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Komposisi Jenis dan Kepadatan Sponge (Porifera: Demospongiae) di Kepulauan Spermonde Kota Makassar

Journal of Biota Biota Volume 19 Nomor 1 Tahun 2014
Publisher : PBI Yogyakarta

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Abstract

AbstractSponge is one of the components on the coastal and marine ecosystems, especially coral reefs and seagrass beds. Climate change and environmental conditions can affect the life of the sponge. The study is conducted to determine the distribution of the composition and density of sponge using belt transects (transect quadrant) with a size of 5x5 m, then count the number of each type of sponge contained in the transect. Study site divided into three (3) zones indicating different conditions of eutrophication. A total of 49 species were identified from 16 families of 8 orders. Composition and density of the sponge in inner zone as many as 11 families with a density of 0.96 ind/m2, and lower compared to the composition and density in the middle zone and outer zone. This is related to the difference in environmental conditions of the three zones based on eutrophication conditions.Keywords: Sponge, species composition, density, spermondeAbstrakSponge merupakan salah satu penyusun pada ekosistem pesisir dan laut, terutama pada ekosistem terumbu karang dan padang lamun. Perubahan iklim dan kondisi lingkungan dapat mempengaruhi kehidupan dari sponge. Maka dilakukan penelitian untuk mengetahui sebaran komposisi dan kepadatan sponge menggunakan metode transek belt (transek kuadran) dengan ukuran 5x5 m, kemudian menghitung jumlah dari setiap jenis sponge yang terdapat dalam transek. Lokasi penelitian terbagi atas 3 (tiga) zona eutrofikasi yang menunjukkan kondisi eutrofikasi yang berbeda. Sebanyak 49 spesies yang teridentifikasi berasal dari 16 famili 8 ordo. Komposisi dan Kepadatan sponge pada zona dalam sebanyak 11 famili dengan kepadatan 0,96 ind/m2,, lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan komposisi dan kepadatan pada zona tengah dan zona luar. Hal tersebut terkait dengan adanya perbedaan kondisi lingkungan dari ketiga zona yang terbagi berdasarkan kondisi eutrofikasi tersebut.Kata kunci: Sponge, komposisi jenis, kepadatan, spermonde

SINTASAN DAN PERTUMBUHAN TRANSPLANTASI KARANG HIAS ACROPORA SP DI DESA TONYAMAN, KECAMATAN BINUANG, KABUPATEN POLEWALI MANDAR

Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan SPERMONDE Vol 3, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan SPERMONDE

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Abstract

Culture of ornamental corals applying transplantation technique was aimed to know the successful of this transplantation technique in the ornamental coral culture based on its growth and survival rate of various coral fragments. The location of the medium settlement was in the western side of the waters of Tonyaman Village, Binuang Subdistrict, Polewali Mandar Regency with 3-4 meter depth during low tide. One of coral species i.e. Acropora  sp with 48 fragments was put on 4 transplantation tables. During the experiment, cleaning of fungi and biofouling at the transplant tables and the culture tables. Measurements of the absolute growth and survival rate were done at the 21st day using calliphers and numbers of dead and live fragments were counted directly. Coral transplantation workshop for ornamental coral culture was attended by 4 fisherman groups with total 23 participants. This event was understood by the training participants from the seed selection to the monitoring. Number of coral fragment cultured was 48 fragments obtained from one of stony corals (Scleractania), i.e. Acropora  sp. The range of survival rate that has been cultured for 21 days was adequately high i.e. 91.7 – 100 %. The highest survival rate was observed at the transplant table B, i.e. 100%, whereas, the table A, C, and D were 91.7 %. Average absolute growth of the coral Acropora  sp cultured during this study were ranged from 4.2 – 4.9 mm/month. Aaverage absolute growth was found at table transplant B and C, while the lowest value was observed at the transplant table D.Keywords: cultivation, ornamental coral, transplantation technique, Tonyaman

KARAKTERISASI KONDISI KIMIA-FISIKA LINGKUNGAN PADA TINGKATAN DENSITAS MANGROVE YANG BERBEDA DI AMPALLAS, KABUPATEN MAMUJU, SULAWESI BARAT

Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan SPERMONDE Vol 3, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan SPERMONDE

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Abstract

Mangroves have numerous ecological functions as well as economical values. In order to achieve successful of mangrove restoration and regain its functions, understanding on the factors affecting the establishment of mangroves are required. This study examined the characteristics of physico-chemical factors from three compartments (sediment, interstitial and seawater) that associated with different mangrove densities in Ampallas, District of Mamuju, West Sulawesi. The Principal Component Analysis and Spearman correlation analysis showed that high densities of adult and seedling mangroves strongly correlated to higher organic contents, dissolved oxygen of interstitial water, seawater salinities and lesser pH of sediments, seawater and interstitial. The reverse conditions applied for the less mangrove densities and control site that had no mangrove. In most cases, there were reciprocal relationships amongst the studied variables.Keywords: chemical-physical factors, density, mangroves.

KEBERHASILAN REHABILITASI TERUMBU KARANG AKIBAT PERISTIWA BLEACHING TAHUN 2016 DENGAN TEKNIK TRANSPLANTASI

Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan SPERMONDE Vol 3, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan SPERMONDE

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to analyze the succesfullnes use of two coral reef transplantation methods in the rehabilitation ofcoral reefs damaged by the phenomenon of bleaching in 2016 at the waters of Liukangloe Island, Bulukumba, South Sulawesi.In this study two methods were implemented, i.e. methods frame-spider and methods of nails-natural substrates, with 5 unitsas replication, respectively. A total of three kinds of branching corals weretransplanted, namely Acropora robusta, Poritescylindrica, and Pocillopora verrucosa. On each unit transplantation models, attached 6 coral fragments with branch length of5-12 cm for each kind of corals. A total of 3 fragments for each species of corals were labeled and coded for the survival rateand absolute growth monitoring. All five unit of experiments on each model are placed on two areas separately and placedrandomly with depths ranging from 3-4 m in the northern part of island. Observations survival rate and absolute growth of coraltransplant were conducted for every 2 weeks for 28 days by counting the dead coral fragment or missing and measure the lengthof transplant coral branch with a measuring ruler. The effectiveness of the two methods was analyzed based on the survival andgrowth of the absolute value of coral transplant. Survival rate were analyzed descriptively and the average values of absolutegrowth were analyzed by t-student. The use of frame-spider methods and methods of nails-natural substrates as effective inrehabilitating the coral reefs from bleaching phenomenon based on the parameters of survival and growth of Acropora robusta,Porites cylindrica, and Pocillopora verrucosaKeywords: Transplantation methods, coral reef, bleaching coral, Liukang Loe Island

Macrozoobenthic Community in Different Mangrove Condition: Relation with Chemical-Physical Sediment Characteristics

TORANI: Journal of Fisheries and Marine Science Vol 1, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Marine Science and Fisheries Faculty, Hasanuddin University

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Abstract

The existence of mangrove in coast areas have both ecologic and physical important functions.  Mangrove is a high productive ecosystem. Litters from fallen leaves and twigs are organic sources for macrozoobenthic life.  The aim of this research was to determine the response of macrozoobenthics on total organic matter content and other chemical-physico characters of sediments due to differences in mangrove conditions. This research was conducted from May to September 2016 in Sub-district of Ampallas, Distric of Mamuju, Province of West Sulawesi, Indonesia. Sediments in 20 cm2 transects were collected using small shovel to obtain the macrozoobenthic samples. The sediments contained macrozoobenthics were sieved using a 1 mm mesh size sieve net. Four sampling sites were chosen, each to represent areas with no mangroves, low, medium, and high densities.  The total of organic matter samples were collected using 2 inch diameter of PVC pipe cores, which were analyzed further using Loss by Ignition method.  Besides total of organic matter, several parameters (i.e. redox potential, sediment pH, salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen) were measured.  The results showed that gastropods dominated the existed macrozoobenthics.  Gastropods and oligochaete lived in greater amounts in high mangrove density site with higher organic matter content and fine substrate.Keywords: mangroves, macrozoobenthics, organic matter, Distric of Mamuju 

Kajian Stok Karbon Mangrove di Bebanga Kabupaten Mamuju Sulawesi Barat

Proceeding Simposium Nasional Kelautan dan Perikanan No 5 (2018)
Publisher : Proceeding Simposium Nasional Kelautan dan Perikanan

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Abstract

Percepatan pemanasan global dan perubahan iklim terutama disebabkan oleh aktifitas manusia. Salah satu strategi untuk mitigasi pemanasan global dengan memanfaatkan ekosistem, misalnya ekosistem mangrove untuk menyerap dan menyimpan karbon dalam bentuk biomassa. Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengkaji stok karbon mangrove dilaksanakan pada bulan Mei 2016 di Kelurahan Bebanga Kabupaten Mamuju, Sulawesi Barat. Metode yang digunakan adalah non-destructive dengan pendekatan biomassa melalui persamaan allometrik. Asumsi yang digunakan adalah stok karbon sebesar 50% dari nilai biomassanya. Sampling dilakukan pada empat stasiun dengan kerapatan mangrove yang berbeda, mulai dari kategori jarang sampai kategori padat. Selain stok karbon juga dilakukan pengamatan tutupan kanopi menggunakan metode hemisperical photograph. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ditemukan enam jenis mangrove di lokasi penelitian, yaitu Rhizophora mucronata, R. apiculata, Sonneratia alba, Avicennia alba, A. marina, dan Bruguiera Gymnhorriza. Jenis mangrove yang mendominasi Stasiun 1 adalah R. apiculata dan S. alba, Stasiun 2 dan Stasiun 3 oleh jenis R. mucronata, sedangkan Stasiun 4 adalah jenis S. alba. Secara berturut-turut, total stok karbon pada Stasiun 1, 2, 3 dan 4 adalah: 342,86 ton C/ha, 689,29 ton C/ha, 1202,54 ton C/ha dan 357,25 ton C/ha. Jenis mangrove Rhizophora mucronata mempunyai kontribusi terbesar terhadap total stok karbon pada semua stasiun kecuali pada Stasiun 1 yang didominasi oleh Sonneratia alba. Hasil analisis regresi linear menunjukkan bahwa stok karbon dan tutupan kanopi mangrove tidak menunjukkan hubungan yang erat. Kata Kunci: biomassa mangrove, stok karbon mangrove, tutupan kanopi mangrove, mamuju. 

ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS WITHIN HARD CORAL Porites lutea IN SPERMONDE ARCHIPELAGO, SOUTH SULAWESI

Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan SPERMONDE Vol 4, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan SPERMONDE

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Abstract

Hard coral Porites lutea is an animal that lives on the ocean floor. This species may live for years and accumulate heavy metals from its surrounding environments. The aims of this study was to know accumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, and Cu) pollution by Porites lutea at different islands in Spermonde Archipelago waters. This study used field surveys around Laelae, Bonebatang and Badi Islands of South Sulawesi. Field parameters measured were oceanographic parameters, metals in water and sediment. Hard coral was extracted using nitric acid, then measured its heavy metal levels using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Several field parameters such as temperature, salinity, turbidity, pH and dissolved oxygen indicated no differences at each location, whereas the difference was observed in the values of Total Suspended Solid and dissolved oxygen. The results showed the accumulation of heavy metals in the skeleton of Porites lutea was Pb>Cu>Cd and Laelae>Bonebatang>Badi Island.

SHORT-TERM OBSERVATION ON MARINE DEBRIS AT COASTAL AREAS OF TAKALAR DISTRICT AND MAKASSAR CITY, SOUTH SULAWESI-INDONESIA

Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan SPERMONDE Vol 4, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan SPERMONDE

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Abstract

Marine debris is defined as material that is solid, persistent, manufactured or processed, and deliberately or not-deliberately left in the marine environment. Marine debris comes in many shapes and forms, ranging in size from microscopic microplastics to large vessels. Marine debris is a big and growing global problem, pose threats to marine life sustainability. Plastic is a major component of marine debris, and single use packaging accounts for an increasing part of the global marine debris load. Research on marine debris were conducted on coastal areas and Small Island of South Sulawesi destined for local tourism, i.e. Karama beach, Bodia beach and Mandi beach (Galesong, Takalar District), Tanjung Bayang beach, Akkarena beach and Lae-lae island/also known as Bob beach (Makassar City). This research was aimed at identifying marine debris according to its types, size and mass. Debris were collected in a 25 x 60 m transect with direction 30 m towards land and waters, respectively, with 3 replication transects at every location, whilst collections of debris were conducted during low and high tides. Current (direction and speed) and waves (incoming direction and height) were also measured as supporting parameters. Surrounding sampling location characteristics were also recorded. Result showed that Karama beach is found with highest total marine debris mass in Takalar (36.44 kg), whilst in Makassar the Lae-lae island was found to be the highest with debris mass (43.22 kg). Plastic were predominant debris at all sampling locations with percentages of 62.7 – 86.6%. Lastly, the predominant size was macro-debris (25-100 cm). 

ACUTE TOXICITY OF CADMIUM (CD) TO VELIGER LARVAE OF FLUTED GIANT CLAM (TRIDACNA SQUAMOSA LAMARCK, 1819)

Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan SPERMONDE Vol 4, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan SPERMONDE

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Abstract

Clams have a planktonic period which is sensitive to metal pollutants in the waters. The natural concentration of cadmium (Cd) is relatively low in marine waters, but may increase with increasing anthropogenic activity on land that may be lethal to organisms, especially in the sensitive larval stages. The purpose of this study was to analyze the values of 24h-LC50, NOEC (No Observed Effect Concentration), LOEC (Lowest Observed Effect Concentration) and MATC (Maximum Acceptable Toxicant Concentration) along with the impact of acute Cd toxicity on mortality and morphological changes of Tridacna squamosa veliger. The toxicity test used was an acute toxicity test with a static method (4 replications). Acute toxicity tests were performed on veliger phase larvae with short-term exposure (24 hours) on various Cd concentrations ie., 0.1 mg/L, 1 mg/L, 2.5 mg/L, 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L . The 24h-LC50 value was calculated using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber application version 4.1 and the LOEC and NOEC values were analyzed using the Dunnet test. Results showed that the 24h-LC50 value of Cd applied to Tridacna squamosa veliger was 2.12 mg/L, whereas the NOEC, LOEC and MATC values were 1 mg/L, 2.5 mg/L, 1.581 mg/L respectively. Mortalities were observed with increasing Cd concentrations. It was also shown a decreasing number of zooxanthellae, damaged in mantle tissue and shells, changes in shell color, released of mantle tissue from the shell with increasing Cd concentrations. 

TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF EUTROPHICATION LEVEL AND SEDIMENTATION RATE IN CORAL REEF AREA OF SPERMONDE AND SEMBILAN ISLANDS, SOUTH SULAWESI

Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan SPERMONDE Vol 4, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan SPERMONDE

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Abstract

Spermonde and Sembilan Islands (Bone Bay) are the central distribution of coral reefs in South Sulawesi. These archipelagos are likely to be at risk from eutrophication and sedimentation from intensive agriculture and aquaculture activities, in particular through transport of nutrients and materials discharged to the river systems on the Sulawesi mainland. The aim of this study was to analyse the temporal dynamics of eutrophication levels and sedimentation rates on coral reefs area of Spermonde and Sembilan Islands. Nutrient concentration and sedimentation rate were collected at monthly intervals over 4 months, at six stations: three in the Spermonde Islands (Laiya, Kodingareng, and Samalona Islands), and three in the Sembilan Islands, Sinjai District (Batanglampe, Kambuno, and Burungloe Islands), with two data collection points/replicates at each station/island. The results showed that phosphate concentration and sedimentation rates were higher in the Sembilan Islands, whereas nitrate concentrations were similar in both island groups. Nitrate concentration data indicated that eutrophication levels was varied, ranging from oligotrophic to eutrophic conditions, depends on months. In July and September, eutrophication was observed at all stations in both locations. Sedimentation rates were higher in the Sembilan Islands, but declined gradually until the end of the study time. Conversely, at stations in the Spermonde Islands, especially Samalona and Kodingarengkeke Islands, sedimentation level was increased significantly until the end of the study.