Abu Umayah
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Risk Quotient of Airborne Paraquat Exposure among Workers in Palm Oil Plantation Maksuk, Maksuk; Malaka, Tan; Suheryanto, Suheryanto; Umayah, Abu
International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS) Vol 7, No 2: June 2018
Publisher : Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science

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Abstract

Paraquat is the herbicide widely used at palm oil plantations, although usage it in some countries has been banned and restricted. Paraquat spraying was not appropriate procedure could be polluted the environment and lead to health disorders workers. Paraquat could enter the body through inhalation, dermal and ingestion, one of frequent routes through inhalation during spraying weeds in plantation areas. This study aimed was to analyze potential inhalation dose and Risk Quotient to workers at palm oil plantation. This research was a descriptive study with cross sectional design and analysis of environmental health risk methods. Airborne Paraquat residue was collected from 8 workers with occupational activity as a supervisor and sprayer. Airborne Paraquat residue was measured for 25 minutes during spraying by using personal air sampler at worker’s breathing zone. Airborne Paraquat residue was detected by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with NIOSH 5003 methods. The average of airborne Paraquat residue was 0.0125 mg/m3, it values was less than the Threshold Limit Value (0.05 mg/m3) of American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists, but the average of potential inhalation dose was 0.001 mg/kg/day for worker’s weight 55 kg, it was value higher than Acceptable Operator Exposure Limit (0.0005 mg/kg/day) and the calculation of Risk Quotient (RQ) was more than 1, it conditions was unacceptable for workers. Although, airborne Paraquat residue were safe, but potential inhalation dose and Risk Quotient (RQ) were unsafe for workers, cause it can be lead to lung function disorders. Therefore, for further studies it was necessary to assess the lung function of workers and the use of personal protective equipment must be completely and standard.
Analisis keragaman genetik Phytophthora palmivora dari tanaman kakao di Indonesia menggunakan AFLP Genetic diversity analysis of Phytophthora palmivora from cocoa in Indonesia using AFLP PURWANTARA, Agus; UMAYAH, Abu
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 78, No 2: Desember 2010
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

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Abstract

Abstract Phytophthora palmivora is the causal agent of pod rot, stem canker, seedling and leaf blight and cherelle wilt of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Indonesia.  The genetic structure of the pathogen population across the country is unknown.  In this study, a population of 20 cultures of P. palmivora isolated from cocoa at six major cocoa producing provinces namely Sumatera Utara, Lampung, Jawa Barat, Jawa Timur, Sulawesi Selatan and Sulawesi Tenggara in Indonesia was evaluated for genotypic diversity using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP).  Ten primer combinations were used to evaluate all isolates, 68 out of 347 AFLP markers (19.6 %) produced were polymorphic.  Results of the AFLP analyses showed that the P. palmivora population in Indonesia possessed high degree of similarity (96 %). AFLP banding patterns indicated that the isolates form two distinct groups, but with no genetic differentiation based on geography, types of cocoa or the part of the tree from which the isolates were obtained.  These data suggest that frequent outbreaks of Phytophthora pod rot in various growing regions is probably resulted from changing of local climatic condition which is condusive for the disease epidemic rather than from different genetic structure or pathogenic populations of this pathogen, which would affect recommendations for disease management.Abstrak Phytophthora palmivora adalah penyebab penyakit busuk buah, kanker batang, hawar bibit dan daun, dan layu pentil pada tanaman kakao (Theobroma cacao) di Indonesia.  Struktur genetik dari populasi patogen di seluruh negeri belum diketahui.  Pada kajian ini, 20 kultur P. palmivora yang diisolasi dari berbagai bagian tanaman kakao dari enam provinsi penghasil kakao di Indonesia, yaitu Sumatera Utara, Lampung, Jawa Barat, Jawa Timur, Sulawesi Selatan dan Sulawesi Tenggara diuji keragaman genetiknya mengguna-kan amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP). Sepuluh kombinasi primer digunakan untuk menguji semua isolat, 68 di antara 347 penanda AFLP (19,6 %) yang dihasilkan adalah polimorfik.  Hasil analisis AFLP menun-jukkan bahwa populasi P. palmivora di Indonesia mempunyai tingkat kekerabatan yang tinggi (96 %).  Pola pita AFLP menunjukkan bahwa kedua puluh isolat membentuk dua kelompok, tetapi tidak ada perbedaan berdasar letak geografis, tipe kakao atau bagian tanaman kakao asal isolat diperoleh. Data ini menunjukkan bahwa ledakan penyakit busuk buah Phytophthora yang sering terjadi di berbagai daerah diduga lebih diakibatkan oleh perubahan kondisi iklim setempat yang memicu terjadinya epidemi daripada karena perbedaan genetik atau patogenisitas dari populasi patogen, sehingga hasil ini dapat melengkapi saran-saran dalam pengelolaan penyakit.
Tingkat Parasitisasi dan Deskripsi Parasitoid yang Memarasit Aphis gossypii (Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Asal Agroekosistem Dataran Rendah dan Dataran Tinggi Sumatera Selatan Riyanto, Riyanto; Herlinda, Siti; Umayah, Abu; Irsan, Chandra
Jurnal Lahan Suboptimal Vol 3, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Jurnal Lahan Suboptimal

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Abstract

The parasitic level research and description of the parasitoid species which were parasitic towards Aphis gossypii (Glover) (Hemiptera : Aphididae ) origin the agroecosystem of the lowland and highland of South Sumatra has not been reported, although this information is needed as a foundation of biological control of A. gossypii in South Sumatra. The purpose of this study was to determine the parasitic level and provide information about the description of the parasitoid which were parasitic towards A. gossypii origin the agroecosystem of the lowland and highland of South Sumatra. Survey and exploration the parasitoid which were parasitic towards A. gossypii conducted at 11 sites in South Sumatra vegetable center.  The identification of parasitoid species was conducted in the laboratory of Entomology Department of the Faculty of Agriculture University of Sriwijaya. The results showed the parasitic level of Aphidius sp. and Diaeretiella rapae was higher during the dry season in both lowland and highland compared to the parasitic level of Aphelinus sp. However, Aphelinus sp. could only spread in the lowland. The main characteristics of Aphidius sp. (Aphidiidae) has shaped antennae filiform and segmented 13. The front wings have a triangular pterostigma. D. rapae, (Aphidiidae) has shaped antennae filiform and segmented 14. The front wings has a triangular pterostigma. The hind wing has a perfect basal cells. Aphelinus sp. (Aphelinidae) has an shaped goblets antennae and eight segmented and the last segments three of the antennae enlarged or club. Marginal venation long wings, while the venation postmarginal and stigma reduction. In addition there are two species of hyperparasitoid which were found to be parasitic towards parasitoid A. gossypii, were Ooencyrtus sp. and Aphiidencyrtus sp. (Encyrtidae) especially in the lowland.
Identifikasi isolat Phytophthora asal kakao Identification of isolates of Phytophthora from cocoa UMAYAH, Abu; PURWANTARA, Agus
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 74, No 2: Desember 2006
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

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Abstract

Summary Phytophthora spp. are responsible for some serious diseases of cocoa including pod rot, stem canker, leaf blight, seedling blight, and chupon wilt. Eight species of Phytophthora have been isolated from diseased cocoa worldwide, even though only three species cause most losses in cocoa production.  Twenty isolates of  Phytophthora sp. were isolated from various parts of the cocoa tree collected from six cocoa producing provinces in Indonesia, viz. North Sumatera, Lampung, West Java, East Java, South Sulawesi and Southeast Sulawesi.  All isolates were then identified using their morphological charac-teristics and it was concluded that all of the isolates are Phytophthora palmivora. This identification was then confirmed with molecular identification by amplification of ITS of rDNA of the isolates with primers ITS 4 and ITS 5, followed by restriction of the amplicon with enzymes.  The molecular identification confirmed that all isolates are P. palmivora. Ringkasan Phytophthora spp. merupakan penyebab beberapa penyakit penting pada kakao, termasuk busuk buah, kanker batang, hawar daun, hawar bibit, dan layu tunas air.  Delapan spesies Phytophthora telah berhasil diisolasi dari tanaman kakao sakit di seluruh dunia, meskipun hanya tiga spesies yang meng-akibatkan kehilangan produksi kakao yang nyata.  Dua puluh isolat Phytophthora sp. telah diisolasi dari berbagai bagian tanaman kakao yang dikumpulkan dari enam provinsi sentra produksi kakao di Indonesia, yaitu Sumatera Utara, Lampung, Jawa Barat, Jawa Timur, Sulawesi Selatan dan Sulawesi Tenggara.  Semua isolat diidentifikasi berdasarkan sifat-sifat morfologi dan dapat disimpulkan bahwa semua isolat adalah Phytophthora palmivora.  Identifikasi selanjutnya dilakukan secara molekuler dengan amplifikasi daerah ITS dari rDNA isolat menggunakan pasangan primer ITS 4 dan ITS 5, kemudian diikuti dengan pemotongan amplikon menggunakan enzim restriksi. Identifikasi molekuler juga menun-jukkan bahwa semua isolat Phytophthora penyebab penyakit pada kakao adalah P. palmivora.
SPESIES PARASITOID LIPAPHIS ERYSIMI ASAL SUMATERA SELATAN DAN VARIASI PARASITISASINYA PADA TUMBUHAN INANG YANG BERBEDA Herlinda, Siti; Anggraini, Erise; Irsan, Chandra; Umayah, Abu; Thalib, Rosdah; Adam, Triani
JURNAL HAMA DAN PENYAKIT TUMBUHAN TROPIKA Vol 12, No 2 (2012): September, Jurnal Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Tropika
Publisher : Universitas Lampung

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Abstract

Lipaphis erysimi (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is one of the main insect pests on brassicaceous crops. Aphids attack crops by sucking sap from its hosts. Densed population in the initial phase of crop growth could  inhibit growing, loss in yield up to 100%. Experiments were aimed to explore and identify species of  L. erysimi parasitoid in highland areas of South Sumatra, and to  determine potency of the parasitoids to parasitize L. erysimi in laboratory.  The highest parasitism level of L. erysimi (72.40%) was found on 200 aphids which reared on B. juncea.  While, the second highest parasitism level (65.67%) was found on N. indicum.  The number of mummies found on N. indicum was less than on B. juncea.  Of all observations, every treatment  on every tested plant showed that female D. rapae emerged more than male D. rapae (female bias).  The two parasitoids species that parasitized L. erysimi were Diaeretiella rapae and Aphidius sp.  Parasitisation at several location in South Sumatera was highly diverse.  D. rapae was the most abundant parasitoid species on several high lands at South Sumatera.
Identifikasi isolat Phytophthora asal kakao Identification of isolates of Phytophthora from cocoa UMAYAH, Abu; PURWANTARA, Agus
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 74, No 2: Desember 2006
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (299.966 KB)

Abstract

Summary Phytophthora spp. are responsible for some serious diseases of cocoa including pod rot, stem canker, leaf blight, seedling blight, and chupon wilt. Eight species of Phytophthora have been isolated from diseased cocoa worldwide, even though only three species cause most losses in cocoa production.  Twenty isolates of  Phytophthora sp. were isolated from various parts of the cocoa tree collected from six cocoa producing provinces in Indonesia, viz. North Sumatera, Lampung, West Java, East Java, South Sulawesi and Southeast Sulawesi.  All isolates were then identified using their morphological charac-teristics and it was concluded that all of the isolates are Phytophthora palmivora. This identification was then confirmed with molecular identification by amplification of ITS of rDNA of the isolates with primers ITS 4 and ITS 5, followed by restriction of the amplicon with enzymes.  The molecular identification confirmed that all isolates are P. palmivora. Ringkasan Phytophthora spp. merupakan penyebab beberapa penyakit penting pada kakao, termasuk busuk buah, kanker batang, hawar daun, hawar bibit, dan layu tunas air.  Delapan spesies Phytophthora telah berhasil diisolasi dari tanaman kakao sakit di seluruh dunia, meskipun hanya tiga spesies yang meng-akibatkan kehilangan produksi kakao yang nyata.  Dua puluh isolat Phytophthora sp. telah diisolasi dari berbagai bagian tanaman kakao yang dikumpulkan dari enam provinsi sentra produksi kakao di Indonesia, yaitu Sumatera Utara, Lampung, Jawa Barat, Jawa Timur, Sulawesi Selatan dan Sulawesi Tenggara.  Semua isolat diidentifikasi berdasarkan sifat-sifat morfologi dan dapat disimpulkan bahwa semua isolat adalah Phytophthora palmivora.  Identifikasi selanjutnya dilakukan secara molekuler dengan amplifikasi daerah ITS dari rDNA isolat menggunakan pasangan primer ITS 4 dan ITS 5, kemudian diikuti dengan pemotongan amplikon menggunakan enzim restriksi. Identifikasi molekuler juga menun-jukkan bahwa semua isolat Phytophthora penyebab penyakit pada kakao adalah P. palmivora.
KELIMPAHAN DAN KEANEKARAGAMAN SPESIES SERANGGA PREDATOR DAN PARASITOID Aphis gossypii DI SUMATERA SELATAN Riyanto, .; Herlinda, Siti; Irsan, Chandra; Umayah, Abu
JURNAL HAMA DAN PENYAKIT TUMBUHAN TROPIKA Vol 11, No 1 (2011): Maret, Jurnal Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Tropika
Publisher : Universitas Lampung

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Abstract

 This study was aimed to analysis abundance and species diversity of predatory insects and parasitoid of Aphis gossypii from lowland and highland areas of South Sumatra.    Survey of was conducted in 11 vegetable centers of  South Sumatra.  The results showed that 20 species of predatory insects and 3 species of parasitoids were found from the survey. The predatory insects consisted of 15 species of coccinellid beetles, two species of syrphids, and  one species of chamaemyiid, mantid and staphylinid.  Parasitoid found were 2 species of Aphidiidae (Diaretiella rapae and Aphidius sp.) and a species of Aphelinidae (Aphelinus sp.).  The highest abundance of the predator was found in Soak (42.61 larvae and adults) and the highest abundance of the parasitoid was found in Talang Buruk (25.99 adults).  The highest species diversity of the predator and the parasitoid were found in Soak (15 species and H’= 0.94) and in Talang Buruk (2 species and H’ = 0.27), respectively.  Abundance and species diversity of the predators and parasitoids were higher in the dry season than those in rainy season. Thus, the abundance and species diversity of the predators and parasiotids were higher in the lowland than highland areas in South Sumatra, while the seasons affected the abundance and species diversity of the predators and parasitoids.
Analisis keragaman genetik Phytophthora palmivora dari tanaman kakao di Indonesia menggunakan AFLP Genetic diversity analysis of Phytophthora palmivora from cocoa in Indonesia using AFLP PURWANTARA, Agus; UMAYAH, Abu
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 78, No 2: Desember 2010
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (198.064 KB)

Abstract

Abstract Phytophthora palmivora is the causal agent of pod rot, stem canker, seedling and leaf blight and cherelle wilt of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Indonesia.  The genetic structure of the pathogen population across the country is unknown.  In this study, a population of 20 cultures of P. palmivora isolated from cocoa at six major cocoa producing provinces namely Sumatera Utara, Lampung, Jawa Barat, Jawa Timur, Sulawesi Selatan and Sulawesi Tenggara in Indonesia was evaluated for genotypic diversity using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP).  Ten primer combinations were used to evaluate all isolates, 68 out of 347 AFLP markers (19.6 %) produced were polymorphic.  Results of the AFLP analyses showed that the P. palmivora population in Indonesia possessed high degree of similarity (96 %). AFLP banding patterns indicated that the isolates form two distinct groups, but with no genetic differentiation based on geography, types of cocoa or the part of the tree from which the isolates were obtained.  These data suggest that frequent outbreaks of Phytophthora pod rot in various growing regions is probably resulted from changing of local climatic condition which is condusive for the disease epidemic rather than from different genetic structure or pathogenic populations of this pathogen, which would affect recommendations for disease management.Abstrak Phytophthora palmivora adalah penyebab penyakit busuk buah, kanker batang, hawar bibit dan daun, dan layu pentil pada tanaman kakao (Theobroma cacao) di Indonesia.  Struktur genetik dari populasi patogen di seluruh negeri belum diketahui.  Pada kajian ini, 20 kultur P. palmivora yang diisolasi dari berbagai bagian tanaman kakao dari enam provinsi penghasil kakao di Indonesia, yaitu Sumatera Utara, Lampung, Jawa Barat, Jawa Timur, Sulawesi Selatan dan Sulawesi Tenggara diuji keragaman genetiknya mengguna-kan amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP). Sepuluh kombinasi primer digunakan untuk menguji semua isolat, 68 di antara 347 penanda AFLP (19,6 %) yang dihasilkan adalah polimorfik.  Hasil analisis AFLP menun-jukkan bahwa populasi P. palmivora di Indonesia mempunyai tingkat kekerabatan yang tinggi (96 %).  Pola pita AFLP menunjukkan bahwa kedua puluh isolat membentuk dua kelompok, tetapi tidak ada perbedaan berdasar letak geografis, tipe kakao atau bagian tanaman kakao asal isolat diperoleh. Data ini menunjukkan bahwa ledakan penyakit busuk buah Phytophthora yang sering terjadi di berbagai daerah diduga lebih diakibatkan oleh perubahan kondisi iklim setempat yang memicu terjadinya epidemi daripada karena perbedaan genetik atau patogenisitas dari populasi patogen, sehingga hasil ini dapat melengkapi saran-saran dalam pengelolaan penyakit.