Yusniar Hanani D., Yusniar
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Analisis Kondisi Rumah Sebagai Faktor Risiko Kejadian Pneumonia Pada Balita di Wilayah Puskesmas Sentosa Baru Kota Medan Tahun 2008

JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA Vol 8, No 1 (2009): Vol 8, No 1 (2009)
Publisher : JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA

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Abstract

ABSTRACT Background: House Condition (Solar orientation, temperature quality, degree of humidity, ventilation index and occupancy density)  are several factors may cause infection of diseases and health disorders, among other are infection of respiratory tract such as common cold, tuberculosis, influenza, pneumonia and so on. In 2007, there were 7713 cases of pneumonia in Medan city. In the working area of Sentosa Baru Health Center had the highest with 770 cases (10 %). Sentosa Baru was one of subdistrict which had the biggest population in Medan that cause many problems specially to provide good house. This study aimed to analyze house condition (solar orientation, temperature quality, degree of humidity, ventilation index and occupancy density) in relation to pneumonia incidnence. Method: It was a case control study  carried out on August to October 2008 at Sentosa Baru Health Center in Medan. Children qualifying pneumonia classification were defined as cases (62) and without pneumonia as controls (62). Analysis by Chi-Square test and stratification by Mantel Haenszel method. Result: The result of the research showed that solar orientation had OR = 2,9 ( 95% CI =1,28 -6,70), ventilation index (OR = 2,9 ; 95% CI  = 1,27 -,6,70) , and living in crowded home (OR = 6,9  ; 95% CI =  2,72 -  17,52) were risk factors for pneumonia incidence. Multiple Regresion Analysis showed that living in crowded home was the most dominant risk factor for pneumonia under five years children at Sentosa Baru Public Health Medan City 2008. Key word : family behavior and pneumonia incidence

Faktor Risiko Kejadian Keracunan Pestisida Organofosfat pada Petani Hortikultura di Kecamatan Ngablak Kabupaten Magelang, 2008

JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA Vol 6, No 2 (2007): Vol 6, No 2 (2007)
Publisher : JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA

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Abstract

ABSTRACT Background: Pesticides spraying which is not follow the regulation, will give many effect on  human health. Many adverse  effects on human health include anemia, neurodegenerative diseass, endocrine disruption caused by chronic  poisoning of pesticides  on farmers. Pesticides poisoning   can be detected  by the examination of the blood cholinesterase activities. Factors  that influence to the occurrence of pesticides poisoning are the factors from the inside of the human body             ( internal) and outside of the human body ( external) The objective of this research was determined risk factors of organophosphate pesticides poisoning on the horticultura sprayer farmers in agriculture area of Tejosari village,  Ngablak Sub- distric , Magelang. Method: This research used case control design study, with 100 samples included of cases 50 and controles 50. The population was sprayer farmers and sprayer farmer labour of  horticultura agriculture area of Tejosari. Data  was analyzed by univariate analysis by using table of frequency distribution and analyze the percentage, bivariate analysis by using statistical test of Chi-square and multivariate analysis by using statistical test of logistic regretion. Result: Total respondens base on group of age mostly 35 – 44 ages (31%), respondens level  of education which graduated from elementary school (76%). From multivariate analisis showed that risk factors for pesticides poisoning were less knowledge (p = 0,041; OR: 3,630; 95% C.I : 1,057–12,529); abnormal nutrition status (p = 0,048;  OR: 6,623; 95% C.I. : 1.015–43.204); anemia (p = 0,009; OR : 5,987; 95% C.I. : 1,564-22,914); using of personal protective equipment not complete (p=0,001 OR : 26,661; 95% CI : 5,841-121,705) and over dose pesticide (p = 0,003; OR 8,095; 95% C.I. 2,055-31,883). Conclusion : using of personal protective equipment complete was the most influence risk factor to the occurrence of organophosphat pesticide poisoned at the horticultura sprayer farmers of plant pest. It is suggested that the sprayer farmers have to use complete personal protective equipment each time used pesticides. Key Words : Risk factor, Cholinesterase activities, Organophosphat the pesticide poisoning

Kajian Pengelolaan Sumber Daya Air Dalam Upaya Penyehatan Lingkungan Daerah Kejadian Luar Biasa Dusun Beran Desa Kanigoro Kecamatan Ngablak Kabupaten Magelang Tahun 2007

JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA Vol 6, No 2 (2007): Vol 6, No 2 (2007)
Publisher : JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA

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Abstract

ABSTRACT Background : Outbreak case in Kanigoro Village, Ngablak Sub District, Magelang Regency in July 2007 resulted in 31 victims and 10 people lost their lives with a symptom of being poisoned by toxic material. The condition of water sanitary system which did not meet health requirements was assumed as the cause. From the survey, it could be concluded that water used by the people was at high possibility of being polluted by pollutants because the distribution system did not meet requirements. Method : This research used a qualitative approach in order to find out various influences of the existing environmental sanitary conditions, the method used was survey (observation research) by conducting in-depth interview and observation by using questionnaires and check lists which had been composed, the sampling technique used was purposive sampling. The source of water for the people is Tuk Ngetuk Spring. The potential of water resource with a volume of 3.5 litres per second from quantity perspective has been able to meet the needs of Beran Hamlet’s people for the next 5 years. The risk factor for water pollution physically, bacteriological, and chemically had a value of high level of water pollution. Result : The finance for water resources management in an effort to sanitize the environment was so limited that influenced the infrastructure and the activity of watching water quality done by Health Service of Magelang Regency. Kanigoro Village’s head handed over the task and duty in managing water to his villagers, a person per hamlet respectively, who were being called ili-ili. The participation of the people in voluntary collective work activities every six months was hard to realize. Conclusion : To prevent water resources from being polluted with pesticide used in farming, there was a need for information given continually, the application of integral germ control, organic farming or biopesticide, and a building for catching water from the spring had to conform to the manual of practicing guide for capturing water from the spring. With regard to limited finance, there was a need for the empowerment of the people through the founding of a group of water users in Beran Water Reservoir Keywords: Water Resources, Management, Environmental Sanitation

Paparan Debu Kayu Dan Gangguan Fungsi Paru Pada Pekerja Mebel (Studi di PT Alis Jaya Ciptatama)

JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA Vol 5, No 2 (2006): Vol 5, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA

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Abstract

ABSTRACT Background : Wood dust generated from processes of sawing, planning and sanding can disperse in the workplace air and harm to the workers. Exposed to low concentration of wood dust for a long time can cause respiratory tract disorders  such as restriction, obstruction or mixed. Generally, organic dust exposure will effect on obstruction of respiratory tract which is indicated by decreasing of % FEV – 1 / FVC. Workers of wood industries have a high risk from wood dust deposition on their respiratory tract. Absorption of wood dust particles in the lung occurred by respiration mechanism. Methods : This research purpose was to analyze the exposure of wood dust and lung function disorder on furniture workers (Study  at  PT Alis Jaya Ciptatama ) in Jepara Regency. This research was an observational study with a cross Sectional approach with 55 samples. Sampling was carried out by using a Probability Systematic Sampling. Data of respirable wood dust concentration  was measured by a using Personal Dust Sampler. Whereas data of lung function was resulted from Sprirometry test  using a spirometer. Other data was collected from interview with the workers with age limitation is up to 40 years old. Data analyze by Chi Square Test was used to   identity the wood dust exposure, age, gender, time of exposure, working years, smoking habit, excercise habit, nutrient status and awareness in using of Personal Protective Equipment, in the correlation of occuring the lung function disorder.Multivariat analysis was carried out by regression test with the method of backward stepwise. Results: The result of this research was wood dust exposure significantly influence and correlate to the occuring of the lung function disorder on furniture workers ( Study at PT Alis Jaya Ciptatama ), using appliance Personal Dust Sampler, highest result wood dust exposure 1,848 mg/m³ and the low result wood dust exposure 0,833 mg/m³, with the result : for wood dust exposure  p = 0,001 and odss ratio  = 13,720 with 95% CI (3,034 – 62,040). Probability of wood dust exposure factor toward lung function disorder which was assessed by logistic regression formula resulted in, wood dust exposure over the Theshold Limit Value of 1 mg/m³ is 78,4% another 21,6% is because of other factor beyond the study of the researcher. Conclusion: The recomendation  of this research is expected to be an input for the local government and  Health Service in particular, in making guidelines of the programs related to harmful effects from the workplace to the workers health, as well as for the needs of workplace monitoring and occupational health surveillance. Therefore to make the programs succeed , it needs occupational health promotion  and application of controle measures on reducing wood dust concentration at the workplace. Keywords : Wood Dust Exposure, Lung Function Disorder, Workers, Furniture.

Analisis Risiko Pencemaran Bahan Toksik Timbal (Pb) pada Sapi Potong di Tempat Pembuangan Akhir (TPA) Sampah Jatibarang Semarang

JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA Vol 5, No 1 (2006): Vol 5, No 1 (2006)
Publisher : JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA

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Abstract

ABSTRACT Background: Final waste disposal site in Jatibarang represent accumulative site of various waste from various activities in Semarang city and its surroundings. It may become an environmental contamination sources, such as air, water, land contamination, and also in living organism. The contamination substance that generally exists in the waste disposal site is toxic substance, such as lead (Pb). The disposal site in Jatibarang is used as pasturing site for beef cattle. The beef cattle consumed the organic disposal and leachate as food sources. By consuming the organic disposal and leachate from the area, the cattle may be contaminated from toxic substance (for example, Lead) that can be distributed to all part of the body of the cattle. If human being consume the meat of cattle, the body maybe contaminated by toxic substance. It may couse an adverse effect since it is accumulated in the body. Lead (Pb) may cause erythrocytes, and kidney degenerative, disorder on reproduction system, nerve system, stimulate cancer and IQ degradation. The objective of this  research was  to analyze the risk of toxic substance contamination from lead on beef cattle at  waste disposal site Jatibarang Semarang. Methods: This Study was a survey research with a cross sectional approach. Total sample of beef cattle (41, 6 samples) were taken from disposal site and  3 samples of leachate were taken from waste disposal site Jatibarang Semarang. Data were analysed using AAS for  laboratorium examination and also observation of the site. The data obtained was  analyzed by partial correlation analysis (to know the correlation between independent variable and dependent variable) Results: Analysis showed that there was significant correlation between Pb concentration in waste and Pb concentration in cattle urine  p = 0,865 r = 0,0281 old disposal (unorganic disposal that has been serapped by the cattle) p = 0,427 r = 0,1309, leachate (cattle drinking water) p = 1,000 r = 0,0001, cattle’s weight p = 0,0001 r = 0,8114, cattle’s age p = 0,0001 r = 0,7049.The conclusion of this  research is that independent variable such as Pb has in waste correlation  in waste with risk contamination of lead in beef cattle at waste disposal site Jatibarang. Keywords: lead contamination, beef cattle, final waste disposal site

Faktor - Faktor Yang Berhubungan Dengan Kejadian Tinea Pedis Pada Pemulung Di TPA Jatibarang Semarang

JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA Vol 5, No 1 (2006): Vol 5, No 1 (2006)
Publisher : JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA

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Abstract

ABSTRACT Background : Tinea pedis is a parasit disease caused by the dermatopoyd fungi and found on skin  around sole of foot and toe. Several risk factors of Tinea pedis are as follow: wearing the shoes for whole day, wearing the sock while working, and hight exposure of fungi. The aim of this research was to determine relationship between the living environment and  the incidence of Tinea pedis on "Pemulung" (the collector of abandoned goods) at the final disposal place of Jatibarang in Semarang. And also to know  the relationship between practise of personal-hygiene and the incidence of Tinea pedis on "Pemulung" . Methods : This was an observational research using cross sectional approach. Samples were "Pemulung" at the final disposal place of Jatibarang in Semarang. Number of samples taken were 56 persons. Independent variables were type of floor, source of water, wearing the shoes while working, wearing the sock while working, changing of the sock, washing the foot after working, drying the foot after washing, washing the shoes after wearing, frequency of taking a bath everyday, and wearing the sandal at home. Results : Results of regression logistic analysis showed that the factors, which influence the occurrence of Tinea pedis, were: sources of water and wearing the sandal at home. With p value for  source of water is 0,016 and wearing the sandal at home is 0,039. The efforts that can be done to prevent transmission of Tinea pedis such as: avoid using the river water and using the monitoring well. "Pemulung" should wear the sandal at home in order to reduce transmission of fungi. Beside that, they should keep clean at around their home to prevent growth of Tinea pedis fungi. Key words : Environmental Sanitation, Practise of Personal-Hygiene, Tinea Pedis

Analisis Faktor Risiko Pencemaran Bahan Toksik Boraks Dan Pewarna Pada Makanan Jajanan Tradisional Yang Dijual Di Pasar-Pasar Kota Semarang Tahun 2006

JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA Vol 5, No 1 (2006): Vol 5, No 1 (2006)
Publisher : JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA

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Abstract

ABSTRACT Background: The home industry of traditional food is potentially in community economic growth. However, on the other hand, it could bring on a health disorder caused by toxic material contamination such as borax and coloring agent. The aim this research is to find out risk factors that caused material toxic contamination borax and coloring agent of traditional food that be sold at traditional market in Semarang city. Methods: The research was classified as an observational research with a cross sectional approach. The  population were producer of traditional food at traditional market in Semarang City. The samples were 48 persons from eight markets. They were taken by cluster random sampling method from 47 markets in Semarang City. Data were taken based on a chemical analysis and interview method. Data analysis using cross tabulation (Chi-square test) and a multivariate analysis. Results: The bivariate analysis showed that there were significant association between the degree of education, knowledge, attitude, practice, and the toxic material borax and coloring agent contamination of traditional food that was sold at the traditional market in Semarang City. The multivariate analysis showed that OR of education (OR = 33; 95% CI 3.73-292.42), knowledge (OR = 20.7; 95% CI = 4.41 – 92.16), attitude (OR = 31; 95% CI = 6.84 – 140.46), and practice (OR = 68.2; 95% CI = 7.156 – 650.00) as  the risk factors of the toxic material borax and coloring agent contamination of traditional food that be sold at the traditional market of Semarang City. Conclusions: Education, knowledge, attitude, and practice are the risk factors of the toxic material borax and coloring agent contamination of traditional food that be sold at the traditional market of Semarang City. Keyword: risk factor; traditional food; additive material; borax; coloring agent.

Hubungan Higiene Penjamah dengan Keberadaan Bakteri Escherichia coli Pada Minuman Jus Buah di Tembalang

JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA Vol 14, No 1 (2015): April 2015
Publisher : Program Studi Magister Kesehatan Lingkungan

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Abstract

Background: Fruit juice is one of a beverages that is easily obtained and become favorite beverages among the students. The making and presentation of beverages with the presence of bacteria contamination in beverages may will be influence by hygiene factors are not qualified. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between food handler hyigiene and the existence of Escherichia coli on fruit juice beverages in the Tembalang. Method: This study used observational research  with a cross sectional design. Total samples as many as 25 trader jus, data collection techniques by the laboratory tests and surveys. Data were analyzed using Fisher exact test. Results: The results of the 25 samples showed 13 (52%) fruit juice samples, 11 (44%) samples of boiled water and 14 (56%) samples of water wash containing the bacteria Escherichia coli. There is a relationship between the quality of boiled water with the presence of bacteria E.coli in fruits juice (p=0,001), there is a relationship between the quality of water wash to the presence of bacteria E.coli in fruits juice (p=0,005), there is no relationship between handler hygiene with the presence of  bacteria E.coli in fruits juice (p=0,848), there is no relationship water sanitation with the presence of bacteria E.coli in fruits juice (p=1,000), there is no relationship between  sanitary equipment with the presence of bacteria E.coli in fruits juice (p=0,561), there is no relationship between trash conditions with the presence of bacteria E.coli in fruits juice (p=0,543). Conclusion: This study concluded that  the quality of boiled and washing water as the risk factors of the exixtence of Escherichia coli on fruit juice beverages in Tembalang. Key words: hygiene and sanitation, fruit juice, Escherichia coli.

HUBUNGAN HIGIENE DAN SANITASI MAKANAN DENGAN KONTAMINASI BAKTERI ESCHERICHIA COLI DALAM MAKANAN DI WARUNG MAKAN SEKITAR TERMINAL BOROBUDUR, MAGELANG

Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (e-Journal) Vol 3, No 1 (2015): Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (e-Journal)
Publisher : Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat

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Abstract

Food is a basic necessary forhuman life. Foodmay willbe the cause ofthe disruption inour bodyso thatwe become illthrough contaminationof Escherichiacoli infoods. Escherichia coli bacteriacontaminationinfoodmay wiil be  influencedby thehygiene andsanitaryconditions offood stallsarenotqualified. The purposeof this studywas to determinethe association  betweenhygiene and sanitationwithEscherichia coli bacteriacontaminationon foodat food stallaroundBorobudur Station. This type of researchwasexplanatory researchwithcross sectional approach. The population inthis study were all food stallsaroundBorobudur Station amounted to 31food stalls. The sample wasthe entire study population amounted to 31food vendors and 31 foods.Data analysis of this study wereunivariate analysis withfrequency distribution and bivariat analysistotestthe association,usingchi-square testwith asignificance level ofp-value<0.05. Results oflaboratory testsshowedas much as51,6% of samplespositive containEscherichiacoli bacteria. The results showed thatthere was a relationshipbetween the quality offoodsanitationequipmentwithEscherichia coli bacteriacontaminationon food(pvalue = 0.001). In addition,the results alsoshowed nocorrelationbetween thequality of thesanitarypoint of salewithEscherichia coli bacteriacontamination(pvalue =0,565), there was no correlationbetweenthe qualityof foodsanitationwithEscherichia coli bacteriacontamination(pvalue =1), there was norelationshipof sanitaryquality of food presentation with bacteriaEscherichiacoli contamination (pvalue =0,484), andthere was norelationshipbetweenpersonal hygienepracticestradersin maintainingpersonal hygiene themselfandclothingwithEscherichia coli bacteriacontamination(pvalue =0,372).  Fromthis studyit could be concludedthat there was asignificantassociation betweenthequality offoodsanitationequipmentwithEscherichia coli bacteriacontaminationon food.

PERBEDAAN DAYA HIDUP NYAMUK Aedes aegypti SETELAH DIPAPAR LC50 EKSTRAK BANGLE (Zingiber purpureum) DAN ANTI NYAMUK CAIR BERBAHAN AKTIF D-ALLETHRIN DAN TRANSFLUTRIN

Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (e-Journal) Vol 3, No 1 (2015): Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (e-Journal)
Publisher : Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat

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Abstract

Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a disease caused by the dengue virus and transmitted by Aedes aegypti. Mostly, mosquito control uses synthetic insecticides that can cause resistance in mosquitoes and pollution in the environment so we can choose alternative natural insecticides from plants such as bangle (Zingiber purpureum) which contain essential oils, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and resins. This study aimed to analyze the difference vitality of Aedes aegypti L. after exposed LC50 bangle extract (zingiber purpureum Roxb.) and liquid mosquito insecticides d-allethrin and transflutrin. This study was a true experiment with post test only group design used Aedes aegypti population with aged 2-5 days are reared in B2P2VRP Laboratory in Salatiga, Central Java and use 900 mosquitoes for samples. Results of probit analysis LC50 of bangle extract was 660.000 ppm, d-allethrin was 36 ppm and transfluthrin was 27 ppm. The study showed difference of longevity Aedes aegypti among control and exposed group bangle, bangle and d-allethrin, bangle and transfluthrin (p = 0.0001)(Post Hoc, Tukey). There was no difference of  Aedes aegypti longevity among the control, d-allethrin (p = 0.074) and transfluthrin (p = 0.999), moreover there was also no difference of Aedes aegypti longevity between  exposed group d-allethrin and transfluthrin (p = 0.094). The result showed no difference the number of surviving Aedes aegypti among control, exposed group of bangle, d-allethrin and transfluthrin (p = 0,607) (Kruskal Wallis).