Articles

Found 11 Documents
Search

DAYA ANTIMIKROBA METABOLIT BIOAKTIF JAMUR SHIITAKE (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler) YANG DIKULTUR PADA TIGA JENIS MEDIUM FERMENTASI Ekowati, Nuraeni; Kasiamdari, Rina Sri; Pusposendjojo, Nursamsi; Soegihardjo, C.J.
Majalah Obat Tradisional Vol 16, No 3 (2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14499/mot-TradMedJ16iss3pp%p

Abstract

Jamur shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler) merupakan salah satu jamur yang berpotensi sebagai jamur pangan dan bahan obat (edible and medicinal mushroom). Kultivasi pada medium cair dengan proses fermentasi telah dikembangkan selama beberapa tahun terakhir ini. Empat isolat L. edodes (isolat asal Malang, Cianjur, Lembang dan Yogyakarta) dikultur pada tiga jenis medium fermentasi yaitu (KM: Kauffman Medium; GYMT: Glucose, Yeast extract,  Malt extract, Thiamin; YEMR: Yeast extract,  Malt extract,  Rice bran). Metabolit bioaktif yang diekstrak dari biomassa miselium dan filtrat kultur hasil fermentasi diuji menggunakan mikroba patogen Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Candida albicans ATCC 10231,dan  Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Data diameter zona  hambat dianalisis menggunakan analisis ragam, dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan pada tingkat kesalahan 5 %. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa senyawa bioaktif dalam filtrat kultur maupun biomassa miselium L.edodes yang diekstrak menggunakan kloroform, etil asetat dan air, mampu menghambat S. aureus, E.coli dan C. albicans tetapi tidak mampu menghambat T.mentagrophytes. Isolat L.edodes asal Lembang dan Yogyakarta yang dikultur pada medium Kauffman memberikan hasil zona hambat terbaik (24,97-31,14 mm). Mikroba uji yang paling sensitif terhadap senyawa bioaktif dari L. edodes adalah C. albicans diikuti oleh E.coli, S. aureus dan T. mentagrophytes. Metabolit bioaktif dari L. edodes berpotensi menghambat mikroba patogen dari kelompok bakteri dan khamir tetapi tidak menghambat jamur.  
Patogenisitas Rhizoctonia solani setelah Penyimpanan pada Substrat Berbeda Pusposendjojo, Nursamsi
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 5, No 1 (1999)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.9959

Abstract

Rhizoctonia solani Kühn is a polyphagus fungus causing damping off on nurseries. The fungus develops a resistant structure on plant debris in the form of sclerotium. The sclerotium is the major inoculum for next crops. Evidence indicated that viability and pathogenicity of the inoculum were affected by type of substrate in which the inoculum survived and by length of resting period. Rice straw appeared to be a better substrate for R. solani survival than that of soil. All seedlings planted on soil inoculated with inoculum from rice straw showed greater disease intensity, earlier symptom development, and more growth retardation than those of being inoculated with inoculum from soil.Key words: pathogenicity, Rhizoctonia solani, storage 
Ketahanan Beberapa Jamur Patogen terhadap Fungisida Sumardiyono, Christanti; Pusposendjojo, Nursamsi; Trisnowati, Sri
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 1, No 1 (1995)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.9350

Abstract

Chemical control of plant pathogens have been done for a long time using contact and systemic fungicides. Resistance of the pathogens to fungicides may caused failure of disease control program.Studies by in vitro, in green house and fields were done at Yogyakarta to know the fungal which were resistant to several fungicides after treatment. The pathogen tested to fungicides were Colletotrichum capsici on red pepper to propineb, mancozeb, mixture of carbendazim and mancozeb, and thiophanate methyl, Alternaria porri on garlic to thiophanate methyl, Phytophthora palmivora on cocoa to Al-fosetyl, metalaxyl, mancozeb, and Copper Oxychloride, and Peronosclerospora maydis on corn to metalaxyl.The study indicated that C. capsici was resistant to propineb, mancozeb, and mixture of carbendazim and mancozeb, but sensitive to thiophanate methyl. A. porri from plant treated with thiophanate methyl indicated resistant to the fungicides. ED50 of Al-fosetyl and metalaxyl on P. palmivora were higher than on mancozeb and copper oxychloride, so that it was resistance strain.Key words: contact fungicides, systemic fungicides, resistance
Karantina Tumbuhan di Indonesia dalam Masa Perdagangan Bebas Pusposendjojo, Nursamsi
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 11, No 1 (2005)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.12116

Abstract

Plant quarantine is enacted to keep out foreign plant pests and to protect food, horticulture and estate crops from alien pests. The act prohibits or restricts entry into or passage through a country from foreign countries of plants, plant products, soil, and other materials carrying or likely to carry pests not known· to be established in the country. Experienced inspectors stationed at all points of entry into the country enforce quarantine of produce likely to introduce new pests. The importance of plant quarantine becomes more and more significant in the free trade era. Indonesia to be one of potential market for many agricultural products has still very limited number of plant quarantine inspectors. Number and quality of plant quarantine inspectors are badly needed in order enable coping the problems. Education and training should be organized and it is important to include plant quarantine in the Faculty of Agriculture curriculum.
Identifikasi Jamur Genus Aspergillus pada Gaplek di Kabupaten Gunung Kidul Oramahi, H. A.; Sumardiyono, Christanti; Pusposendjojo, Nursamsi; Haryadi, Haryadi
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 12, No 1 (2006)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.11959

Abstract

The study was carried out in Gunung Kidul Regency of Yogyakarta special. Dried cassava was taken from the district of Nglipar (north zone), Wonosari (center zone), Semanu and Rongkop (south zones) for identification of the genera of Aspergillus growing on the samples. Clasification of the zones was based on the degree of rainfall on the area. Dichloran 18% Glyserol Agar (DG-18) medium was used for isolating pathogen, while Czapek Yeast Extract Agar (CYA), Czapek Yeast Extract Agar with 20% sucrose (CYA 20S) and Malt Extract Agar (MEA) media were used for identification. The fungi were identified on the basis of both macroscopic and microscopic morphologies. The result showed that The Genera Of Aspergillus growing on dry cassava were A. flavus, A. niger, A. oryzae, A. foetidus, A. zonatus and A. tamarii. A. flavus was a predominant fungus that grow on dry cassava.
Eksplorasi, Pengujian, dan Identifikasi Khamir Antagonis terhadap Patogen Antraknos (Colletotrichum lagenarium) pada Semangka Raharjo, Kardi; Sumardiyono, Christanti; Pusposendjojo, Nursamsi; Sismindari, Sismindari
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 12, No 1 (2006)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.11964

Abstract

Phyllosphere is one of habitat of yeast and the other microorganism included an antagonistic microorganism. The antagonistic yeasts have been isolated from watermelon phyllosphere on YM Agar medium. There are 30 isolates of yeast have been found. The pure culture of virulent isolate 115 of C. lagenarium used for testing the antagonistic ability of yeast isolates. Two yeast isolates namely K10 and K15 have highest ability to inhibit growth and development of C. lagenarium colony. From microscopic observation, the isolates K10 and K15 caused deflated on C. lagenarium hyphe. The result of identification of K10 is Candida sp. and K15 is Sirobasidium sp.
Ekstraksi, Karakterisasi dan Daya Penghambatan Kitosan Alami terhadap Jamur Colletotrichum musae secara In Vitro Pamekas, Tunjung; Sumardiyono, Christanti; Pusposendjojo, Nursamsi; Indradewa, Didik
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 15, No 1 (2009)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.11764

Abstract

In order to enhance food safety, the use of chemical pesticides on agriculture must be minimized, especially on postharvest processing. One of the alternative ways is the use of natural chitosan. Chitosan has good prospect as an alternative compound to chemical pesticides to be used on postharvest processing for agriculture products which are potential as exported commodity, such as banana cv. Ambon Curup, exotic fruit from Bengkulu. The aims of this research were to extract and characterize chitosan and to evaluate the inhibition of chitosan to Colletotrichum musae. Methods of experiment were (1) extraction of chitosan, (2) characterization of chitosan, and (3) inhibition test of chitosan to the pathogen in vitro. The parameters observed were the growth and colour of colony, the measurement and density of conidia and the dry weight of mycelium. The result indicated that the texture of chitosan were flake-powder with white-brownish colour, had a little bit odor of fish and pH were 7.5–13. The deacetylated degree of chitosan were around 74.27–75.64%. The in vitro test indicated that the kind of chitosan treatments gave no significant effect to the growth and colony colour, the measurement and density of conidia and the dry weight of mycelium. However the concentration of chitosan treatments were significantly effect all parameters. The chitosan on 20 mg/ml could inhibit the colony growth up to 81.20%, the conidial density up to 46.5%, the measurement of conidia up to 19.4%, and the dry weight of mycelium up to 59.46%. Chitosan had no effect to the colour of fungal colony. Dalamrangkameningkatkan keamanan pangan, penggunaan pestisida kimiawi dalambidang pertanian, khususnya pada proses penanganan pascapanen, harus diminimalisir. Salah satu alternatifnya adalah penggunaan senyawa alami kitosan yang berasal dari limbah perikanan yang sangat banyak tersedia diIndonesia. Kitosan memiliki prospek yang baik untuk digunakan sebagai pengganti penggunaan pestisida kimiwi dalam proses penanganan pascapanen produk pertanian yang berpotensi ekspor,seperti buah pisangAmbonCurup, yang merupakan buah eksotik dariBengkulu. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengekstraksi dan mengkarakterisasi kitosan dari limbah perikanan, serta mengevaluasi daya penghambatan kitosan terhadap patogen pascapanenColletotrichum musae. Metode penelitian yang dilakukan meliputi: (1) ekstraksi kitosan, (2) karakterisasi kitosan, dan (3) uji daya penghambatan kitosan terhadap patogen secara in vitro. Parameter yang diamati adalah luas koloni, warna koloni, kerapatan dan ukuran konidia,serta berat kering miselium jamur patogen.Dari proses ekstraksi diperoleh kitosan dengan tekstur serpihan-tepung dengan warna putih hingga kecoklatan dan sedikit berbau amis, dengan tingkat keasaman kitosan berkisar 7,5–13. Derajat deasetilisasi kitosan berkisar dari 74,27–75,64% yang berarti semua jenis kitosan memiliki tingkat kemurnian yang hampir sama. Hasil uji in vitro menunjukkan bahwa jenis kitosan tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap luas dan warna koloni, kerapatan dan ukuran konidia, serta berat kering miselium jamur patogen. Namun perlakuan konsentrasi kitosan berpengaruh nyata terhadap semua parameter pengamatan tersebut. Pemberian kitosan pada konsentrasi 20mg/ml mampu menghambat luas koloni patogen hingga 81,20%; kerapatan konidia hingga 46,5%; ukuran konidia hingga 19,4%; dan berat kering miselium hingga 59,46%. Warna koloni juga tidak dipengaruhi oleh perlakuan kitosan.
DAYA ANTIMIKROBA METABOLIT BIOAKTIF JAMUR SHIITAKE (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler) YANG DIKULTUR PADA TIGA JENIS MEDIUM FERMENTASI Ekowati, Nuraeni; Kasiamdari, Rina Sri; Pusposendjojo, Nursamsi; Soegihardjo, C.J.
Majalah Obat Tradisional Vol 16, No 3 (2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/tradmedj.8050

Abstract

Jamur shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler) merupakan salah satu jamur yang berpotensi sebagai jamur pangan dan bahan obat (edible and medicinal mushroom). Kultivasi pada medium cair dengan proses fermentasi telah dikembangkan selama beberapa tahun terakhir ini. Empat isolat L. edodes (isolat asal Malang, Cianjur, Lembang dan Yogyakarta) dikultur pada tiga jenis medium fermentasi yaitu (KM: Kauffman Medium; GYMT: Glucose, Yeast extract,  Malt extract, Thiamin; YEMR: Yeast extract,  Malt extract,  Rice bran). Metabolit bioaktif yang diekstrak dari biomassa miselium dan filtrat kultur hasil fermentasi diuji menggunakan mikroba patogen Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Candida albicans ATCC 10231,dan  Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Data diameter zona  hambat dianalisis menggunakan analisis ragam, dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan pada tingkat kesalahan 5 %. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa senyawa bioaktif dalam filtrat kultur maupun biomassa miselium L.edodes yang diekstrak menggunakan kloroform, etil asetat dan air, mampu menghambat S. aureus, E.coli dan C. albicans tetapi tidak mampu menghambat T.mentagrophytes. Isolat L.edodes asal Lembang dan Yogyakarta yang dikultur pada medium Kauffman memberikan hasil zona hambat terbaik (24,97-31,14 mm). Mikroba uji yang paling sensitif terhadap senyawa bioaktif dari L. edodes adalah C. albicans diikuti oleh E.coli, S. aureus dan T. mentagrophytes. Metabolit bioaktif dari L. edodes berpotensi menghambat mikroba patogen dari kelompok bakteri dan khamir tetapi tidak menghambat jamur.  
VIRULENSI 9 ISOLAT FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP. LYCOPERSICI DAN PERKEMBANGAN GEJALA LAYU FUSARIUM PADA DUA VARIETAS TOMAT DI RUMAH KACA Ambar, Abdul Azis; Priyatmojo, Achmadi; Hadisutrisno, Bambang; Pusposendjojo, Nursamsi
Agrin : Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Vol 14, No 2 (2010): Agrin
Publisher : Jenderal Soedirman University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20884/1.agrin.2010.14.2.104

Abstract

Penyakit layu fusarium disebabkan oleh Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol), merupakan penyakitpenting tomat. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui tingkat virulensi Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici darilokasi berbeda pada varietas Roma dan Money Maker, dan perkembangan penyakit layu fusarium di rumahkaca. Penelitian ini menggunakan suspensi Fol hasil monospora (1 x 107 konidium/ml air steril) dan tomat yangberumur 4 minggu. Akar direndam dalam suspensi Fol selama 30 menit, kemudian di tanam dalam pot yangtelah berisi campuran tanah dan pupuk. Hasil uji virulensi Fol isolat (A1) dan (A2) memperlihatkan virulensitinggi pada 2 varietas tomat yaitu (78%; 75%) untuk Roma dan (92%; 85%) untuk Money Maker. Keduaperlakuan tersebut berbeda nyata dengan kontrol. Rata-rata virulensi isolat Fol pada varietas Roma lebih rendah(< 50%) dibanding varietas Money Maker (> 50%). Hasil ini mengindikasikan bahwa varietas Roma lebih tahandibanding varietas Money Maker. Hasil pengamatan untuk perkembangan gejala layu fusarium di rumah kacaberupa menguningnya kotiledon kemudian kotiledon layu, diikuti mengeringnya ujung daun pertama. Gejalaberlanjut, mengering sampai gugurnya kotiledon yang diiringi dengan awal menguningnya daun, semua ujungdaun kering dan daun menguning, dan akhirnya daun layu. Gejala lain tampak dari penelitian adalah pengerdilantanaman pada kedua varietas.Kata kunci: virulensi fol, perkembangan gejala layu, varietas tomat ABSTRACTFusarium wilt diseases caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) as important diseases ontomato. The aim of research was to know the levef of Fol virulence from 9 different origin (Centra Java, SouthSulawesi, and DI. Yogyakarta) and development of fusarium wilt diseases in green house. Monosporic colonysuspension (1x 107 conidia/ml) are used in this research. The test of virulence by pouring the monosporicsuspension of Fol isolates for 30 minutes on both varieties Roma and Money Maker were 4 weeks old. The resultshowed that A1 and A2 isolates more severity (78% and75% on Roma variety) and (92% and 85% on MoneyMaker variety) than other isolates. Amount of virulence showed Roma variety (< 50%) lower than MoneyMaker variety (> 50%). This result indicated that Roma variety more resistant than Money Maker variety. Theobservation of fusarium wilt development showed that early symptom of yellow – wilt cotyledont followed withdry of leaf tip. By the time, development of symptom was cotyledon senesence to followed yellow of leaf and theend wilt. The other symptom was inhibition of plant growth on tomato.Key words: fol virulency, development of wilt symptom, tomato variety
Hubungan Kekerabatan Fenetik Jamur Shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler) berdasarkan Karakter Morfologi Ekowati, Nuraeni; Kasiamdari, Rina Sri; Pusposendjojo, Nursamsi; Soegihardjo, C. J.
Majalah Ilmiah Biologi BIOSFERA: A Scientific Journal Vol 28, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Fakultas Biologi | Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20884/1.mib.2011.28.2.267

Abstract

Phenetic relationship of shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler) cultivated in Indonesia especially in Java is still undisclosed. In order to increase adaptability and high production most of cultivators in Indonesia make inter-isolates breeding. Consequently  L. edodes isolates grown in Indonesia may have morphological and genetic diversity. Diversity among the isolates of L.edodes can be determined by morphological and molecular assessments. Isolates originating from different locations can show specific morphological characters, and requires more in-depth assessment of the macroscopic and microscopic morphological characters. Four  L.edodes isolates from Malang, Cianjur, Lembang and Yogyakarta were understudy to determine their morphological characters and phenetic relationship. Degree of similarity between the isolates was carried out through numerical taxonomy approach and the data obtained were analyzed using the Numerical taxonomy program and multivariate analysis system, version 2.1. The results showed that there was diversity of morphology of the four isolates and based on the results of data analysis obtained, the degree of similarity between the isolates ranged between 83-95%. Isolates of L. edodes from Malang to Cianjur showed the closest phenetic relationship (95%) and isolates from Malang to Yogyakarta showed the most distant phenetic relationship (83%). Based on the morphological characters obtained from this research revealed the diversity and phenetic relationship among the four isolates of L. edodes.