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Keterlibatan Amerika Serikat dalam Sengketa Laut Tiongkok Selatan pada Masa Pemerintahan Presiden Barack Obama Darmawan, Arief Bakhtiar; Ndadari, Gebyar Lintang
Jurnal Hubungan Internasional Vol 6, No 1 (2017): April - September 2017
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.18196/hi.61100

Abstract

This article aims to analyze the United States (U.S.) involvement in the South China Sea (SCS) dispute. It argues that U.S. involvement has strong reasons and gives significant impact on the region. Jurisdictional claims in the SCS amongst claimants have increased the military activities in the region.Therefore, U.S. needs to increase its presence and involvement in the disputed area. These actions are intended to maintain U.S. interests in the region and secure its national security in the SCS, especially to preserve American global leadership and to maintain peace and stability. Using the concept of balance of power and national security, this article explains that U.S. involvement causes the status quo in the SCS. Although the U.S. is working closely with the Philippines and Vietnam to be a balance of power in the region, U.S. involvement does not use the military power or conflict against China in the SCS.Artikel ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis keterlibatan Amerika Serikat (AS) dalam sengketa Laut Tiongkok Selatan (LTS). Artikel ini berargumen bahwa keterlibatan AS tersebut memiliki alasan yang kuat dan memberi pengaruh yang signifikan atas situasi yang terjadi di kawasan tersebut. Klaim tumpang-tindih enam pihak atau negara atas wilayah LTS telah meningkatkan ketegangan di kawasan. Hal itu membuat AS memperkuat kehadiran dan keterlibatannya di kawasan tersebut. Keterlibatan AS merupakan bagian dari upaya AS untuk memelihara keamanan dan kepentingan nasional atas LTS, serta menjaga kepemimpinan global, perdamaian, dan stabilitas di kawasan. Dengan menggunakan konsep perimbangan kekuatan dan keamanan nasional, artikel ini menunjukkan bahwa keterlibatan AS menyebabkan status quo atas apa yang terjadi dalam wilayah LTS. Meskipun AS bekerja sama dengan Filipina dan Vietnam untuk menjadi kekuatan penyeimbang kekuatan di kawasan, namun keterlibatan AS tidak sampai pada penggunaan kekuatan militer atau konflik terbuka melawan Tiongkok di LTS.
Media Sosial dan Revolusi Politik: Memahami Kembali Fenomena “Arab Spring” dalam Perspektif Ruang Publik Transnasional Umar, Ahmad Rizky Mardhatillah; Darmawan, Arief Bakhtiar; Sufa, Faela; Ndadari, Gebyar Lintang
Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik Vol 18, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1.795 KB)

Abstract

This paper aims to analyze some linkages between revolution, public sphere, and transnational activism through social media in the Middle East. A revolution in Tunisia in 2011 became an international issue after the revolution spreaded to other states in the region. After Tunisia, protest movements began to ignite in Egypt, Libya, Yemen, and Jordania. This wave of revolution comes into a public discourse: what causes this movement? How could a revolution in one country inspire another revolution in another country? To answer these questions, we analyze the role of social media as a “bridge” to connect activists in the Middle East to make a revolution. We conclude that transnational activism was formed by routine and massive reports from media which explained what hadhappened in the Middle East during the revolution. The reports were followed by a spread of the idea of democracy and civil rights through social media. As a consequence, revolution took place in several other countries whose socio-cultural tradition are similar to that of Tunisia.
Sengketa Laut Tiongkok Selatan: Ancaman Bagi Komunitas Keamanan ASEAN? Haryanto, Agus; Darmawan, Arief Bakhtiar
Global Strategis Vol 9, No 2 (2015): Global Strategis
Publisher : Departemen Hubungan Internasional, Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik, Unair

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (521.707 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/jgs.9.2.2015.277-296

Abstract

Perbedaan sikap diantara negara ASEAN seringkali disebut sebagai titik kegagalan pembentukan Komunitas Keamanan. Tulisan ini menelaah lebih jauh mengenai komponen pembentuk Komunitas Keamanan dalam konteks sengketa LTS. Menggunakan argument Karl Deutch yang menyatakan ada tiga hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam membentuk masyarakat keamanan, yaitu (1) para pembuat kebijakan dan masyarakat berhenti merenungkan kemungkinan perang (2) negara berhenti mengalokasikan sumber daya untuk membangun kemampuan militer yang ditujukan kepada negara lain dan (3) ada penerimaan dan kepatuhan yang ketat terhadap aturan-aturan dan perjanjian tertentu bila tujuan kolektif unit-unit tidak selaras. Tulisan ini berargumen bahwa ketiga komponen pembentuk Komunitas Keamanan terganggu ketika ASEAN menghadapi sengketa LTS. Pertama, mengganggu upaya penyebaran norma-norma ASEAN. Kedua, mengganggu upaya mekanisme pencegahan konflik. Ketiga, menghambat ikatan kepercayaan diantara anggota ASEAN.
Dinamika Isu Laut Tiongkok Selatan: Analisis Sumber-Sumber Kebijakan Luar Negeri Tiongkok dalam Sengketa Darmawan, Arief Bakhtiar
Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional Vol 14, No 1 (2018): Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional
Publisher : Parahyangan Center for International Studies

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.26593/jihi.v14i1.2786.13-35

Abstract

This article aims to observe the behaviour of China’s foreign policy in the conflict of South China Sea (SCS), by analyzing the internal factors and external factors that affect China’s foreign policy. China is one of the parties that take direct claim on the SCS. China’s claim is overlapping with other parties such as Vietnam, Filipina, Malaysia, dan Brunei. In defending its claims, China seeks to dominate both in the dispute area and in multilateral negotiations. In the dispute area, China seized the area, building land reclamation, and attacked other countries’ ships under various pretexts. In multilateral negotiations, China rejects the intervention of great power countries outside the region and maintains ambiguous and non-binding code of conduct. China also continues to increase its military power to press other countries. The author argues that the internal factors has greater influence on Chinese foreign policy decision and action in the SCS dispute than the external factors. Thus, it could triggers China to keep dominating the issue of SCS disputes.
Isu Laut Tiongkok Selatan: Negara-negara ASEAN Terbelah Menghadapi Tiongkok Darmawan, Arief Bakhtiar; Mahendra, Lady
Global Strategis Vol 12, No 1 (2018): Global Strategis
Publisher : Departemen Hubungan Internasional, Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik, Unair

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (229.107 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/jgs.12.1.2018.79-100

Abstract

This paper aims to analyze the strategies of each ASEAN member states towards China related to the dispute in the South China Sea (SCS). SCS area is becoming a platform of power competition between China, the Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia, and Brunei. Five parties mentioned above are competing over sovereignty in certain areas of the SCS. SCS area became interesting to certain parties, considering its strategic value for expansive policy. In the contemporary era, the rise of this conflict perceived as a problem which caused by shifting balance of power, that happened when the U.S. sought to preserve its unilateral moment after the end of cold war. This lead to vacuum of power situation in the Southeast Asia, thus encourage China to build up presence in the dispute area. Even though there are only four ASEAN countries that directly involved, however the adoption of the Declaration on the SCS by all ASEAN member countries, asserted that in this case ASEAN is standing together to show their objections of China’s aggressiveness. With structural realism perspective as the analysis tool, tendencies of ASEAN member states’ different strategies are understandable by the explanation about motives behind it. Which Philippines and Vietnam tend to leaning towards balancing strategy against China. Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar indicate towards bandwagoning strategy with China, while the rest of the members did not show tendencies of leaning either ways.
Media Sosial dan Revolusi Politik: Memahami Kembali Fenomena “Arab Spring” dalam Perspektif Ruang Publik Transnasional Umar, Ahmad. R Mardhatillah; Darmawan, Arief Bakhtiar; Sufa, Faela Sufa; Ndadari, Gebyar Lintang
Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik Vol 18, No 2 (2014): November
Publisher : Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2635.318 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jsp.13130

Abstract

This paper aims to analyze some linkages between revolution, public sphere, and transnational activism through social media in the Middle East. A revolution in Tunisia in 2011 became an international issue aft er the revolution spreaded to other states in the region. Aft er Tunisia, protest movements began to ignite in Egypt, Libya, Yemen, and Jordania. This wave of revolution comes into a public discourse: what causes this movement? How could a revolution in one country inspire another revolution in another country? To answer these questions, we analyze the role of social media as a “bridge” to connect activists in the Middle East to make a revolution. We conclude that transnational activism was formed by routine and massive reports from media which explained what hadhappened in the Middle East during the revolution. The reports were followed by a spread of the idea of democracy and civil rights through social media. As a consequence, revolution took place in several othercountries whose socio-cultural tradition are similar to that of Tunisia.
Islam dan Perilaku Politik di Timur Tengah Darmawan, Arief Bakhtiar
Insignia Journal of International Relations Vol 5 No 1 (2018): April 2018
Publisher : Laboratorium Hubungan Internasional, FISIP, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

This paper aims to analyze religion’s roles related to the political activities in the contemporary Middle East. Constructivism is a framework that offers the way to understand the phenomenon. Constructivism provides a place for the influence of non-material factors such as the value, identity, and purpose of actor behavior in politics. This study used descriptive-interpretative method to acknowledge the problem formulation. Through the lenght of descriptive-interpretative method, author carried out data management, unification, and examination by exertly looking for patterns and relations regarding the role of Islam in political activities in Middle-East. In this article, the author examines through two levels of analysis, ie state level and regional level. At the state level, Islamic political ideology grows in a modern state and often confronts democracy. The debate over the application of Islamic law, the involvement in elections, and the adaptation of Islamic justice principles and the principle of equality are the discourses that characterize political activity in the Middle East. At the regional level, Islam exerts impact in foreign policy in the region. The regional tensions between Sunni and Shiite groups, the resistance in the context of jihad, and the emergence of ISIS are part of the conflict that contributes to regional instability. These political behaviors shows that Islam is not a religion with a single interpretation. Keywords: Islam, Middle East, constructivism, modern states, foreign policy Artikel ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis peran atau pengaruh Islam dalam aktivitas politik di kawasan Timur Tengah terkini. Konstruktivisme merupakan kerangka pemikiran yang menyediakan jalan untuk memahami fenomena tersebut. Konstruktivisme memberi tempat bagi pengaruh faktor-faktor non-material seperti nilai, identitas, dan maksud dari perilaku aktor dalam dunia politik. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan deskriptif-interpretatif untuk menjawab rumusan masalah. Melalui pendekatan deskriptif-interpretatif, penulis melakukan pengaturan, penyatuan, dan pemeriksaan data dengan berupaya mencari pola dan relasi mengenai peran atau pengaruh Islam dalam aktivitas politik di Timur Tengah. Dalam artikel ini, penulis meneliti melalui dua level analisis, yaitu level negara dan level regional. Dalam level negara, ideologi politik Islam tumbuh dalam negara modern dan seringkali berhadapan dengan demokrasi. Perdebatan mengenai penerapan syariat Islam, keterlibatan dalam pemilihan umum, serta penyesuaian prinsip keadilan Islam dan prinsip persamaan hak merupakan diskursus yang mewarnai aktivitas politik di Timur Tengah. Dalam level regional, Islam memberi pengaruh dalam politik luar negeri di kawasan. Ketegangan regional antara kelompok Sunni dan Syiah, perlawanan dalam konteks jihad, serta kemunculan ISIS adalah bagian dari konflik yang menyumbang ketidakstabilan kawasan. Perilaku-perilaku politik tersebut menunjukkan bahwa Islam bukan agama dengan makna yang tunggal. Kata kunci: Islam, Timur Tengah, konstruktivisme, negara modern, politik luar negeri
Membaca Arah Politik Luar Negeri Indonesia: Resensi Buku Darmawan, Arief Bakhtiar
Indonesian Perspective Vol. 3, No. 1 (Januari-Juni 2018), hlm. 1-85
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (545.422 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/ip.v3i1.20180

Abstract

Dalam konteks tersebut, buku Diplomasi Indonesia: Realitas dan Prospek ini merupakan salah satu upaya penting untuk memahami politik luar negeri Indonesia dari sudut pandang Indonesia sendiri. Sebagai negara yang dipandang sebagai aktor regional dan global, buku ini memperkaya sumber referensi kita dalam membaca arah politik luar negeri Indonesia di abad 21, yang selama ini lebih banyak datang dari para pakar di luar negeri. Buku ini bukan hanya penting untuk dibaca para akademisi dan praktisi hubungan internasional saja, melainkan juga oleh semua kalangan. Sebab, pengetahuan atau wawasan internasional memiliki potensi untuk memperbaiki kehidupan manusia.Kata-kata kunci: Indonesia, diplomasi, hubungan internasional, abad 21
Islam and Politics in the Middle East Darmawan, Arief Bakhtiar
Journal of Governance and Public Policy Vol 5, No 3 (2018): October 2018
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.18196/jgpp.53102

Abstract

This paper aims to analyze religion’s roles related to the political activities in the contemporary Middle East. Constructivism is a framework that offers the way to understand the phenomenon. Constructivism provides a place for the influence of non-material factors such as the value, identity, and purpose of actor behavior in politics. In this article, the author examines through two levels of analysis, ie state level and regional level. At the state level, Islamic political ideology grows in a modern state and often confronts democracy. The debate over the application of Islamic law, the involvement in elections, and the adaptation of Islamic justice principles and the principle of equality are the discourses that characterize political activity in the Middle East. At the regional level, Islam exerts impact in foreign policy in the region. The regional tensions between Sunni and Shiite groups, the resistance in the context of jihad, and the emergence of ISIS are part of the conflict that contributes to regional instability. These political behaviors shows that Islam is not a religion with a single interpretation.Keywords: Islam, Middle East, constructivism, modern states, foreign policy
Analisis Open Government dan e-Government di Indonesia Berdasarkan Kerangka Kerja SDGs: Studi Kasus Desa Melung, Kabupaten Banyumas Yamin, Muhammad; Darmawan, Arief Bakhtiar; Zayzda, Nurul Azizah; Ash-Shafikh, Mayza
Jurnal Hubungan Internasional Vol 7, No 2 (2018): October 2018-March 2019
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.18196/hi.72137

Abstract

This research paper aims to analyze the readiness of local government in Indonesia in order to fulfill the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) initiated by the United Nations for rural area level. The author analyzes the open government readiness in Melung Village, Banyumas Districts, Central Java, as a specific case to see the strategy and application of e-government model that was conducted by the government. This paper argues despite the location in the rural area, the government of Melung Village has utilized the system based on the SDGs framework, such as an action to replace paper-based administration into electronic government. This effort was taken to improve the efficiency of public services based on quality and accountability which leads to more active government participation in sharing information with its citizen. Nevertheless, the local government of Melung Village efforts were not good enough since they still need assistance from government and state-owned company. Therefore, the result of the research might strengthen local government institutional and able to fulfill the development goals as is set in SDGs framework.