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Journal : Indonesian Aquaculture Journal

ASSOCIATION OF MICROSATELLITE GENETIC DIVERSITY WITH GROWTH RELATED TRAITS IN THE BASE POPULATION OF AFRICAN CATFISH, Clarias gariepinus, BREEDING PROGRAM Imron, Imron; Iswanto, Bambang; Ridzwan, Narita Syawalia; Suprapto, Rommy; Marnis, Huria
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 10, No 1 (2015): (June 2015)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (182.471 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.10.1.2015.1-11

Abstract

Genetic diversity at molecular level has been assumed to correlate with fitness related traits. However, accumulating evidences showed that the nature of that correlation has been variable. This study was aimed to explore the nature and possible mechanisms underlying that correlation by focusing on growth related traits in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus using microsatellite molecular markers. Fifty individual African catfish of 110 days-old were sampled and subjected to both morphological and molecular analyses. The standard length, total length and body weight as well as allelic scores of six microsatellite loci were measured on each individual. Indices of microsatellite diversity, namely individual multilocus heterozygosity (MLH) and mean microsatellite allelic distance (mean d2) for individual level, and mean observed heterozygosity (Ho) and single-locus heterozygosity (ho) for group level, were correlated to those traits using Pearson correlation coefficient (r). The Hardy Weinberg and linkage disequilibrium were carried out to explore the possible mechanisms underlying correlation. The results showed that at individual level the MLH and mean d2 were weakly correlated with standard length, (r=0.25, p<0.05) and (r=0.24, p<0.05), respectively. At group level, Ho was correlated with both standard and total length (r=0.99, p<0.05) while ho identified two loci, Cga03 and Cga06 significantly contributed to the correlation. Combining all relevant information, present study identified associative overdominance, both local effect and general effect hypotheses might responsible for the observed correlations.
MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A RED STRAIN OF THE EGYPTIAN AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus BURCHELL 1822) Iswanto, Bambang; Suprapto, Rommy; Marnis, Huria; Imron, Imron
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 11, No 2 (2016): (December, 2016)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (495.823 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.11.2.2016.%p

Abstract

Characteristics of the Egyptian African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) strain introduced to Indonesia has not been extensively explored yet, especially the red strain. Previous studies suggested that at the same body length, body weight of the red strain was higher and it was more rotund than that of the normal (black) ones. These differences need to be further investigated to find out which parts of the body mainly contributed to shape the differences. The present study was carried out to explore morphological differences of the red strain of Egyptian African catfish compared to the black strain through morphometric and meristic characterizations. Meristic and morphometric characterizations in the present study were carried out following standard method for morphological characterization of Clarias catfish. The fish samples consisted of each 35 red and black table-sized fish samples resulted from inbred and outbred spawnings. Results of the morphometric and meristic analysis in the present study revealed that the red strain of Egyptian African catfish resulted from inbred spawning of red strain brooders was morphologically different from that of either parental fishes or the black strains. At the same body length, head of the red strain was bigger (wider and longer) than other strains, and its body was stumpy (more rotund and shorter than other strains), deviated from those normal characteristics of the Egyptian African catfish. Its meristic characters were also differed from those of other strains, assigned by reduced dorsal and anal fin rays number.
RESPONSE TO SELECTION FOR BODY WEIGHT IN THE THIRD GENERATION OF MASS SELECTION OF THE AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus) AT RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR FISH BREEDING SUKAMANDI Iswanto, Bambang; Imron, Imron; Marnis, Huria; Suprapto, Rommy
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 11, No 1 (2016): (June 2016)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1787.817 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.11.1.2016.15-21

Abstract

Genetic improvement of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Indonesia for increasing growth performance has been conducted by Research Institute for Fish Breeding at Sukamandi through mass selection. Collection and characterizations of the founder populations, building the synthetic base population, first generation and second generation through mass selection were conducted during 2010-2013. Later, in 2014 it was followed by building the third generation. The present study aimed to find out the genetic gain in the third generation in term of response to selection for body weight. Fifty-two pairs of the selected (fast growing) individuals from the second generation were mated to produce the third generation. As a comparison, five pairs of average-sized individuals were mated to produce the control population, as a second generation representative. Larval rearing, nursery and grow-out phases were respectively held for 25 days in the aquaria, 30 days in the concrete ponds and 60 days in the concrete ponds. At the end of each phase, individual samplings of body weight were undertaken. The results showed that mean body weight of the third generation was higher than that of control population at the end of larval rearing phase (0.21 ± 0.26 g versus 0.20 ± 0.15 g), nursery phase (6.12 ± 2.93 g versus 5.80 ± 3.50 g) and grow-out phase (198.67 ± 82.82 g versus 165.22 ± 71.09 g). Those results revealed that response to selection for body weight of the third generation was positive, i.e. about 20.24% (33.45 g).
MORPHOLOGICAL VARIABILITY OF SEVERAL INDONESIAN POPULATIONS OF GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN, Macrobrachium rosenbergii Imron, Imron; Iskandariah, Iskandariah; Iswanto, Bambang; Dewi, Raden Roro Sri Puji Sinarni
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 3, No 1 (2008): (June 2008)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (567.991 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.3.1.2008.1-12

Abstract

Patterns in morphological variability have been the main basis for conventional genetic improvement program, particularly in selective breeding. Proper understanding on these patterns hence, is of crucial prerequisite before any scheme of breeding program is undertaken. This study was aimed to explore those morphological variations with emphasis on the assessment of among-population and among-trait variations and assessment of predictive traits that may serve for inter-population differentiation. A total 281 individuals representing four natural populations (Asahan, Ogan, Barito, and Ciasem) and one domesticated stock (GIMacro) were sampled and analyzed for variability in thirteen morphological traits. While descriptive analyses were applied to analyze both among-stock and among-trait variations, discriminant function analysis was used to search for the best traits for interpopulation differentiation. The relative variability, expressed in the coefficient of variation (CV), was used to compare the amount and patterns of morphometric variability both among traits and between stocks. Results showed that total body weight was the most variable trait while the length and meristic traits were of lower level. Discriminant analysis found that rostrum length and abdoment length to be the best morphological discriminators among intraspecific populations. However, the continuous natures of these traits make them have limited applicability for intraspecific population differentiation.
THE APPLICATION OF RAPD FINGERPRINTING TO ASSESS INBREEDING LEVELS IN THE CULTURED POPULATIONS OF GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN, Macrobrachium rosenbergii Imron, Imron; Sunandar, Dadan; Suprapto, Rommy; Listyowati, Nunuk
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 5, No 1 (2010): (June 2010)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (117.146 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.5.1.2010.73-82

Abstract

Inbreeding has been one of central issues with regard to genetic quality of aquaculture species, including giant fresh water prawn (GFP). Conventional methods for the estimation of inbreeding level are available, such as pedigree analyses which requires a good pedigree record which, unfortunately, is rarely available. Likewise, microsatellite molecular markers commonly applied to obtain the coefficient inbreeding estimates are both laborious and expensive. Hence, an alternative method of inbreeding assessment which is relatively easy but reliable is in need. This study was aimed to explore the applicability of RAPD fingerprinting, which is known to be simple and affordable, to estimate inbreeding level of GFP population. Three GFP populations namely inbred, outbred, and farm populations with inbreeding level of 25%, 0%, and unknown, respectively, were genotyped using five polymorphic RAPD primers. The inbreeding levels mentioned within the first two populations were determined using pedigree analysis. RAPD banding patterns were then used to calculate band sharing index (BSI) and inbreeding coefficient (F). Assessment of the applicability of inbreeding level estimates obtained by RAPD markers was performed by comparing them to those estimated by pedigree analysis. Results show that RAPD fingerprinting was capable of delineating populations differing in their inbreeding coefficients. The pattern resulted from molecular inbreeding coefficient within the inbred and outbred groups, was congruent with that shown by pedigree analysis, while the farm population showed closeness to the inbred group. While the accuracy of the estimate needs to be verified further, this study suggests that RAPD fingerprinting is applicable to estimate population inbreeding level, particularly due to its technical simplicity and cost affordability.
ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC VARIATION OF PEARL OYSTER, Pinctada maxima, BASED ON THE ANALYSIS OF MITOCHONDRIAL CYTOCHROME OXIDASE SUBUNIT I GENE Sudradjat, Achmad; Susilowati, Rini; Imron, Imron
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 4, No 1 (2009): (June 2009)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (96.663 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.4.1.2009.19-24

Abstract

Pearl oyster, Pinctada maxima is one of economical ly important species in aquaculture, particularly in pearl industry. Information on genetic variation of pearl oyster is required in order to be able to make a sound management of it’s natural populations and to utilize it to improve the quality of pearl culture. Five populations from different geographic locations of pearl oyster, Pinctada maxima, (Sumbawa, Bali, Selat Sunda, Belitung, and South Sulawesi) were analyzed for genetic variation within a 750-base pair region of the Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (MtCOI) gene using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) technique. The analysis of 25 pearl oyster samples, their haplotype diversity ranged from 0.0970 to 0.1939 and the number of haplotype in each population ranged from three to five haplotypes. Clustering of populations based on Nei’s genetic distances and constructed using unweighted pair-group method with Arithmetic mean (UPGMA) showed that the populations were clustered into two groups: Belitung, Selat Sunda, Bali and Sumbawa in one group, while South Sulawesi in the second group.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXPRESSION OF STRIPED CATFISH (Pangasionodon hypophtalmus) GROWTH HORMONE GENE (PhGH) IN THE ORGAN OF AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus) TRANSGENIC FOUNDER Marnis, Huria; Dewi, Raden Roro Sri Pudji Sinarni; Imron, Imron; Iswanto, Bambang
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 7, No 1 (2012): (June 2012)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (830.545 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.7.1.2012.11-18

Abstract

Faster growing African catfish can be produced by transgenesis. This study was conducted to investigate the distribution and expression of growth hormone gene (PhGH) in various organs of the transgenic African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) founder (F0). Transgene was detected using the PCR method in various organs, namely pituitary, brain, liver, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, stomach, muscle, caudal fin, gill and eye. Transgene expression levels were analyzed using the method of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), -actin gene used as internal controls. The results showed that the PhGH was detected and expressed in all organs of the transgenic African catfish founder. The high level of PhGH expression was found in the liver, pituitary, intestine and brain; smaller amounts were detectable in muscle, spleen, kidneys, heart, and stomach, caudal fin, gill and eyes, range from 0.02-0.75 PhGH/-actin mRNA. The expression levels of PhGH had positive correlation with tissue and body size (P<0.05).
HERITABILITY FOR GROWTH RELATED TRAITS IN GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) AT VARIOUS DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES AND CULTURE CONDITIONS ESTIMATED BY INTRACLASS CORRELATION Imron, Imron; Suprapto, Rommy
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 8, No 1 (2013): (June 2013)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1255.186 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.8.1.2013.35-45

Abstract

Heritability estimates of commercially important traits are of important in order to seek the best strategy of selective breeding program to be implemented. A study aimed at estimating the magnitude of this parameter for growth related traits, expressed in wet weight (WW), total length (TL), and standard length (SL), has been carried out in giant freshwater prawn (GFP). Particular emphasis was given to investigate the effect of ages and culture conditions on the magnitude of the heritability estimates. Nineteen full-sib families were established through individual pair mating. The families, namely groups of offsprings derived from each mating pair were raised through three stages of rearing activities: first-stage nursery (40 days), second-stage nursery (70 days), and grow-out rearing (130 days). Heritability for growth at each stage was estimated through the method of full-sib analysis or intraclass correlation. Components of variance used to produce the heritability estimates were obtained through the method of analysis of variance. Results showed that heritability estimates varied with both ages and culture conditions. The heritability estimates (± standard errors) at 40 days for WW (0.69±0.151), TL (0.64±0.148), and SL (0.70±0.144) were higher than those observed at 70 days (WW = 0.24±0.15; TL = 0.22±0.15; and SL = 0.20±0.14) and 130 days (WW = 0.24±0.058; TL = 0.22±0.05; and SL = 0.20±0.60). A similar pattern was found with respect to the culture conditions. The estimates found in grow-out at lower stocking density (5 individual/ m2) days (WW = 0.24±0.058; TL = 0.22±0.05; and SL = 0.20±0.60) were higher than those observed at grow out at higher stocking density (20 individuals/m2) days (WW = 0.12±0.058; TL = 007±0.05; and SL = 0.14 ± 0.60). The possible causes of the observed patterns and implications that these findings may have on the breeding program of GFP are discussed.
RANDOMLY AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) FINGERPRINTING OF SIX INDONESIAN POPULATIONS OF GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN, Macrobrachium rosenbergii Imron, Imron; Sunandar, Dadan; Susilowati, Rini; Suprapto, Rommy; Khasani, Ikhsan
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 4, No 2 (2009): (December 2009)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (373.592 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.4.2.2009.93-100

Abstract

Indonesia is rich of giant fresh water prawn (GFP) germ plasms. Best utilization of these resources for the purpose of either aquaculture development or conservation of genetic resources requires some information on the structure and levels of their genetic diversity. This study was aimed to characterize those GFP genetic resources by applying RAPD genetic markers. Six Indonesian populations of GFP from Asahan, Barito, Ciasem, Ogan, GImacro and Papua were collected and analyzed for their genetic variation using five RAPD primers. The results showed the diversity within the populations, as revealed by the level of polymorphism, ranged from 29% to 76% while genetic divergence between populations as shown by genetic distance ranged from 0.04 to 0.50. In terms of genetic divergence, two genetically distinct groups of GFP, namely the Papua GFP in one group and the remaining five GFP populations in the other, were identified. The results also showed the presence of specific population markers that are useful for genetic identification of GFP populations. Implication of these finding with regard to breed development is discussed.
MICROSATELLITE GENETIC VARIATION IN CULTURED POPULATIONS OF AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus) IN INDONESIA Imron, Imron; Sunandar, Dadan; Tahapari, Evi
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 6, No 1 (2011): (June 2011)
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Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (120.77 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.6.1.2011.1-10

Abstract

African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, is one of economically important farmed species in Indonesia. To support the development of aquaculture industry, high genetic quality of both broodstock and seeds is required and breeding program is considered as viable option. Information on genetic variation of the populations being considered to form a base population may give insight toward the appropriate strategy to be implemented in breeding program. This study was aimed to assess genetic variation in farmed populations of catfish in Indonesia using microsatellite markers with special emphasis on their use to develop breeding program. Three populations of farmed catfish, namely Dumbo, Paiton, and Sangkuriang were collected. Fifteen individuals representing each population were screened for microsatellite variability using seven primer sets (cga01, cga02, cga03, cga05, cga06, cga09, cga10). Results found that with exception of two loci (cga01 and cg02) which had a slight increase, the other four loci showed reduction in the number of alleles ranging from 35% to 80% depending on loci. Farmed populations also showed heterozygote deficient and inbreeding level, being the highest was found in Sangkuriang and the least was observed in Dumbo population. Individuals within populations contributed most (95%) while interpopulation variation accounted for only 5% of the total genetic variation. Populations of Dumbo and Sangkuriang were genetically similar while populations of Paiton were genetically different from both Dumbo and Sangkuriang. Viewed from genetic perspective, by combining all information emerging from this study, the best possible strategy to establish a base population with broad genetic base and less inbreeding would be to combine all the populations into a synthetic base population.