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ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY TESTING OF N-HEXANE FRACTION OF RED DRAGON (Hylocereus polyrhizus Britton & Rose) FRUIT PEEL ON Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 Amalia, Sri; Wahdaningsih, Sri; Untari, Eka Kartika
Majalah Obat Tradisional Vol 19, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (971.716 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/mot-TradMedJ19iss2pp89-94

Abstract

Penggunaan antibiotik yang tidak sesuai menyebabkan mikroorganisme patogen menjadi resisten sehingga pengobatan infeksi menjadi tidak efektif. Salah satu bakteri yang saat ini mengalami resistensi adalah Staphylococcus aureus. Penemuan senyawa antibiotik baru yang belum mengalami resistensi menjadi solusi untuk mengatasi permasalahan ini. Kulit buah naga merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus) merupakan salah satu tanaman yang memiliki aktivitas antibakteri. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui aktivitas dan diameter zona hambat yang dihasilkan fraksi n-heksan kulit buah naga merah terhadap bakteri Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 2593. Kulit buah naga merah dimaserasi menggunakan kloroform, kemudian difraksinasi dengan pelarut n-heksan. Hasil fraksinasi diuji aktivitas antibakteri menggunakan metode Disc Diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) dengan variasi konsentrasi 20 dan 40 mg/mL. Kontrol positif yang digunakan adalah ampisilin dan kontrol negatif yang digunakan adalah Dimetil sulfoksida (DMSO). Berdasarkan skrining fitokimia fraksi n-heksan kulit buah naga merah mengandung terpenoid dan alkaloid. Zona hambat yang dihasilkan oleh konsentrasi 40 mg/mL adalah 12,80±1,69 mm dan konsentrasi 20 mg/mL adalah 11,17±1,11 mm. 
PENGARUH PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN BUAS-BUAS (Premna cordifolia. LINN) TERHADAP KADAR MDA TIKUS WISTAR JANTAN PASCA PAPARAN ASAP ROKOK Adyttia, Asri; Untari, Eka Kartika; Wahdaningsih, Sri
Jurnal Fitofarmaka Indonesia Vol 1, No 2 (2014): JURNAL FITOFARMAKA INDONESIA
Publisher : FAKULTAS FARMASI UNIVERSITAS MUSLIM INDONESIA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (763.344 KB)

Abstract

Free radical from cigarrete smoke can cause lipid peroxidation that could lead to tissue damage. Tissue damage can be identified by increased levels of MDA (Malondialdehyde). Leavesof buas-buas (Premna cordifolia. Linn) has an antioxidant activity in invitro study. This study aimed to analyze the effect of P. cordifolia leaves extract on the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) after exposure to cigarette smoke. The simplicia extracted by maseration using 70% ethanol. Twenty four  wistar strain of Rattus novergicus were divided into six groups , i.e. : normal group without any treatment, positive control group with cigarette smoke exposure and vitamin e treatment, negative control groupwith only cigarette smoke exposure, treatment groupwith cigarette smoke exposure and ethanolic extract from P. cordifolialeaves with doses 200; 400; 600 mg/kg of body weight/day. All rats were treated for 14 days using 3 cigarette non filetered each day. After 14 days, plasma MDA was measured in this research. Measurement of plasma MDA are using Spectrophotometer UV-Vis in 532.2 nm. MDA level in this study was analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test. The result showed that plasma MDA level of groupreceived ethanol extract of P. cordifolia leaves doses at 600 mg/kg of body weight/day significantly (p<0.05)lower than negative control group and not significantly differ (p<0.05) to normal group and positive control group.
Pengaruh Pemberian Fraksi Metanol Kulit Buah Naga Merah (Hylocerecus polyhizus) Terhadap Kadar Malondialdehid Pada Tikus (Rattus novergicus) Wistar Yang Mengalami Stres Oksidatif Wahdaningsih, Sri; Untari, Eka Kartika
JURNAL PHARMASCIENCE Vol 3, No 1 (2016): JURNAL PHARMASCIENCE
Publisher : JURNAL PHARMASCIENCE

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Abstract

Produksi radikal bebas berlebihan dalam tubuh dapat menyebabkan stres oksidatif. Salah satu indikator stres oksidatif pada manusia adalah kadar Malondialdehid (MDA). Kulit Hylocereus polyrhizus berpotensi sebagai antioksidan eksogen alami. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui efek fraksi metanol kulit H. polyhizus terhadap kadar MDA dan mengetahui dosis fraksi metanol kulit H. polyhizus yang dapat menurunkan kadar MDA. Kulit H. polyhizus dimaserasi menggunakan kloroform p.a, kemudian difraksinasi dengan pelarut metanol. Kadar MDA diukur menggunakan Spektrofotometer UV-Vis pada panjang gelombang 532 nm. Tikus dibagi menjadi 7 kelompok yaitu kontrol normal, kontrol negatif, kontrol positif vitamin E(18 mg/ kgBB), kontrol positif kuersetin (4 mg/ 200gBB), dosis I (5 mg/ 200gBB), Dosis II (10 mg/ 200gBB) dan dosis III (20 mg/ 200gBB). Setiap kelompok terdiri dari 4 ekor tikus dan diberikan stres oksidatif berupa perenangan 10 menit perhari dan puasa pakan selama 5 hari. Analisis data dilakukan dengan menggunakan One way ANOVA dan uji LSD (Least Significant Difference). Hasil analisis data kadar rata-rata MDA pada kelompok normal, negatif, vitamin E, kuersetin, dosis I,II dan III berturut-turut adalah 0,042; 0,051; 0,034; 0,042; 0,037; 0,033; 0,030 µg/ml. Dosis fraksi metanol kulit H. polyhizus berpotensi sebagai antioksidan karena dapat menurunkan kadar malondialdehid pada tikus yang mengalami stres oksidatif.   Kata Kunci : Stres oksidatif, Malondialdehid, Antioksidan, Hylocereus polyrhizus, Metanol
Immunostimulant activity of soybean milk against immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA) and lymphocyte cells proliferation of Balb/c mice induced hepatitis A Sasmito, Ediati; Mulyaningsih, Sri; Untari, Eka Kartika; Widyaningrum, Ratna
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 17 No 3, 2006
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (195.137 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp156-161

Abstract

Soybean milk contains of isoflavon aglycon as genestein and rich of proteins. The genestein of soybean milk potentially has antitumor/anticancer, antivirus, antiallergic activities and immunity responses. The aim of this research was to evaluate the immunostimulant activity of soybean milk against immunoglobulin (IgG and IgA) and lymphocyte cells proliferation in Balb/c mice induced by hepatitis A. The test was done at 3 groups of 5 Balb/c mice. Each group was consummed orally with soybean milk(group I) dose of 0.7mL/20g/BW, levamisole (group II, as positif control) dose of 0,45 mg/0.7mL/20g/BW, and water (group III, as negative control) dose of 0.7mL/20g/BW, once a day, through out of the research. On the day of 7, 28 and boostered on the day of 43, all groups were induced intra peritoneally by hepatitis A dose of 5.24 IU/20g/BW. The serum were collected from plexus retroorbitalis by heparinized cappilary on the day of 14, 35 and 46, for IgG and IgA measured by ELISA method, and then the mice were sacrificed to isolate the lymphocytes of spleen. The lymphocyte cells proliferation measured by MTT-reduction method. The result shown that IgG and IgA increased significantly (p<0,05) against levamisole and water at the day-46, but did not increase significantly (p>0,05) against lymphocyte cells proliferation concerning with soybean milk consumed. It can be concluded that the immunostimulatory activity soybean milk was against humoral immunity, instead of seluler immunity.Key words : soybean milk, immunoglobulin, lymphocyte cells, hepatitis A, levamisole
Efek Fraksi n-Heksana Kulit Hylocereus polyrhizus Terhadap Aktivitas Katalase Tikus Stres Oksidatif Untari, Eka Kartika; Wahdaningsih, Sri; Damayanti, Agustia
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 1, No 3 (2014)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (33.792 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/psr.v1i3.3489

Abstract

Production of excessive free radicals can cause oxidative damage and degenerative diseases. Catalase enzyme is one of the endogenous intracellular antioxidants. Its activity can be reduced by oxidative stress conditions. The peel of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) as a potent exogenous antioxidant could support the internal enzyme activity to prevent free radicals. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of n-hexane fraction of H. polyrhizus’s peel and the dose that could increase the activity of catalase. The peel was maserated with chloroform, then fractionated by n-hexane. Stress condition for rats was achieved by five days fasting and swimming for 10 mins/day. UV-Vis spectrophotometer was used to measure the activity of catalase. The rats were divided into 6 groups: normal control, negative control, dose I (10 mg/200g BW), dose II (40 mg/200g BW), as well as two positive controls: quercetin (4 mg/200g BW) and vitamin E (17.64 mg/kg BW). The activity of catalase enzyme in the normal control was 29.4 units/ml; negative control was 7.08 units/ml; dose I was 14.42 units/ml; dose II was 14.79 units/ml, quercetin was 28.18 units/ml; and vitamin E was 71.29 units/ml. The conclusion of this research was that n-hexane fraction of H. polyrhizus could increase the activity of the catalase enzyme of rat under oxidative stress.  
Antibakteri Fraksi n-Heksana Kulit Hylocereus polyrhizus Terhadap Staphylococcus epidermidis dan Propionibacterium acnes Wardaningsih, Sri; Untari, Eka Kartika; Fauziah, Yunita
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 1, No 3 (2014)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (56.32 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/psr.v1i3.3490

Abstract

Acne can be caused by Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Using antibiotic for the acne theraphy in a long term period can cause resistance, organ detriment and imunohypersensitivity. Red dragon fruit’s peel (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is one of natural materials which can be used for alternative antibacterial. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of n-Hexane fraction of red dragon fruit’s peel against S. epidermidis dan P. acnes with the method of disc diffusion Kirby-Bauer. Red dragon fruit’s peel powder was macerated with chloroform and then fractionated with n-Hexane. The result of phytochemical screening showed that red dragon fruit’s peel contained terpenoid and alkaloid. Clindamycin 4µg/disk was used for positive control while DMSO 10% was used for negative control. Data was analyzed using R-Commander program 3.0.3 version. This research showed that n-Hexane fraction of red dragon fruit’s peel had antibacterial activity against P. acnes where the average zone of inhibition obtained from the concentrations of 20; 40; and 80 mg/mL were 9 mm; 10,25 mm; and 10,5 mm, respectively. However, n-Hexane fraction of red dragon fruit’s peel didn’t have antibacterial activity against S. epidermidis.  
Potensi Ekstrak Etanol Daun Petai (Parkia speciosa Hassk.) Terhadap Kadar Superoksida Dismutase (SOD) pada Plasma Tikus yang Mengalami Stres Oksidatif Butarbutar, Ruth Haryanti; Robiyanto, Robiyanto; Untari, Eka Kartika
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 3, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (15.562 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/psr.v3i3.3539

Abstract

Cigarette smoke is free radicals superoxide resources that contains, hydrogen peroxide, hidrosil and peroksil. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzymatic antioxidant that protect cells from oxidative stress by catalize superoxide dismutase (O2*) into O2 and H2O2. The aimed of this study was to determine the potential of ethanolic extract of petai leaves against plasma SOD enzyme activity in animals that was exposed by cigarette smoke. The extract was made by maseration method using ethanol 96%. Thirty-six rats Sprague Dawley strain were divided into six groups:  normal group was not given treatment, negative group received 10% CMC-Na, positive control group received vitamin E, and treatment group received ethanolic extract of petai leaves 50; 100; 250 mg/kgBW of mice. All rats were treated for 14 days. SOD activity was measured by UV-Visible spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 505 nm. Statistical analysis using One Way ANOVA. The mean value of SOD activity for normal, negative control, positive control and the group receiving the ethanolic extract of petai leaves dose of 50; 100; 250 mg/kg in a row is 37.979 ± 3708; 59.932 ± 3085; 48.552 ± 1234; 57.239 ± 2102; 50.774 ± 1632; 59.124 ± 4849. The result showed ethanolic extract of petai leaves affected on the activity of SOD was dose of 100 mg/kg.
Efek Ekstrak Etanol Daun Premna cordifolia terhadap Malondialdehida Tikus yang Dipapar Asap Rokok Adyttia, Asri; Untari, Eka Kartika; Wahdaningsih, Sri
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 1, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (14.096 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/psr.v1i2.3302

Abstract

Free radicals from cigarrete smoke cause lipid peroxidation that can be identified with increasing levels of Malondialdehida (MDA). Premna cordifolia leaves are known having antioxidant activity in in vitro study. This study aimed to know the effect of P. cordifolia leaves extract on the levels of MDA after exposure to cigarette smoke. The simplicia was extracted with maseration method using 70% ethanol. Twenty four male wistar rats were divided into six groups, i.e.: normal control, negative control, positive control which recieved cigarette smoke exposure and vitamin E (18mg/kg BW), as well as the other three groups which recieved cigarette smoke exposure and P. cordifolia leaves extract with doses of 200; 400; 600 mg/kg BW. All rats were treated for 14 days. MDA level was measured using Spectrophotometer UV-Vis at the wavelenght of 532,2 nm. MDA levels in the normal group was 0.0094±0.080 ppm; negative group was 13,733±2,829 ppm; positive group was 0,051±0,045 ppm; and doses of 200; 400; 600 mg/kg BW were 9,142±2,364; 0,120±0,019; 0,053±0,041 ppm, respectively. The MDA level was analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test and then Mann-Whitney test. The result showed that MDA levels of groups receiving P. cordifolia leaves extract were significantly (p>0,05) lower than negative control group. These results showed that P. cordifolia leaves extract could reduce the MDA level on the rats which recieved cigarette smoke exposure.  
Efek Fraksi n-Heksana Kulit Hylocereus polyrhizus Terhadap Kadar Malondialdehida Tikus Stres Oksidatif Sari, Wirna Maya; Wahdaningsih, Sri; Untari, Eka Kartika
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 1, No 3 (2014)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (37.376 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/psr.v1i3.3487

Abstract

Excessive free radical production will lead to oxidative stress. One of the indicators used to determine stress oxidative is malondialdehyde (MDA). Hylocereus polyrhizus peel is potential to be used as a natural exogenous antioxidant. The aim of this research was to study the effect of n-hexane fraction of H. polyrhizus peel on MDA level and to determine the dose that could reduce the MDA level. H. polyrhizus peel was macerated with chloroform and fractionated with n-hexane. Rats were divided into 7 groups: normal control, negative control, positive control of vitamin E (18 mg/ kg BW), positive control of quercetin (4 mg/200g BW), as well as three H. polyrhizus peel extract groups treated with dose I (10mg/ 200g BW), dose II (20 mg/200g BW) and dose III (40 mg/200g BW). Each group was consisted of 4 rats and was induced to oxidative stress with 10 minute swimming each day and food restriction for 5 days. The measurement of MDA level used Spectrophotometer UV-Vis at the wavelenght of 532 nm. MDA levels were analyzed using One way Anova and LSD test. The data showed that MDA level at normal, negative, positive vitamin E, positive quercetin, dose I, II, III group were 0.042; 0.051; 0.034; 0.042; 0.038; 0.039; 0.042 µg/ml, respectively. The n-hexane fraction of H. polyrhizus peel was a potent antioxidant because it could lower the MDA level in rats with stress oxidative conditon.  
PENGARUH PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN BAWANG MEKAH (Eleutherine Americana Merr.) TERHADAP KADAR MALONDIALDEHYDE TIKUS WISTAR (Rattus norvegicus) JANTAN PASCA PAPARAN ASAP ROKOK Andiriyani, Melda Mery; Untari, Eka Kartika; Wahdaningsih, Sri
Jurnal Fitofarmaka Indonesia Vol 1, No 2 (2014): JURNAL FITOFARMAKA INDONESIA
Publisher : FAKULTAS FARMASI UNIVERSITAS MUSLIM INDONESIA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (763.344 KB)

Abstract

Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a biomarker of lipid peroxidation that is closely correlated with level of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to know ethanol extract activities from E. americana leaves against blood plasma MDA in male Wistar rats exposed by cigarette smoke using tiobarbituric acid test. The simplicia extracted by maseration using 70% ethanol. Twenty four rats were divided into six groups, i.e. : a normal group, an exposed cigarette smoke (negative) control group, a positive control group and three treatment groups. One normal group received carboxyl methyl cellulose and another groups exposed cigarette smoke during 14 days. Positive control group received vitamin E (18mg/kg BW), and another groups received ethanol extract of E. americana leaves doses 180; 90; 45mg/kg BW, respectively. The MDA level was analysed by spectrophotometer UV-Visible in 532,2 nm. The MDA level statically analysis by Kruskal-Wallis test and following by Mann-Whitney test. The mean MDA levels of normal group, negative control group, positive control group and groups received ethanol extract of E. americana leaves doses 180; 90; 45mg/kg BW were 0,11±0,09; 13,74±2,84; 0,06±0,03; 10,88±2,19; 0,13±0,03; 0,03±0,02 ppm. The mean MDA levels of groups received ethanol extract of E. americana leaves doses at 180; 90mg/kg BW significantly (p<0,05) lower than negative control group. These results show the beneficial effect of ethanol extract of E. americana leaves in the MDA level reducing on the rats that exposed by cigarette.