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KEANEKARAGAMAN DAN KELIMPAHAN JENIS BURUNG PADA TAMAN KOTA SEMARANG, JAWA TENGAH

Jurnal Akademika Biologi Vol. 5 No. 4 Oktober 2016
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika Undip

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Abstract

The City Park is conceived as a space that contains the elements of nature and landscape which is caused by vegetation diversity, activity and artificial elements that are provided as a social and recreational facilities, as well as a breathing space in the city. The Semarang State Park is one of the green open area that are also used by birds. On the other hand the city park has a problem that threatens the existence of birds especially the uncontrolled development. The diversity of the species of birds can be used as indicators of environmental quality, because their life is influenced by the physical, chemical, and biological cchanges in the environment. The research objective was to determine the diversity and abundance of the bird species, determine the composition of the guild of bird species, and to determine the status of the scarcity of birds in the city garden of Semarang. The research was conducted in July-August 2016, where observation was carried out in six state parks in Semarang using the point count method. The analysis of the index used are the abundance of species, species diversity index, evenness index, similarity index, chi square test and hucthinson method.Where795 individuals of birds were observed, covering 27 species and 17 families. The diversity of bird species index categorized moderately were 2.19 to 2.33, except on Park Madukoro which had the lowest category. The birds were categorized evenly with the index 0.74-0.83, except in the Madukoro Wildlife where the categories were fairly even. The composition of the most abundant guild is a group of insectivorous which is 41%. There are 27 species of birds in all six State Parks in Semarang which however have the status of Least Concern by the IUCN. Based on Government Regulation No. 7 of 1999, there are four species of birds included into the category which are protected.Keywords:  State Parks, bird, diversity, abundance, composition guild

PERILAKU BERTELUR DAN SIKLUS HIDUP Aedes aegypti PADA BERBAGAI MEDIA AIR

Jurnal Akademika Biologi Vol. 6 No. 4 Oktober 2017
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika Undip

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Abstract

Aedes aegypti is the main vector that transmits dengue fever. The spread of Aedes aegypti mosquitos in Indonesia is very wide. This mosquito has its breeding site in clear water areas such as in the bath water containers, flower pots, pet containers as well as in the used goods that can hold stagnant water. However, the environmental conditions which are constantly changing due to the rampant pollution cause Ae. Aegypti to continue to adapt to its breeding environment. This research aims to find out the egg laying behavior, life cycle and mediums preferences selected by Aedes aegypti mosquitos in different water mediums. Stages of the research which are conducted include: preparation of research tools and materials, observation on Ae. Aegypti mosquitos’ preferences, observation on egg hatchability and life cycle of Ae. Aegypti in various water mediums. The result shows that from all contaminated water mediums which are tested, Ae. Aegypti mosquitos have the preference of laying eggs in Eichhornia crassipes water mediums, followed by leachate water mediums, whereas in tofu wastewater mediums and laundry waste, there were no eggs found. Meanwhile, in another study, it is known that the egg hatchability and life cycle of Ae. Aegypti mosquitos in contaminated water mediums such Eichhornia crassipes immersed water mediums, and leachate water are not significantly different from controlled water mediums (uncontaminated). The result of the research is expected to be the reference for relevant institute in expanding the eradication of Ae. Aegypti mosquitos to places that have been unusual for eradication.Keywords: Aedes aegypti, Eichhornia crassipes immersed water, Leachate, laundry waste, tofu wastewater

The Effectiveness of Plastic Mulch for Maintaining the Potato Farmland in Dieng Plateau Using Soil Biological Quality Index (QBS-ar)

Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education Articles in press 2019
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, Semarang State University . Ro

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Abstract

Dieng farmers apply plastic mulch to reduce erosion and to prevent the loss of nutrients. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of plastic mulch in maintaining the quality of potato farmland using the Soil Biological Quality Index (QBS-ar) based on the existence of microarthropods. Soil sampling was conducted in six different locations, i.e., flat area with mulch, sloped area with mulch, the flat area without mulch, sloped area without mulch, flat forest area, and sloped forest area. Microarthropods were obtained from soil samples using a Berlese Funnel method. Soil quality was analyzed using QBS-ar index which was calculated based on Eco-morphological Index (EMI). The results showed that the value of QBS-ar index in potato farmland with the use of plastic mulch was much higher than in farmland without plastic mulch in bothflat and sloped area. Compared to the soil in the forest area, the value of QBS-ar index in farmland with the use of plastic mulch, especially in the flat area, was relatively similar. Hence, the use of plastic mulch for potato cultivation in the hilly area is effective in maintaining soil quality. This finding would be beneficial for developing a soil conservation strategy to achieve sustainable agriculture in Dieng agricultural area.

Beberapa Aspek Biologi Parasitoid Apantheles sp pada Inangnya, Spodopera litura, Fab. setelah Perlakuan Ekstrak Daun dan Ranting Aglaia odorata (Lour)

Bioma Vol. 17, No.2, Tahun 2015
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

The objectives of this study were to evaluate effect of leaf and branch extract of the Aglaia odorata against:  emergences of adult Apantheles sp emerged from S. litura larvae, (2) the extract effect to live cycle and reproduction of  Apantheles sp (3) and its effect against the  morphology character some of parasitoid. The metode was used by of leaf-dip method. The leaf and branch effectivity bioassay used by of Ricinus communis leaf . The leaf disk were dipped in the extract solution on six concentration  for 10 s, and air dried. Each leaf disks was placed  six bottles glass and ten larvae were placed in each botlle, each concentration was replicated four time. Data collected  were subjected an anaysis of variance followed by mean comparation based of Duncan´t New Multiple Range Test. The imago Apantheles sp. emerged from host, S.  litura larvae was recorded of live cycle, its reproduction, and morphology character. The result showed that the length of pre adult stage of emerging parasitoids from of S.  litura larvae treated with 85,99 ppm was 45 percent, and with 21,95 ppm was 22,22 percent. The extract toxicity to natural enemies such as parasitoids relatively non toxis. The live cycle of female adult parasitoid was 16,90 and 6,20 days. Reproduction capacity of adult female parasitoids of 85,99 mg/L was 69,4 eggs/adult, which was statistically different from control, whereas of 21,95 treatment, it was 65,40 eggs/adult and its was not significant to control. Key words: Aglaia odorata, Lour, Spodoptera litura,, morphology character, Apanteles sp

MONITORING RESISTENSI POPULASI Plutella xylostella, L TERHADAP RESIDU EMAMEKTIN BENZOAT DI SENTRA PRODUKSI TANAMAN KUBIS PROPINSI JAWA TENGAH

Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan (Journal of People and Environment) Vol 21, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Pusat Studi Lingkungan Hidup Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

 Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat kepekaan populasi lapangan Plutella xylostella terhadap residu dari insektisida emamektin benzoat, menetapkan konsentrasi diagnostik untuk memonitor perkembangan resistensi populasi P. xylostella terhadap insektisida emamektin benzoat, dan untuk menentukan mekanisme resistensi P. xylostella terhadap insektisida tersebut. P. xylostella dikoleksi dari sepuluh Kecamatan Provinsi Jawa Tengah sejak Agustus 2010 sampai September 2012. Data dari uji bioassay dianalisis dengan probit analisis untuk mendapatkan nilai LC50. Hasil uji kepekaan menunjukkan, bahwapopulasi Puasan (Ngablak) nilai Faktor resistensi (FR) 3,97 kali merupakan populasi dengan nilai FR paling tinggi, dan nilai FR yang paling rendah adalah populasi Selo (Boyolali) dan merupakan populasi yang paling peka. Hasil pengujian validasi konsentrasi diagnostik menunjukkan, bahwa nilai c2 hitung semua populasi yang diuji lebih kecil dari nilai c2 tabel, maka konsentrasi diagnostik yang ditetapkan (2443,99 ppb) sesuai untuk monitoring kepekaan populasi P. xylostella. Resistensi P. xylostella terhadap insektisida emamektin benzoat disebabkan oleh laju peningkatan detoksifikasi di dalam tubuh serangga oleh enzim MFO, tetapi aktivitas enzim esterase non spesifik tidak mencerminkan aktitas esterase.

STATUS DAN MEKANISME RESISTENSI Plutella xylostella (L.) TERHADAP INSEKTISIEDA EMAMEKTIN BENZOAT

STIFAR - Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Farmasi MFI Vol. 10 No. 1
Publisher : STIFAR - Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Farmasi

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Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui status resistensi Plutella xylostella terhadap isektisida emamektin benzoat, dan mekanisme resistensi populasi P. xylostella terhadap isektisida emamektin benzoat. Penelitian tentang resistensi P. xylostella terhadap emamektin benzoat dilakukan di beberapa daerah sentra produksi tanaman kubis di Jawa Tengah, meliputi Puasan, Babrik, Kaponan, Keteb (Magelang), Plalar, Gedongsongo, Kenteng, Selo (Semarang), Gondosuli (Karanganyar), Kejajar, Kertek (Wonosobo). Uji utama dilakukan dengan metode bioassay, sedangkan konsentrasi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini, adalah konsentrasi yang dapat mematikan 16-84% serangga uji yang telah ditentukan berdasarkan uji pendahuluan, dan konsentrasi tersebut yang nantinya digunakan dalam pengujian utama. Untuk mengestimasi nilai LC50 dilakukan analisis dengan probit analisis. Aktivitas AsetilkolinEsterase dinyatakan sebagai molar substrat terhidrolisis per menit per mg protein dihitung dengan rumus Ellman et al..(1961), sedangkan persentase hambatan aktivitas AChE oleh insektisida tertentu dihitung dengan rumus: Hambatan (%)= (A0 – Ai)/A0 x 100%). Kandungan protein dalam homogenat P. xylostella ditentukan dengan uji Folin-Ciocalteu (Lowry et al., 1951). Aktvitas esterase non spesifik dengan pembacaan nilai serapan menggunakan alat ELISA reader dengan λ = 450 nm, Hasil uji kepekaan menunjukkan, bahwa populasi Puasan FR nya sebesar 3,97 kali, dan merupakan populasi dengan FR tertinggi, sedangkan terendah pada populasi Selo yang merupakan populasi paling peka.  Kandungan protein dalam homogenat larva P. xylostella instar ketiga pada populasi Kaponan, Kertek, Keteb, Babrik, Plalar, Puasan berkisar antara 0,914-1,282 µg/ml dengan kisaran aktivitas asetilkolinesterase  0,014- 0,024 M substrat/menit/µg protein, sedangkan populasi Kejajar, Gondosuli, Kenteng, Gedongsongo, Selo dimana kisaran kandungan protein adalah 0,936-1,515µg/ml dengan kisaran aktivitas asetilkolinesterase antara 0,012 - 0,015M substrat/menit/µg protein. Kata kunci: Kepekaan. Plutella xylostella (L.), emamektin benzoat, resistensi, asetylcholinesterase, monogenik

Struktur Komunitas Capung di Kawasan Wisata Curug Lawe Benowo Ungaran Barat

Bioma Vol. 18, No.1, Tahun 2016
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Dragonflies have an important role for the stability of the ecosystem that is as predator and prey at the same time. The availability of food resources and optimal environmental conditions affect the species richness of dragonflies in the habitats. Reasearch on dragonfly comunity structure aims to find out the differences of community structure in each habitat type in the region of Curug Lawe Benowo. The research was conductet in 4 different stations which focus on species of dragonfly, amount of an individual species, habitats, environmental conditions, and the corellation between the variables. The method used is point count. The results showed that there are 19 dragonfly species which came from 7 different Family. The total number of individuals encountered from 4 stations is 205. The common species that can be found in all of the stations is Euphaea variegata. The level of diversity are medium, the level of evenness is fairly even. Similarity of species in any habitat types indicate that the habitats has a three kind of similarity levels that is fairly equal, less equal and not equal. Data analysis shows that there is a corellations between environmental conditions, and dragonfly species, affecting abundance and distributions of a dragonfly in the habitats, and can be used to describe dragonflies community structure in the region. Key words: Community structure, dragonfly, Curug Lawe-Benowo

The Role of Acetylcholine Esterase in Resistance Mechanism of Plutella xylostella to Emamektin Benzoate

Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education Vol 10, No 1 (2018): April 2018
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, Semarang State University . Ro

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Abstract

One of the resistance mechanism of P. xylostellato emamektin benzoate is target insensitivity which is acetylcholine esterase that responsible for resistance occurrence. The objective of this study was to determine the role of acetylcholinesterase in the resistance mechanism of P. xylostella population to emamektin benzoate. For enzyme activity analysis, larvae homogenate of the third instar of P. xylostella was prepared. The number of insects required for each scour is 1 for each field population. The protein content in P. xylostella homogenate was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu test. Non-specific esterase activity with an absorption rate was read using ELISA reader tool with λ = 450 nm. The inhibition level of acetylcholinesterase activity by emamectin benzoate in the tested population was 36.84%. The highest inhibition occurs in Puasan (Ngablak) population.  The result shows that a α-naphthyl acetate substrate was used so that it was recorded as non-specific esterase activity and did not exhibit esterase activity which specifically describes emamectin benzoate. Non-specific esterase enzyme activity of either α or β-naphthyl acetate substances to benzoic emamectin in the tested population most of the population was still susceptible. On α-naphthyl acetate substrate, the highest absorbance value found in susceptible population to benzoate emamectin (0.773), while the lowest found in Babrik (Ngablak) population  (0.083).

Resistance Inheritance of Plutellaxylostella Population to Residual of Emamectin Benzoat

Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education Vol 9, No 1 (2017): April 2017
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, Semarang State University . Ro

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Abstract

Excessive use of insecticides drives the increasing ability of pests to become resistant. The objectives of this research were to study the susceptibility and the resistance inheritance of the eleven population of P. xylostella to emamectin benzoate. The leaf-dip bioassay was applied to determine the sensitivity of P. xylostella to emamectin benzoate. The offspring of backcrossed F2 were tested whether the resistance was controlled by monogenic. The results showed that the LC50 of the Selo population was 53.42 ppb, and the Puasan population was 212.13 ppb. The genetic analysis showed that the backcrosseddegree of dominance (D) was less than 1. It was indicated that the P. xylostella resistance to emamectin benzoate was recessive. The value of LC50 of the backcrossed F1? x ?S (177.99 ppb) and its reciprocals x ?R (F1) (201.69 ppb) were not significantly different with the value of LC50 resistance population. This suggests that the nature of P. xylostella resistance to emamectin benzoate was controlled by monogenic.The result of the study would be beneficial for developing strategy to maintain susceptible population using refugee plant during lack of their host.

Metode Monitoring Resistensi Populasi Aedes aegypti Dengan Penetapan Konsentrasi Diagnostik

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No 2, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue fever disease. The most effective way to prevent dengue fever is cutting the spreading chain of dengue fever by controlling the vector with using conventional chemical insecticides. The used of insecticide intensively has became the main factor of resistance in Tembalang, then monitoring is needed to determine the change of A. aegypti susceptibility status against the insecticide. The aim of this research is to determine the sensitivity of A. aegypti population from five locations in Tembalang against pyrethroid synthetic insecticide, and to determine the validity of the diagnostic concentration as a method of monitoring resistance A. aegypti population in Tembalang. This research was conducted in Laboratory of Ecology and Biosystematics Department of Biology Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University Semarang. The procedure of this research were: larvae collection (A. aegypti), insect breeding test, sensitivity test including bioassay, determination of diagnostic concentration and validation. The result showed that the susceptibility level of five population was not significantly different since all populations are still susceptible, with the LC50 range between 0,0031-0,0043% and FR range between 1-1,39 (<4). The result of validation test of diagnostic concentration was 0,0038%, valid as a monitoring method of the resistance of A. aegypti population against pyrethroid synthetic insecticide in Tembalang because c2 value of the five population was lower than the c2 table (df = 1; α = 0,05) = 3,84. Keywords : A. aegypti, monitoring resistance, LC50, diagnostic concentration..