrence of VAE is very important to be known by the anesthesiologist to reduce mortality in patients with posterior fossa surgery.

Penatalaksanaan Anestesi pada Pasien dengan Sindroma Apert yang Dilakukan Suturektomi

Jurnal Neuroanestesi Indonesia Vol 2, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

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Abstract

Sindroma Apert adalah suatu gangguan genetik yang ditandai dengan penggabungan tulang yang terlalu dini (kraniosinostosis). Penggabungan dini tersebut menghambat pertumbuhan normal tulang dan mempengaruhi pertumbuhan bentuk kepala dan wajah. Penggabungan dini tulang kepala dapat mempengaruhi perkembangan otak bahkan menyebabkan peningkatan tekanan intrakranial, dan pada sindroma Apert juga didapatkan penggabungan beberapa jari tangan dan kaki (sindaktili). Seorang anak berusia 2 tahun dengan sindroma Apert. Tanda klinis peningkatan tekanan intrakranial belum didapatkan sehingga operasi dijadwalkan terencana dan pasien dirawat terlebih dahulu di ruangan. Kemungkinan kesulitan untuk intubasi dengan laringoskopi diantisipasi dengan persiapan intubasi menggunakan optik fiber dan trakeostomi. Pasien diberikan premedikasi midazolam 0,5 mg intravena pada saat pasien akan dibawa ke kamar operasi. Dilakukan anestesi umum, induksi menggunakan propofol 30 mg, fentanil 30 μg diberikan 3 menit sebelum intubasi. Fasilitas intubasi dengan vekuronium 2 mg, pemeliharaan anestesi dengan N2O/O2 dan Sevofluran. Vekuronium diberikan 1 mg /jam. Ventilasi kendali menggunakan ETT no. 5,0. Operasi berlangsung selama 6 jam dengan posisi pasien terlentang. Hemodinamik selama operasi relatif stabil, tekanan darah sistolik berkisar 90-110 mmHg, tekanan darah diastolik 50-70 mmHg, laju nadi (HR) 87-110 x/mnt, SaO2 99-100 %. Setelah operasi berakhir pasien bernafas spontan adekuat dan dilakukan ekstubasi di kamar operasi. Pasca operasi pasien di rawat di PICU hingga hari ke-4 pasien dipindahkan ke ruangan. Gangguan penggabungan tulang kepala yang terlalu dini dapat menyebabkan gangguan pertumbuhan bentuk kepala, otak dan gangguan pendengaran dan penglihatan. Selain itu juga dapat menyebabkan terjadinya peningkatan tekanan intrakranial. Koreksi segera dengan melakukan suturektomi dan dekompresi dapat mencegah kemungkinan-kemungkinan tersebut. Anaesthetic management of patient with Apert syndrome which undergo suturectomy Apert syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by the premature fusion of certain skull bones (craniosynostosis). This early fusion prevents the skull from growing normally and affects the shape of the head and face. Early fusion of the skull bones also affects the development of the brain and even can increased the intracranial pressure. In apert syndrome there was also fusion of fingers and toes (syndactyly). A 2 years old child with Apert syndrome which undergo suturectomy and decompression. The clinical signs of raised intracranial pressure in this patient has not been obtained yet so the surgery was done as scheduled . Difficulties to perform intubation with direct laryngoscopy were anticipated through the use of fiber optic and preparation of tracheostomy. Patient has been given premedication using midazolam 0,5 mg given intravenously before his admission to the operating room. The surgery is performed with general anesthesia using propofol 30 mg then fentanyl 30mcg, 3 minutes before intubation. Vecuronium 2mg was given to facilitates intubation. Maintenance of anesthesia with Nitroons/O2 sevoflurane and Vecuronium 1mg/hour. Ventilation was controlled by using ETT no 5.0. Patient was in supine position, and it last for 6 hours. There was relatively stable hemodynamics, systolic blood pressure range 90-110 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure 50-70 mmHg, pulse rate 87-110x/minutes, SaO2 99-100%. After the operation, there was adequate spontaneous breathing so extubation was performed in the operating room, then he was referred to PICU. On day 4 patient was moved to the room. Premature fusion of skull bones will cause growth disorders of the head, brain, and hearing and vision impairment. It also can cause increased intracranial pressure. Immediate correction by suturectomy and decompression can prevent this possibility.

Terapi Hiperosmolar pada Cedera Otak Traumatika

Jurnal Neuroanestesi Indonesia Vol 4, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

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Abstract

Cedera otak traumatika merupakan kasus yang sering ditemukan yang berhubungan dengan morbiditas dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Hipertensi intrakranial dan edema serebral adalah manifestasi utama dari cedera otak berat, keduanya dikenal sebagai kontributor utama pada cedera otak sekunder dan memiliki luaran neurologis yang buruk. Tatalaksana pasien dengan peningkatan tekanan intrakranial dan edema serebral akibat cedera otak traumatika yaitu mengontrol ventilasi, mempertahankan homeostasis otak dan fungsi tubuh, pemberian sedasi, serta terapi hiperosmolar. Manitol dikenal secara luas sebagai terapi utama pada terapi hipertensi intrakranial, namun larutan salin hipertonik dan natrium laktat hipertonik juga merupakan terapi alternatif yang potensial untuk terapi hipertensi intrakranial. Pemberian obat hiperosmolar pada pasien cedera kepala berat bertujuan untuk menurunkan kadar air dalam daerah interstisial otak akibat efek hiperosmolarnya sehingga terjadi penurunan tekanan intrakranial meskipun terdapat beberapa mekanisme lain yang kemungkinan juga terlibat dalam terjadinya penurunan tekanan intrakranial. Sekarang ini efektivitas cairan hiperosmotik dalam mengurangi edema pada jaringan yang pembuluh darahnya mengalami kerusakan masih dipertanyakan. Bahkan penggunaan obat-obatan tersebut sebagai terapi hiperosmolar diduga malah meningkatkan angka kematian karena dapat memperluas edema sehingga semakin memperburuk peningkatan tekanan intrakranial. Hyperosmolar Therapy in Traumatic Brain InjuryTraumatic brain injury is a common case and related with high morbidity and mortality. Intracranial hypertension and cerebral edema are the main manifestation from severe brain injury and known as main contributor for secondary brain injury, with detrimental neurological outcome. Management of elevated intracranial pressure and cerebral edema are controlling ventilation, maintaining brain homeostasis as well as body function, sedation, and hyperosmolar fluid therapy. Mannitol has been widely known as the main therapy for intracranial hypertension, showever, hypertonic saline and hypertonic sodium lactate are considered as potential alternative therapy for intracranial hypertension. The provision of hyperosmolar theraphy for severe head injury patients aims to reduce water content in the interstitial of the brain for its hyperosmolar effect that would decrease intracranial pressure, even though there probably other mechanism which involve for the decrease of intracranial pressure. In present day, the effectiveness of hyperosmolar fluid in reducing edema in the damaged tissue with impared blood vessel remains questionable. Moreover, the usage of those medication as hyperosmolar therapy allegedly increases mortality because it could adjuct the edema which would exacerbate extension of edema which exacerbate the increase of intracranial pressure.

Perbandingan Ketepatan Ukuran Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway antara Metode Berat Badan dan Lebar Lidah

Jurnal Anestesi Perioperatif Vol 6, No 3 (2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Classic laryngeal mask airway (CLMA) merupakan alat yang digunakan untuk manajemen jalan napas, baik  untuk pengganti ventilasi sungkup wajah maupun intubasi endotrakeal. Pemilihan ukuran yang tepat penting untuk efektivitas penggunaan CLMA. Saat ini pemilihan ukuran berdasar atas metode berat badan. Menurut sebuah studi terbaru metode pengukuran lebar lidah lebik baik daripada metode berat badan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui ketepatan ukuran CLMA antara metode berat badan dan lebar lidah yang dinilai dengan skor fiberoptik dan oropharyngeal leak pressure di RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada bulan Februari 2018 menggunakan uji eksperimental analitik crossection setiap subjek mendapat dua perlakuan yang berbeda antara kedua metode. Uji statistik menggunakan uji chi-square untuk skor fiberoptik dan uji t berpasangan untuk oropharyngeal leak pressure. Hasil penelitian skor fiberoptik lebih optimal daripada metode lebar lidah. Oropharyngeal leak pressure pada metode berat badan rerata 23,00±1,732 CmH20 sedangkan metode lebar lidah rerata 19,13±1,684 CmH20. Secara statistik diperoleh nilai p<0,05. Simpulan, metode pengukuran lebar lidah adalah alternatif yang mudah dan baik dalam pemilihan ukuran CLMA pasien dewasa.Kata kunci: Classic laryngeal mask airway, pemilihan ukuran CLMA, metode berat badan, metode lebar lidahComparison of Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway Size Accuracy between Body Weight Method and Tongue width MethodClassic laryngeal mask airway (CLMA) is an airway management device that can be used to replace bag valve mask ventilation or endotracheal intubation. Choosing the right size of CLMA is important for the effectiveness of CLMA. Currently, the size of CLMA is selected based on the body weight. However, a recent study suggested that tongue width is a better indicator for size selection than the body weight. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of CLMA size selection using the body weight method and tongue-width method. The assessment was performed using the fiberoptic score and oropharyngeal leak pressure. This was an experimental analytic cross-sectional study conducted in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung in February 2018. Each subject in this study received two different treatments using the two methods. The results were analyzed using chi-square for the fiberoptic score and paired t test for the oropharyngeal leak pressure. The fiberoptic score was more optimum when tongue width method was used when compared to the weight method. The oropharyngeal leak pressure in the weight method group was 23.00±1.732 CmH20 while the pressure in the tongue-width method was 19.13±1.684 CmH20 (p value <0.05). In conclusion, the tongue width measurement is an easy and good alternative in the selecting the CLMA size in adult patients.Key words: Classic laryngeal mask airway, size selection CLMA, body weight method, tongue width method

Perbandingan Ketepatan Ukuran Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway antara Metode Berat Badan dan Lebar Lidah

Jurnal Anestesi Perioperatif Vol 6, No 3 (2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Classic laryngeal mask airway (CLMA) merupakan alat yang digunakan untuk manajemen jalan napas, baik  untuk pengganti ventilasi sungkup wajah maupun intubasi endotrakeal. Pemilihan ukuran yang tepat penting untuk efektivitas penggunaan CLMA. Saat ini pemilihan ukuran berdasar atas metode berat badan. Menurut sebuah studi terbaru metode pengukuran lebar lidah lebik baik daripada metode berat badan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui ketepatan ukuran CLMA antara metode berat badan dan lebar lidah yang dinilai dengan skor fiberoptik dan oropharyngeal leak pressure di RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada bulan Februari 2018 menggunakan uji eksperimental analitik crossection setiap subjek mendapat dua perlakuan yang berbeda antara kedua metode. Uji statistik menggunakan uji chi-square untuk skor fiberoptik dan uji t berpasangan untuk oropharyngeal leak pressure. Hasil penelitian skor fiberoptik lebih optimal daripada metode lebar lidah. Oropharyngeal leak pressure pada metode berat badan rerata 23,00±1,732 CmH20 sedangkan metode lebar lidah rerata 19,13±1,684 CmH20. Secara statistik diperoleh nilai p<0,05. Simpulan, metode pengukuran lebar lidah adalah alternatif yang mudah dan baik dalam pemilihan ukuran CLMA pasien dewasa.Kata kunci: Classic laryngeal mask airway, pemilihan ukuran CLMA, metode berat badan, metode lebar lidahComparison of Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway Size Accuracy between Body Weight Method and Tongue width MethodClassic laryngeal mask airway (CLMA) is an airway management device that can be used to replace bag valve mask ventilation or endotracheal intubation. Choosing the right size of CLMA is important for the effectiveness of CLMA. Currently, the size of CLMA is selected based on the body weight. However, a recent study suggested that tongue width is a better indicator for size selection than the body weight. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of CLMA size selection using the body weight method and tongue-width method. The assessment was performed using the fiberoptic score and oropharyngeal leak pressure. This was an experimental analytic cross-sectional study conducted in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung in February 2018. Each subject in this study received two different treatments using the two methods. The results were analyzed using chi-square for the fiberoptic score and paired t test for the oropharyngeal leak pressure. The fiberoptic score was more optimum when tongue width method was used when compared to the weight method. The oropharyngeal leak pressure in the weight method group was 23.00±1.732 CmH20 while the pressure in the tongue-width method was 19.13±1.684 CmH20 (p value <0.05). In conclusion, the tongue width measurement is an easy and good alternative in the selecting the CLMA size in adult patients.Key words: Classic laryngeal mask airway, size selection CLMA, body weight method, tongue width method