Nunuk Purwanti, Nunuk
Bagian Biomedika, Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Pengaruh Ekstrak Kulit Jeruk Nipis (Citrus Aurantifolia Swingle) Konsentrasi 10% Terhadap Aktivitas Enzim Glukosiltransferase Streptococcus mutans U, Zenia Adindaputri; Purwanti, Nunuk; Wahyudi, Ivan Arie
Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia Vol 20, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia

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Abstract

Streptococcus mutans merupakan bakteri yang berperan sebagai agen utama penyebab karies gigi, yang memiliki enzim glukosiltransferase (GTF). Enzim GTF akan mengubah sukrosa menjadi fruktosa dan glukan. Salah satu herbal tradisional yang dapat berperan sebagai antibakteri adalah kulit jeruk nipis (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) yang mengandung polifenol terutama flavonoid. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak kulit jeruk nipis (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) konsentrasi 10% terhadap aktivitas enzim GTF Streptococcus mutans. Penelitian ini menggunakan ekstrak kulit jeruk nipis konsentrasi 10% sebagai perlakuan, chlorhexidine gluconate 0,12% sebagai kontrol positif, serta akuades steril sebagai kontrol negatif. Metode penelitian ini terdiri dari tiga tahap yaitu penyiapan ekstrak kulit jeruk nipis konsentrasi 10%, penyiapan enzim GTF dari supernatan Streptococcus mutans, dan pengujian aktivitas enzim GTF melalui analisis konsentrasi fruktosa dengan menggunakan High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Pembacaan luas area fruktosa dilakukan berdasarkan waktu retensi. Satu unit aktivitas enzim GTF di definisikan sebagai 1 µmol fruktosa/ml dari enzim/jam. Selanjutnya data yang diperoleh dianalisis secara statistik dengan one way ANOVA.Hasil perhitungan aktivitas enzim GTF dengan one way ANOVA menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan antara kelompok perlakuan dengan kelompok kontrol negatif (p<0,05), dan tidak terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan dengan kontrol positif. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah ekstrak kulit jeruk nipis konsentrasi 10% dapat menghambat aktivitas enzim glukosiltransferase Streptococcus mutans. ABSTRACT, The Influence of 10% Concentrate of Citrus Aurantifolia Swingle on The Activities of Streptococcus Mutans Glucocyl Transferase Enzyme. Streptococcus mutans is a bacteria which has glucosyl transferase (GTF) enzyme and acts as the main agent that causes dental caries. GTF enzyme will convert sucrose into fructose and glucan. Lime peel (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) is one of the traditional herbs which has flavonoid as an antibacterial agent. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of 10% concentration of lime peel extract (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) to the activity of GTF enzyme Streptococcus mutans.This research used 10% concentration of  lime peel extract as the treatment, 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate as a positive control, and distillate water as anegative control. The method of this research consists of three steps; preparing the lime peel extract concentration of 10%, preparing the GTF enzyme from the supernatant of Streptococcus mutans, and testing GTF enzyme activity by analyzing the fructose concentration using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Perusal of the fructose area was based on the retention time of fructose. One unit of GTF enzyme activity is defined as the 1 μmol fructose / ml of enzyme / hour.  The obtained data then were analyzed by one way ANOVA. The result showed a significant difference between treatment group with the negative control (p <0.05), and there are no significant difference with the positive control. This research concludes that 10% lime peel extract can inhibit the GTF enzyme activity of Streptococcus mutans.
Infiltrasi Neutrofil pada Tikus dengan Periodontitis setelah Pemberian Ekstrak Etanolik Kulit Manggis Prasetya, Rendra Chriestedy; Purwanti, Nunuk; Haniastuti, Tetiana
Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia Vol 21, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia

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Abstract

Periodontitis adalah inflamasi kronis yang disebabkan oleh bakteri periodontopatogen. Pada periodontitis terjadi peningkatan infiltrasi neutrofil yang berfungsi untuk memfagositosis bakteri yang menginfiltrasi jaringan gingiva. Kulit manggis mempunyai bahan aktif yaitu xanton yang mempunyai efek antiinflamasi dengan jalan menghambat sintesis PGE2 sehingga akan menurunkan infiltrasi sel inflamasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui infiltrasi sel neutrofil pada periodontitis setelah pemberian ekstrak etanolik kulit manggis. Tikus wistar jantan sebanyak empat puluh delapan ekor diinduksi periodontitis dengan ligasi pada daerah subgingiva gigi anterior rahang bawah selama 7 hari. Setelah hari ke-7, ligasi dilepas selanjutnya tikus dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok perlakuan yaitu ekstrak kulit manggis 30 mg/kg BB dan 60 mg/kg BB, ibuprofen dan saline. Tikus dikorbankan pada hari ke-1, 3, 5 dan 7 setelah perlakuan. Jaringan pada bagian anterior rahang bawah ditanam dalam paraffin dan dilakukan pemotongan serial kemudian diwarnai dengan hematoxylin eosin. Jumlah neutrofil dihitung di bawah mikroskop dengan perbesaran 400x. Data jumlah neutrofil dianalisa dengan Two Way Anova. Hasil Two Way Anova menunjukkan perbedaan yang bermakna rerata sel neutrofil antar kelompok perlakuan (p<0,05) mengindikasikan pemberian ekstrak etanolik kulit manggis berpengaruh terhadap jumlah sel neutrofil. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa pemberian ekstrak etanolik kulit manggis mampu menurunkan infiltrasi sel neutrofil pada tikus yang diinduksi periodontitis. ABSTRACT: Neutrophil infiltration in rats with periodontitis after the granting of Ethanolic Extract Skin Mangosteen. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by periodontopathic bacteria. When periodontitis occurs are followed by neutrophil infiltration. Mangosteen rind contains xanthone, an anti-inflammatory substance which inhibits the synthesis of PGE2 and therefore reduces inflammatory cells infiltration. This research aimed to study neutrophil cells infiltration in experimental-induced periodontitis rats after mangosteen rind ethanolic extract administration. Forty-eight male wistar rats were induced the periodontitis by putting silk ligature subgingivally around the neck of the anterior lower teeth for seven days. After the ligation had been taken out, the rats were divided into four groups and treated orally with mangosteen rind extract 60 mg/kg BB, 30 mg/kg BB, ibuprofen, and saline. The rats were sacrificed on the 1st, 3rd, 4th, seventh day after the treatment. Their anterior lower jaws were processed for paraffin embedded tissue, cut serially and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. The neutrophil cells were observed and counted under the microscope (400x). The data were analyzed using Anova. Anova result showed a significant difference among group (p<0,05) indicating that mangosteen rind ethanolic extract affected the number of neutrophils. In conclusion, mangosteen rind ethanolic extract reduced the number of neutrophil infiltration in periodontitis rats.
Pengaruh Ekstrak Kulit Jeruk Nipis (Citrus Aurantifolia Swingle) Konsentrasi 10% Terhadap Aktivitas Enzim Glukosiltransferase Streptococcus mutans U, Zenia Adindaputri; Purwanti, Nunuk; Wahyudi, Ivan Arie
Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia Vol 20, No 2 (2013): December
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Streptococcus mutans merupakan bakteri yang berperan sebagai agen utama penyebab karies gigi, yang memiliki enzim glukosiltransferase (GTF). Enzim GTF akan mengubah sukrosa menjadi fruktosa dan glukan. Salah satu herbal tradisional yang dapat berperan sebagai antibakteri adalah kulit jeruk nipis (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) yang mengandung polifenol terutama flavonoid. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak kulit jeruk nipis (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) konsentrasi 10% terhadap aktivitas enzim GTF Streptococcus mutans. Penelitian ini menggunakan ekstrak kulit jeruk nipis konsentrasi 10% sebagai perlakuan, chlorhexidine gluconate 0,12% sebagai kontrol positif, serta akuades steril sebagai kontrol negatif. Metode penelitian ini terdiri dari tiga tahap yaitu penyiapan ekstrak kulit jeruk nipis konsentrasi 10%, penyiapan enzim GTF dari supernatan Streptococcus mutans, dan pengujian aktivitas enzim GTF melalui analisis konsentrasi fruktosa dengan menggunakan High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Pembacaan luas area fruktosa dilakukan berdasarkan waktu retensi. Satu unit aktivitas enzim GTF di definisikan sebagai 1 µmol fruktosa/ml dari enzim/jam. Selanjutnya data yang diperoleh dianalisis secara statistik dengan one way ANOVA.Hasil perhitungan aktivitas enzim GTF dengan one way ANOVA menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan antara kelompok perlakuan dengan kelompok kontrol negatif (p<0,05), dan tidak terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan dengan kontrol positif. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah ekstrak kulit jeruk nipis konsentrasi 10% dapat menghambat aktivitas enzim glukosiltransferase Streptococcus mutans. The Influence of 10% Concentrate of Citrus Aurantifolia Swingle on The Activities of Streptococcus Mutans Glucocyl Transferase Enzyme. Streptococcus mutans is a bacteria which has glucosyl transferase (GTF) enzyme and acts as the main agent that causes dental caries. GTF enzyme will convert sucrose into fructose and glucan. Lime peel (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) is one of the traditional herbs which has flavonoid as an antibacterial agent. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of 10% concentration of lime peel extract (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) to the activity of GTF enzyme Streptococcus mutans.This research used 10% concentration of  lime peel extract as the treatment, 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate as a positive control, and distillate water as anegative control. The method of this research consists of three steps; preparing the lime peel extract concentration of 10%, preparing the GTF enzyme from the supernatant of Streptococcus mutans, and testing GTF enzyme activity by analyzing the fructose concentration using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Perusal of the fructose area was based on the retention time of fructose. One unit of GTF enzyme activity is defined as the 1 μmol fructose / ml of enzyme / hour.  The obtained data then were analyzed by one way ANOVA. The result showed a significant difference between treatment group with the negative control (p <0.05), and there are no significant difference with the positive control. This research concludes that 10% lime peel extract can inhibit the GTF enzyme activity of Streptococcus mutans.
PENINGKATAN MOTIVASI DAN PRESTASI BELAJAR BIOLOGI KELAS X-7 SMA N 1 BARAT MELALUI PENERAPAN MODEL THINK PAIR SHARE Purwanti, Nunuk
Jurnal Florea Vol 2, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Jurnal Florea

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Abstract

Motivation plays an important role in learning, X-7 grade students of SMA Negeri 1 Barat shows theknown to be less motivated to follow the teaching of Biology. The aim of research to increase themotivation to learn biology X - 7 grade SMA Negeri 1 Barat with the application Think Pair Share(TPS). This type of research is classroom action research with planning, action, observation, andreflection, material monera and protists conducted in two cycles. Research subject class X-7 SMANegeri 1 Barat of academic year 2014/2015. The results showed cooperative learning Think Pair Sharecan help students overcome the problem for expression and enhance self-confidence of students, so asto increase the motivation of students.Keywords: motivation to learn, think pair share
Ekspresi COX-2 setelah pemberian ekstrak etanolik kulit manggis (Garcinia mangostana Linn) pada tikus wistar (COX-2 expression after mangosteen rind (Garcinia mangostana Linn) etanolic extract administration in wistar rats) Prasetya, Rendra Chriestedy; Haniastuti, Tetiana; Purwanti, Nunuk
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 46, No 4 (2013): (December 2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

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Abstract

Background: Cyclooxygenase is an enzyme for prostaglandins (PGs) synthesis from arachidonic acid. Cyclooxygenase have been characterized and named as COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is responsible for constitutive PGs production under physiological condition and maintains normal function. On the other hand, while COX-2 expression is inducible by cytokines and endotoxin. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by anaerobic bacteria especially gram negative bacteria. The periodontitis occurrence is followed by increased of COX-2 expression. Mangosteen rind (Garcinia mangostana Linn) contains gamma mangostin which inhibits the synthesis of PGE2 through inhibition of COX-2 expression. Purpose: This research was aimed to study COX-2 expression in experimental-induced periodontitis in wistar rats after mangosteen rind etanolic extract administration. Methods: Forty eight male wistar rats were induced periodontitis by putting silk ligature subgingivally around the cervical of the anterior lower teeth for 7 days. After the ligation was taken out, the rats were divided into 4 groups, and treated orally with mangosteen rind extract 60 mg/kg BB, 30 mg/kg BB, ibuprofen and saline respectively. The rats were sacrificed on the 1st, 3rd, 4th, 7th day after the treatment. The rats’ anterior lower jaws were processed for paraffin embedded tissue, cut serially and stained with immunohistochemistry. COX-2 expression were observed and counted under the microscope (400x). The data were analyzed using kruskall wallis test. Results: Kruskal wallis test showed a significant difference COX-2 expression among group indicating that mangosteen rind etanolic extract affected COX-2 expression. Conclusion: Mangosteen rind etanolic extract reduced COX-2 expression in periodontitis rats.Latar belakang: Siklooksigenase adalah enzim yang mensintesis prostaglandin (PG) dari asam arakhidonat. Siklooksigenase dibagi menjadi 2 yaitu COX-1 dan COX-2. COX-1 bertanggung jawab pada sintesis PG dalam kondisi fisiologis dan mempertahankan fungsi normal, sedangkan ekspresi COX-2 dapat terinduksi oleh sitokin dan endotoksin. Periodontitis adalah penyakit peradangan kronis yang disebabkan oleh bakteri anaerob terutama bakteri gram negatif. Terjadinya periodontitis diikuti oleh peningkatan ekspresi COX-2. Kulit buah manggis (Garcinia mangostana Linn) mengandung mangostin gamma yang menghambat sintesis PGE2 melalui penghambatan COX-2. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti ekspresi COX-2 pada tikus wistar jantan yang diinduksi periodontitis setelah pemberian ekstrak etanolik kulit manggis. Metode: Empat puluh delapan ekor tikus wistar jantan diinduksi periodontitis dengan meletakkan ligatur sutra pada subgingiva sevikal gigi anterior rahang bawah selama 7 hari. Setelah ligatur dilepas, tikus dibagi dalam 4 kelompok yaitu ekstrak kulit manggis dosis 60 mg/kg BB, 30 mg/kg BB, ibuprofen dan saline dengan pemberian secara peroral. Tikus didekapitasi pada hari ke-1,3, 5 dan 7 setelah perlakuan. Rahang bawah gigi depan dilakukan pemrosesan menjadi blok paraffin, dipotong serial dan dilakukan pewarnaan imunohistokimia. Ekspresi COX-2 diamati di bawah mikroskop dengan perbesaran 400x. Data pengamatan dianalisa dengan uji kruskall wallis. Hasil: Uji kruskall wallis menunjukkan terdapat perbedaan bermakna ekspresi COX-2 diantara kelompok perlakuan yang mengindikasikan bahwa ekstrak kulit manggis mempengaruhi ekspresi COX-2. Simpulan: Ektrak etanolik kulit manggis menurunkan ekspresi COX-2 pada tikus dengan periodontitis.
Differences of Streptococcus mutans adhesion between artificial mouth systems: a dinamic and static methods Morita, Aryan; Yulianto, H. Dedy Kusuma; Kusdina, Susmira Delta; Purwanti, Nunuk
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 49, No 2 (2016): (June 2016)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

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Abstract

Background: Various materials have been used for treating dental caries. Dental caries is a disease that attacks hard tissues of the teeth. The initial phase of caries is a formation of bacterial biofilm, called as dental plaque. Dental restorative materials are expected for preventing secondary caries formation initiated by dental plaque. Initial bacterial adhesion is assumed to be an important stage of dental plaque formation. Bacteria that recognize the receptor for binding to the pellicle on tooth surface are known as initial bacterial colonies. One of the bacteria that plays a role in the early stage of dental plaque formation is Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). Artificial mouth system (AMS) used in bacterial biofilm research on the oral cavity provides the real condition of oral cavity and continous and intermittent supply of nutrients for bacteria. Purpose: This study aimed to compare the profile of S. mutans bacterial adhesion as the primary etiologic agent for dental caries between using static method and using artificial mouth system, a dinamic. method (AMS). Method: The study was conducted at Faculty of Dentistry and Integrated Research and testing laboratory (LPPT) in Universitas Gadjah Mada from April to August 2015. Composite resin was used as the subject of this research. Twelve composite resins with a diameter of 5 mm and a width of 2 mm were divided into two groups, namely group using static method and group using dynamic method. Static method was performed by submerging the samples into a 100µl suspension of 1.5 x 108 CFU/ml S. mutans and 200µl BHI broth. Meanwhile AMS method was carried out by placing the samples at the AMS tube drained with 20 drops/minute of bacterial suspension and sterile aquadest. After 72 hours, five samples from each group were calculated for their biofilm mass using 1% crystal violet and read by a spectrofotometer with a wavelength of 570 nm. Meanwhile, one sample from each group was taken for its surface image using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Result: The results showed that S. mutans biofilm mass in the group using static method was 0.34, while in the group using AMS method was 0.09. The results of the statistical analysis then showed that there was a significant difference (p=0.02) in the formation of bacterial biofilm mass between those groups. SEM image in the group using static method also showed that the attachment of S. mutans was more numerous and had a longer chain than in the group using AMS method. Conclusion: There is a difference in the profile of S. mutans bacterial adhesion between using AMS method and static method.
Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Desa Panjangrejo Bantul Yogyakarta sebagai Upaya Mewujudkan Desa Sehat Gigi dan Mulut 2030 Aditama, Pramudya; Ariesandy, Leny Pratiwi; Naritasari, Fimma; Purwanti, Nunuk
Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat (Indonesian Journal of Community Engagement) Vol 3, No 2 (2018): Maret
Publisher : Direktorat Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Oral health problem in Indonesian has increased. Yogyakarta is the fourth province with the highest number oral health problem and the third province with the highest Effective Medical Demands (EMD) for oral health in Indonesia. This fact indicates that it needs the attention of many parties to solve this problem, especially in Yogyakarta. Through community empowerment, community will be able to independently maintain their oral health and can be expected to be one of a solution to overcome the existing problems.The establishment of Oral Health Cadre (KADEGI) is a form of community empowerment strategy in terms of human resource development. Community empowerment, using the Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) method, is very effective to help the KADEGI mastered several skills such as (a) able to do dental health education, (b) able to do early detection of oral disease and (c) able to refer oral health cases to the nearest public health services (puskesmas).The results of KADEGIs work in data collecting of oral health problem in Desa Panjangrejo showed that from 1.198 respondents who were examined, 64% of respondents had tooth cavities and 49% had debris and calculus. These data indicate that Desa Panjangrejo’s resident are still need special attention in oral health problem by various parties.
Infiltrasi Neutrofil pada Tikus dengan Periodontitis setelah Pemberian Ekstrak Etanolik Kulit Manggis Prasetya, Rendra Chriestedy; Purwanti, Nunuk; Haniastuti, Tetiana
Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia Vol 21, No 1 (2014): August
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Periodontitis adalah inflamasi kronis yang disebabkan oleh bakteri periodontopatogen. Pada periodontitis terjadi peningkatan infiltrasi neutrofil yang berfungsi untuk memfagositosis bakteri yang menginfiltrasi jaringan gingiva. Kulit manggis mempunyai bahan aktif yaitu xanton yang mempunyai efek antiinflamasi dengan jalan menghambat sintesis PGE2 sehingga akan menurunkan infiltrasi sel inflamasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui infiltrasi sel neutrofil pada periodontitis setelah pemberian ekstrak etanolik kulit manggis. Tikus wistar jantan sebanyak empat puluh delapan ekor diinduksi periodontitis dengan ligasi pada daerah subgingiva gigi anterior rahang bawah selama 7 hari. Setelah hari ke-7, ligasi dilepas selanjutnya tikus dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok perlakuan yaitu ekstrak kulit manggis 30 mg/kg BB dan 60 mg/kg BB, ibuprofen dan saline. Tikus dikorbankan pada hari ke-1, 3, 5 dan 7 setelah perlakuan. Jaringan pada bagian anterior rahang bawah ditanam dalam paraffin dan dilakukan pemotongan serial kemudian diwarnai dengan hematoxylin eosin. Jumlah neutrofil dihitung di bawah mikroskop dengan perbesaran 400x. Data jumlah neutrofil dianalisa dengan Two Way Anova. Hasil Two Way Anova menunjukkan perbedaan yang bermakna rerata sel neutrofil antar kelompok perlakuan (p<0,05) mengindikasikan pemberian ekstrak etanolik kulit manggis berpengaruh terhadap jumlah sel neutrofil. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa pemberian ekstrak etanolik kulit manggis mampu menurunkan infiltrasi sel neutrofil pada tikus yang diinduksi periodontitis.Neutrophil infiltration in rats with periodontitis after the granting of Ethanolic Extract Skin Mangosteen. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by periodontopathic bacteria. When periodontitis occurs are followed by neutrophil infiltration. Mangosteen rind contains xanthone, an anti-inflammatory substance which inhibits the synthesis of PGE2 and therefore reduces inflammatory cells infiltration. This research aimed to study neutrophil cells infiltration in experimental-induced periodontitis rats after mangosteen rind ethanolic extract administration. Forty-eight male wistar rats were induced the periodontitis by putting silk ligature subgingivally around the neck of the anterior lower teeth for seven days. After the ligation had been taken out, the rats were divided into four groups and treated orally with mangosteen rind extract 60 mg/kg BB, 30 mg/kg BB, ibuprofen, and saline. The rats were sacrificed on the 1st, 3rd, 4th, seventh day after the treatment. Their anterior lower jaws were processed for paraffin embedded tissue, cut serially and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. The neutrophil cells were observed and counted under the microscope (400x). The data were analyzed using Anova. Anova result showed a significant difference among group (p<0,05) indicating that mangosteen rind ethanolic extract affected the number of neutrophils. In conclusion, mangosteen rind ethanolic extract reduced the number of neutrophil infiltration in periodontitis rats.
Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Desa Panjangrejo Bantul Yogyakarta sebagai Upaya Mewujudkan Desa Sehat Gigi dan Mulut 2030 Aditama, Pramudya; Ariesandy, Leny Pratiwi; Naritasari, Fimma; Purwanti, Nunuk
Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat (Indonesian Journal of Community Engagement) Vol 3, No 2 (2018): Maret
Publisher : Direktorat Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Oral health problem in Indonesian has increased. Yogyakarta is the fourth province with the highest number oral health problem and the third province with the highest Effective Medical Demands (EMD) for oral health in Indonesia. This fact indicates that it needs the attention of many parties to solve this problem, especially in Yogyakarta. Through community empowerment, community will be able to independently maintain their oral health and can be expected to be one of a solution to overcome the existing problems.The establishment of Oral Health Cadre (KADEGI) is a form of community empowerment strategy in terms of human resource development. Community empowerment, using the Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) method, is very effective to help the KADEGI mastered several skills such as (a) able to do dental health education, (b) able to do early detection of oral disease and (c) able to refer oral health cases to the nearest public health services (puskesmas).The results of KADEGIs work in data collecting of oral health problem in Desa Panjangrejo showed that from 1.198 respondents who were examined, 64% of respondents had tooth cavities and 49% had debris and calculus. These data indicate that Desa Panjangrejo’s resident are still need special attention in oral health problem by various parties.
Differences in mucin expression in the submandibular glands of rats during peridontitis induction Purwanti, Nunuk; Kusumawardhani, Banun; Murdiastuti, Kwartarini
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 51, No 2 (2018): (June 2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

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Abstract

Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) produces lipopolysacharide (LPS) which acts as a stimulator of inflammation in periodontal tissues. Periodontitis-induced apoptosis and vacuolation of the salivary gland, therefore, causes hyposalivation. Mucin secretion is produced by the submandibular gland under stimulation by the cholinergic and adrenergic receptors. Both forms of stimulation influence the volume of mucin secretion. Mucin saliva plays an important role in the early stages of Pg colonization in the oral cavity. On the other hand, it serves to protect against bacterial invasion. Purpose: The aim of this research was to identify differences in mucin expression in the submandibular gland during periodontitis induction. Methods: 32 male Wistar rats were assigned to either a sham periodontitis or a periodontitis group. The former group received a daily injection of a vehicle solution (n = 16), while members of the periodontitis induction group (n=16) were injected each day with 500 µL of Pg 108 into the mesial area of the upper molar. Mucin in the submandibular gland was analyzed at the 7th, 14th, 21th and 28th days after injection by means of periodic acid schiff (PAS) staining. Results: 28 days after injection mild gingivitis was developed in the periodontitis experiment group. Junctional epithelium (JE) thickness decreased gradually following the increase of PG injection periods (p<0.05).  However, mucin expression increased prominently at 7th, 14th, and 21th days after injection and decreased on day 28th after PG injection. Mucin was expressed in the duct cells of the submandibular gland. Conclusion: The result of this study suggests that there are different levels of mucin expression in the submandibular gland during periodontitis induction.