Tomohiro Kotaki, Tomohiro
Center for Infectious Disease, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine

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The Prevalence of Human Immunodefiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) Subtypes and Transmission Method among HIV/AIDS Infection Patient in Tulungagung, East Java Indonesia Ardianto, Achmad; Khairunisa, Siti Qamariyah; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Witaningrum, Adiana Mutamsari; Qushay, M.; Juniastuti, Juniastuti; Rahayu, Retno Pudji; Widiyanti, Prihartini; Utomo, Budi; Lusida, Maria Inge; Nasronudin, Nasronudin
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 5, No 5 (2015)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Abstract

The rapid epidemic growth of HIV is continuing in Indonesia. There are some factors which have influenced the spreading of this epidemic in Indonesia, such as the poor awareness to avoid unsafe free sex attitude and the sharing of needles and syringes among intravenous drug users (IDUs). The sexual transmission of HIV has also apparently increased in Tulungagung. Commercial sex workers play a significant role in the spread of HIV in Tulungagung. People in Tulungagung have worked at other countries as Indonesian migrants. This condition can cause the increase number of HIV-1 case and the possibility of genetic variation (subtype) HIV-1 in Tulungagung. This research is aimed to analyze the subtype and to determine estimation of transmission mode on infected patient of HIV-1 and AIDS who came to Seruni clinic Dr. Iskak hospital in Tulungagung. 40 HIV?AIDSpatients were interviewed to determine the subtype and the transmission mode. The results showed that 14 of 40 plasma samples (35%) were successfully to amplified and sequenced. OverallCRF01-AE wereidentified as predominant subtype among HIV/AIDS patients in Tulungagung. Based on individual information, 31 of 40 subjects (77%) were heterosexual transmission.
SERO-EPIDEMIOLOGY OF DENGUE VIRUS INFECTION IN CITIES OF INDONESIA Soegijanto, Soegeng; Mulyanto, Kris Cahyo; Churotin, Siti; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Kamioka, Masa Nori; Konichi, Eiji; Yamanaka, Atsusi; Wikanesthi, Dyah
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 4, No 4 (2013)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Abstract

Background: Dengue Virus Infektion is major public health problem in Indonesia. Aedesaegypti is widespread in both urban and rural areas, where multiple virus Serotype are circulating. On 2013 outbreak of dengue virus infection occur in East Java. Therefore study seroepidemiology in Bangkalan and Lombok had been done. Aim: to find a mutated strain of Dengue Virus in 4 cities of Indonesia. Method: On 2011 and 2012 seroepidemiology study had been done in Dr. Soetomo Surabaya and Soerya Sidoarjo Hospital; and on  2013 study had been done in Surabaya, Bangkalan and Lombok Hospital . Diagnosis of Dengue Virus Infection was based on Criteri WHO - 2009. Virus isolation in Surabaya, Sidoarjo, Bangkalan and Lombok had been done. Result: a total of 349 isolate were obtained from dengue patients sera collected in Surabaya and Sidoarjo, 2011–2012 showed that Den V1 (182), Den V2 (20) Den V4 (1) were found in Surabaya on 2011 and Den V 1 (79) , Den V 2 (7) were found in Surabaya on 2012; Den V1 (40), Den V 2 (3) were found in Sidoarjo on 2011 and Den V 1 (17) were found in Sidoarjo on 2012; Virus isolation in Surabaya on 2013, January: 237 serum sample were collected, found Den V 1 (8), Den V 3 (2) and Den V 4 (5). And PCR stereotyping of isolated viruses in Madura found Den V 1 (1) and Den V 4 (23). In Lombok found Den V 4 (4).It is possible to shift predominant strain in Surabaya , Genotype or Serotype shift might increase the number of dengue patients. Conclusion: there were shift predominant strain in Surabaya especially Den V 1. Therefore to continuous surveillance of circulating viruses is required to predict the risk of DHF and DF.
ANALYSI S ON SECONDARY I NFECTI ON- TRI GGERI NG MICROORGANISMS IN HIV/AIDS PATIENTS AS A MODEL FOR POLICY CONTROL Rahayu, Retno Pudji; Nasronudin, Nasronudin; Indrawati, Retno; Widiyanti, Prihartini; Lukito, Bimo Dwi; Ferdiansyah, Ferdiansyah; Khairunisa, Siti Qomariyah; Kotaki, Tomohiro
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 5, No 4 (2014)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Abstract

HIV infection is associated with immune-compromised and rising in opportunistic infection (secondary infection). Therefore, the number of mortality caused by HIV/AIDS is increasing. The use of ARV and development of HIV/AIDS management are expected to suppress the progress of HIV infection into AIDS and, therefore, the mortality can be diminished, while in fact most of the patients eventually suffer from AIDS due to secondary infection that commonly causes death. There should be a management by analysing microorganisms that trigger secondary infection. The method of this study was observational descriptive with cross sectional design. HIV infected blood samples were using ELISA Antibody (IgG and IgM) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on laboratory test. The result showed correlation between HIV/AIDS severity and the amount and types of secondary infection. The most common secondaryinfections were toxoplasm (96.77%), hepatitis C (22.58%), tuberculosis (19.35%), and hepatitis B (3.22%). Other less frequent secondary infections, which were quite difficult to diagnose and not commonly found in Indonesia, were West Nile Virus (25.81%), Japanese Encephalitis Virus (3.22%), and Enterovirus (3.22%). Due to MDGs (Millenium Development Goals) target and the results above, researchers are highly demanded to contribute in decreasing mortality related to AIDS through early detection of secondary infection,including type of infection which have not been commonly found in Indonesia, such as West Nile Virus and Nipah Virus. The discovery of secondary infection in this study was not enough to suppress the occurrence of infection in HIV/AIDS patients. Antimicrobes and good nutrition are required. Moreover, there should be either a primary or secondary prophylaxis to prevent secondary infection that raises the number of mortality and morbidity of HIV/AIDS patients. The result of this study was to meet the target of MDGs by establishing new policies in handling HIV/AIDS infections and have potential as model for policy control in HIV/AIDS.
AWARENESS OF USING RINGER LACTAT SOLUTION IN DENGUE VIRUS INFECTION CASES COULD INDUCE SEVERITY Soegijanto, Soegeng; Sari, Desiana W.; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Kameoka, Masanori; Konishi, Eiji
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 4, No 4 (2013)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Abstract

Background: In 2012, serotype of Dengue Virus had changed from Den-2 and Den-3 to Den-1. In 5–10 years ago, serotype of Den-1 case showed a mild clinical manifestation; but now as a primary case it can also show severe clinical manifestation. One of indicator is an increasing liver enzyme, AST and ALT, with level more than 100–200 U/L. Aim: To getting a better solutions for this problem. Method: Obsevasional Study had been done in medical faculty of Airlangga University (Dr. Soetomo and Soerya hospital) Surabaya on Mei–August 2012. There were 10 cases of dengue virus infection were studied, 5 cases got Ringer Acetate solution (Group A) and 5 cases got Ringer Lactate solution (Group B). The diagnosis was based on criteria WHO 2009. Result: Five cases of Dengue Virus Infection had showed a liver damage soon after using Ringer Lactate solution; AST and ALT were increasing more than 100–200 U/L; but the other 5 cases showed better condition. It might be due to use Ringer Acetate that did not have effect for inducing liver damage. By managing carefully, all of the cases had shown full recovery and healthy condition when being discharged. Conclusion: Using Ringer Acetate as fluid therapy in Dengue Virus Infection is better to prevent liver damage than using Ringer Lactate.
Molecular Surveillance of Dengue Virus Serotype Using Polymerase Chain Reaction in Surabaya 2013 Sucipto, Teguh Hari; Labiqah, Amaliah; Churrotin, Siti; Ahwanah, Nur; Mulyatno, Kris Cahyo; Soegijanto, Soegeng; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Kameoka, Masanori; Konishi, Eiji
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 5, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Abstract

Dengue is one of the infectious diseases which is endemic in the tropical and sub-tropical country. The disease found in Indonesia Surabaya, 1968. The symptoms of Dengue virus infections are two kinds, first DF (Dengue Fever), second DHF (Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever). This infectious disease transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito. Mosquitoes breed in clean water areas. More than 100,000 cases of DF/DHF ccurred in Indonesia every year. The purpose of this study were to provide information and the spread of dengue virus types in Surabaya from January 2013 to September 2013. The nalysis technique used to determine the type of dengue virus nfectionwas used PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). The results obtained 69% DENV-1, 27% DENV-2 isolates, 4% isolates DENV-3, and 0% DENV-4 isolates.
Differences of Universal and Multiplex Primer for Detection of Dengue Virus from Patients Suspected Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) in Surabaya Ansori, Arif; Sucipto, Teguh; Deka, Pemta; Ahwanah, Nur; Churrotin, Siti; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Soegijanto, Soegeng
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 5, No 6 (2015)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Abstract

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is a global health problem in tropical and subtropical regions, as well as endemic in110 countries around the world. Indonesia is one of the largest countries in the region of endemic dengue. In Indonesia, dengue virus infection has become a contagious disease that was very important and was reported in 1968. Many molecular epidemiological approaches have been developed to look for factor that has been assumed as the cause of the increase of prevalence dengue virus infection in the world. The aim of this study is for the detection and determination of serotype of dengue virus in Surabaya. The method used was the technique of Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with specific primers for dengue virus. Samples suspected DHF patients were obtained from various health center and hospital in Surabaya. Results of this research detected negative result for dengue virus in all samples of patients suspected DHF. Negative results caused by dengue virus titers in serum samples of patients who had been dropped due to long storage time and taken after the third day of fever in early period.
ANALYSI S ON SECONDARY I NFECTI ON- TRI GGERI NG MICROORGANISMS IN HIV/AIDS PATIENTS AS A MODEL FOR POLICY CONTROL Rahayu, Retno Pudji; Nasronudin, Nasronudin; Indrawati, Retno; Widiyanti, Prihartini; Lukito, Bimo Dwi; Ferdiansyah, Ferdiansyah; Khairunisa, Siti Qomariyah; Mutamsari, Adiana; Kotaki, Tomohiro
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 5, No 4 (2015)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (262.927 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/ijtid.v5i4.2016

Abstract

HIV infection is associated with immune-compromised and rising in opportunistic infection (secondary infection). Therefore, the number of mortality caused by HIV/AIDS is increasing. The use of ARV and development of HIV/AIDS management are expected to suppress the progress of HIV infection into AIDS and, therefore, the mortality can be diminished, while in fact most of the patients eventually suffer from AIDS due to secondary infection that commonly causes death. There should be a management by analysing microorganisms that trigger secondary infection. The method of this study was observational descriptive with cross sectional design. HIV infected blood samples were using ELISA Antibody (IgG and IgM) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on laboratory test. The result showed correlation between HIV/AIDS severity and the amount and types of secondary infection. The most common secondary infections were toxoplasm (96.77%), hepatitis C (22.58%), tuberculosis (19.35%), and hepatitis B (3.22%). Other less frequent secondary infections, which were quite difficult to diagnose and not commonly found in Indonesia, were West Nile Virus (25.81%), Japanese Encephalitis Virus (3.22%), and Enterovirus (3.22%). Due to MDGs (Millenium Development Goals) target and the results above, researchers are highly demanded to contribute in decreasing mortality related to AIDS through early detection of secondary infection,including type of infection which have not been commonly found in Indonesia, such as West Nile Virus and Nipah Virus. The discovery of secondary infection in this study was not enough to suppress the occurrence of infection in HIV/AIDS patients. Antimicrobes and good nutrition are required. Moreover, there should be either a primary or secondary prophylaxis to prevent secondary infection that raises the number of mortality and morbidity of HIV/AIDS patients. The result of this study was to meet the target of MDGs by establishing new policies in handling HIV/AIDS infections and have potential as model for policy control in HIV/AIDS.
THE PREVALENCE OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFIENCY VIRUS-1 (HIV-1) SUBTYPES AND TRANSMISSION METHOD AMONG HIV/AIDS INFECTION PATIENT IN TULUNGAGUNG, EAST JAVA INDONESIA Ardianto, Achmad; Khairunisa, Siti Qamariyah; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Witaningrum, Adiana Mutamsari; Qushay, M.; Juniastuti, Juniastuti; Rahayu, Retno Pudji; Widiyanti, Prihartini; Utomo, Budi; Lusida, Maria Inge; Nasronudin, Nasronudin
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 5, No 5 (2015)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (244.969 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/ijtid.v5i5.305

Abstract

The rapid epidemic growth of HIV is continuing in Indonesia. There are some factors which have influenced the spreading of this epidemic in Indonesia, such as the poor awareness to avoid unsafe free sex attitude and the sharing of needles and syringes among intravenous drug users (IDUs). The sexual transmission of HIV has also apparently increased in Tulungagung. Commercial sex workers play a significant role in the spread of HIV in Tulungagung. People in Tulungagung have worked at other countries as Indonesian migrants. This condition can cause the increase number of HIV-1 case and the possibility of genetic variation (subtype) HIV-1 in Tulungagung. This research is aimed to analyze the subtype and to determine estimation of transmission mode on infected patient of HIV-1 and AIDS who came to Seruni clinic Dr. Iskak hospital in Tulungagung. 40 HIV?AIDSpatients were interviewed to determine the subtype and the transmission mode. The results showed that 14 of 40 plasma samples (35%) were successfully to amplified and sequenced. OverallCRF01-AE wereidentified as predominant subtype among HIV/AIDS patients in Tulungagung. Based on individual information, 31 of 40 subjects (77%) were heterosexual transmission.
SERO-EPIDEMIOLOGY OF DENGUE VIRUS INFECTION IN CITIES OF INDONESIA Soegijanto, Soegeng; Mulyanto, Kris Cahyo; Churotin, Siti; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Kamioka, Masa Nori; Konichi, Eiji; Yamanaka, Atsusi; Wikanesthi, Dyah
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 4, No 4 (2013)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (371.429 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/ijtid.v4i4.229

Abstract

Background: Dengue Virus Infektion is major public health problem in Indonesia. Aedesaegypti is widespread in both urban and rural areas, where multiple virus Serotype are circulating. On 2013 outbreak of dengue virus infection occur in East Java. Therefore study seroepidemiology in Bangkalan and Lombok had been done. Aim: to find a mutated strain of Dengue Virus in 4 cities of Indonesia. Method: On 2011 and 2012 seroepidemiology study had been done in Dr. Soetomo Surabaya and Soerya Sidoarjo Hospital; and on  2013 study had been done in Surabaya, Bangkalan and Lombok Hospital . Diagnosis of Dengue Virus Infection was based on Criteri WHO - 2009. Virus isolation in Surabaya, Sidoarjo, Bangkalan and Lombok had been done. Result: a total of 349 isolate were obtained from dengue patients sera collected in Surabaya and Sidoarjo, 2011–2012 showed that Den V1 (182), Den V2 (20) Den V4 (1) were found in Surabaya on 2011 and Den V 1 (79) , Den V 2 (7) were found in Surabaya on 2012; Den V1 (40), Den V 2 (3) were found in Sidoarjo on 2011 and Den V 1 (17) were found in Sidoarjo on 2012; Virus isolation in Surabaya on 2013, January: 237 serum sample were collected, found Den V 1 (8), Den V 3 (2) and Den V 4 (5). And PCR stereotyping of isolated viruses in Madura found Den V 1 (1) and Den V 4 (23). In Lombok found Den V 4 (4).It is possible to shift predominant strain in Surabaya , Genotype or Serotype shift might increase the number of dengue patients. Conclusion: there were shift predominant strain in Surabaya especially Den V 1. Therefore to continuous surveillance of circulating viruses is required to predict the risk of DHF and DF.
ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF COPPER(II)CHLORIDE DIHYDRATE AGAINST DENGUE VIRUS TYPE-2 IN VERO CELL Sucipto, Teguh Hari; Churrotin, Siti; Setyawati, Harsasi; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Martak, Fahimah; Soegijanto, Soegeng
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 6, No 4 (2017)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (144.829 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/ijtid.v6i4.3806

Abstract

Infection of dengue virus (DENV) was number of globally significant emerging pathogen. Antiviral dengue therapies ar importantly needed to control emerging dengue. Dengue virus (DENV) is mosquito-borne arboviruses responsible for causing acute systemic diseases and grievous health conditions in humans. To date, there is no clinically approved dengue vaccine or antiviral for humans, even though there have been great efforts towards this end. Copper and copper compounds have more effective in inactivation viruses, likes an influenza virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Purpose in this project was investigated of Copper(II)chloride Dihydrate antiviral compound were further tested for inhibitory effect on the replication of DENV-2 in cell culture. DENV replication was measures by Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) with selectivity index value (SI) was determined as the ratio of cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50) to inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) for compound. The maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Copper(II)chloride Dihydrate against dengue virus type-2 was 0.13 μg/ml. The cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of compound against Vero cell was 5.03 μg/ml. The SI values for Copper(II)chloride Dihydrate 38.69. Result of this study suggest that Copper(II)chloride Dihydrate demonstated significant anti-DENV-2 inhibitory activities and not toxic in the Vero cells. Copper mechanisms play an important role in the prevention of copper toxicity, exposure to excessive levels of copper can result in a number of adverse health effects, as a result increased reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage to lipid, DNA, and proteins have been observed in human cell culture models or clinical syndromes of severe copper deficiency and inhibition was attributed to released cupric ions which react with cysteine residues on the surface of the protease.