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Journal : Indonesian Aquaculture Journal

SPONGE MOLECULAR SCREENING FOR ANTIMICROBIAL GENES BY PCR

Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 2, No 2 (2007): (December 2007)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Abstract

Molecular biotechnology approach has been applied on sponge for preventingdiseases on fishery culture. This is important for anticipating and avoiding the using of amount of sponge in nature. The present study aims to screen the antimicrobial (oxytetracycline and chloramphenicol) genes of sponge. DNA extraction of samples was done using the DNeasy Plant mini kit, Phenol-Chloroform and modification of Phenol-Chloroform methods. The presence of oxytetracycline and chloramphenicol genes in sponge was detected using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Result of the study showed that four species (Sylotella aurantium, Acanthella kletra, Gelliodes fibulatus and Auletta sp. were amplified for oxytetracycline and two species (Auletta sp. and Pericharax sp.) of sponge were amplified for chloramphenicol at each 226 bp.

GENETIC, COLORATION, AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF TWO DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF Kappaphycus alvarezii

Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 2, No 1 (2007): (June 2007)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Abstract

Two different colors (green and brown) of Kappaphycus alvarezii have been farmed in Indonesian waters for many years. This study aimed at comparing two ‘varieties’, i.e. green and brown, both genetically and morphologically. Samples for DNA analysis were collected from a farmer in Pinrang Regency, South Sulawesi. Five universal primers i.e. Ca-01, Ca-02, P-40, P-50, and DALRP were selected to obtain DNA genetic markers in differentiating the green and brown varieties. To compare coloration patterns during cultivation and the growth performance of both varieties, a field experiment was performed in a seaweed farming area in Pinrang Regency, during dry season of August-September 2004. The result of genetic assessment showed that the five selected primers revealed different RAPD banding pattern for both varieties. P-50 and DALRP primers demonstrated the greatest amplification in differentiating RAPD fragment between green and brown varieties. Fragment 900 bp and 1.300 bp were consistently generated in the green variety but were not amplified in the brown variety. The result of the field study confirmed that the coloration pattern of green and brown varieties was fixed; no interchange in color occurred during one crop cultivation.

IN VITRO GROWTH RATE OF Kappaphycus alvarezii MICROPROPAGULE AND EMBRYO BY ENRICHMENT MEDIUM WITH SEAWEED EXTRACT

Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 10, No 1 (2015): (June 2015)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Abstract

The development of micropropagule and embryo of seaweed depend on nutrient and fertilizer used. Seaweed has been reported contain hormone regulators such as auxine, cytokinine, gibbereline, and various minerals applied in stimulating the growth ocra plant and wheat culture. The objectives of this study were to determine the potential of Kappaphycus alvarezii extract and its optimal concentration in accelerating of Kappaphycus alvarezii micropropagule and embryo growth. Micropropagule and embryo produced through callus induction were planted into PES 1/20 liquid medium supplemented with seaweed extract at the concentrations of 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, and 100 μL in 10 mL of medium. The results showed that medium enrichment with 50 μL of seaweed extract had the highest survival rate and growth of thallus. In addition, this concentration was also resulted in a good performance of K. alvarezii thallus with the lighter color. The advantage of this study for seaweed cultivation in Indonesia, among others, seaweed can be used as fertilizer, especially in the maintenance of seaweed seed, so that cultivation can be better develop.

USE OF SPONGE, Callyspongia basilana EXTRACT AS ADDITIVE MATERIAL ON TIGER SHRIMP CULTURE

Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 5, No 1 (2010): (June 2010)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Abstract

Blue shrimp disease is one of the main problems in tiger shrimp culture. It reduces shrimp quality which eventually will decrease its market price. Blue shrimp is caused by deficiency of nutrition and additive materials such as carotene and other nutrient which function as vitamin source for important metabolic processes and formation of color profile in shrimp and fish. The aims of this study were to study the application effect of carotenoid extract of sponge Callyspongia basilana, as an additive material on the ability of shrimp to get back to normal state after suffering blue shrimp disease and survival rate of shrimp and to find out the optimal concentration of sponge carotenoid extract to cure the diseased shrimp. This study was consisted of two steps namely; (1). Extraction of sponge carotenoid by maseration and fractionation using acetone and petroleum ether solvents and (2), the application of carotenoid extract on the diseased shrimp. The research was arranged in a complete randomized design with four experiments consisted of (A). Control (without carotenoid extract); (B),(C), and (D) carotetoid extract addition of 3 mg/L, 6 mg/L, and 9 mg/L respectively with three replication each. The test animal used were blue diseased tiger shrimp with the density of 15 ind./container having 7.5–9.5 cm in size and the average weight of 5.5–10.0 g. The study showed that Callyspongia basilana carotenoid extract was able to change blue diseased shrimp to be normal within six days at the concentration of 9 mg/L. The highest survival rate was found in the experiment D (93.3%). Meanwhile, the lowest was obtained by the control population (13.3%) and the other two treatments were 80.0%(C) and 73.3% (B). The average of water quality parameters such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, nitrite, and ammonia were in the suitable range for the growth and survival rate of tiger shrimp.

SPONGE (Callyspongia sp., Callyspongia basilana, and Haliclona sp.) CULTURE WITH DIFFERENT INITIAL EXPLANT SIZES

Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 3, No 2 (2008): (December 2008)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Abstract

Sponge global demand for industry and research needs far exceeds supply from the sea. Aquaculture is considered as the only viable method that can supply sufficient and sustainable quantities of sponges. Aquaculture method is also one of efforts to anticipate and avoid the over-harvesting of sponges in nature. However, culture methods need to be determined to provide the platform for commercial success. In this study sponges (Callyspongia sp., Callyspongia basilana, and Haliclona sp.) were successfully cultured by transplantation method using polyethylene net with the initial explant sizes of 1 cm, 3 cm, and 5 cm. The result showed that the sponge growth and survival rates were dependent on the species. Callyspongia sp. and Callyspongia basilana gave the highest growth and survival rates on the treatment 3 cm with the final explants length reached 12.20 ± 2.35 cm and 7.603 ± 0.93 cm and survival rates reached 98.33% and 36.67%. In contrast, Haliclona sp. had the highest growth (21.67 ± 0.25) and survival (95%) on treatment 5 cm. Nevertheless, among the three species, treatment using 3 cm and 5 cm of initial explant sizes did not show a significant difference. Therefore for the efficiency of explants use, the best initial explant length for culturing the three species of sponges is 3 cm.

MARINE SPONGE Aaptos suberitoides, IT’S POTENTIAL SOURCE OF NATURAL ANTIBACTERIAL FOR CONTROLLING Vibrio harveyi ON TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon) CULTURE

Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 10, No 1 (2015): (June 2015)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Abstract

The study aims to isolate and identify the natural antibacterial compounds potential from Aaptos suberitoides for Vibrio harveyi control on tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) culture. The agar diffusion method using paper discs was used to determine the antibacterial activity of extracts (diethyl ether (DEE), butanol (BUE) and aqueous (HOE) and compounds successfully isolated against Vibrio harveyi. Findings showed that the antibacterial activity was concentrated in BUE with the inhibition zone of 17.2±0.1 mm. Meanwhile, two other extracts (DEE and HOE) did not exhibit any antibacterial activity against V. harveyi. From the active BUE, it was successfully isolated two compounds giving a strong anti-vibrio activity with the inhibition zone of 22±0.1 mm. The IR, 1H, 13C, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and MS spectrum analysis indicated that both active compounds identified as aaptamine (1) and 9-demethyloxyaaptamine (2). The study suggested that marine sponge A. suberitoides may have potential compounds source for controlling of V. harveyi on tiger shrimp culture.

THE EFFECT OF PHYTOECDYSTEROID OF Cycas revolua, Portulaca oleracea, AND Morus sp. ON MOLTING PERIOD, GROWTH AND SURVIVAL RATE OF TIGER SHRIMP, Penaeus monodon

Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 11, No 2 (2016): (December, 2016)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Abstract

The problem which has still been faced in the Artificial insemination (AI) is the slow of shrimp to molt. Ecdysteroid hormone has been reported to stimulate molting of tiger shrimp. This study aims to isolate ecdysteroid hormone from Cycas revoluta, Portulaca oleracea and Morus sp. and evaluate its effect on molting period, growth and survival rate of tiger shrimp. Isolation of ecdysteroid from the leaves of three species was carried out by maceration and solvent partition method. Purification of ecdysteroid used repeated column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography (TLC). Evaluation of the isolated phytoecdysteroid hormone effect on molting period, growth and survival rate of shrimp was done by injecting of 100 µL phytoecdyasterod (27.5 µg/shrimp) at the first somite of ventral abdomen. As the comparison, the commercial ecdysteroid (positive control) and sterile saline solution (negative control) were also injected at the concentration of 8.6 µg/shrimp and 0 µg/shrimp, respectively. Finding showed that the highest percentage of phytoecdysteroid was obtained in Portulaca oleracea, followed by Morus sp. and Cycas revoluta with the ecdysteroid content of 0.43%, 0.22%, and 0.09%, respectively. Pytoecdysteroid isolated from the three plants was able to shorten molting period of shrimp into 4, 4, 2, and 5 days earlier for Portulaca oleracea, Morus sp., Cycas revoluta, and positive control, respectively, compared to the negative control. The highest survival rate and growth were obtained at the treatment of Portulaca oleracea, followed by Morus sp. and Cycas revoluta with the survival rate, length and weight increase of 86%, 75%, and 25%, 4.42%, 2.26% and 2.16%, and 15.90%, 10.55%, and 8.73%, respectively. 

THE EFFECT OF MARINE SPONGE Aaptos aaptos EXTRACT IN VIBRIOSIS TREATMENT OF BLACK TIGER SHRIMP Penaeus monodon LARVAE

Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 9, No 2 (2014): (December 2014)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Abstract

Black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon post larvae were challenged with Vibrio harveyi and butanol extract of selected marine sponge Aaptos aaptos to determine its antibacterial bioactive potential in vibriosis treatment. Based on the preliminary toxicity study, the A. aaptos butanol extract with concentrations of 31.25, 62.5, and 125 mg/L were selected in the study. Black tiger shrimp post larvae were challenged with V. harveyi at 107 cfu/mL and immersed A. aaptos butanol extract with the concentration of 125 mg/L showed significantly in (P<0.05) decrease mortality of the post larvae treated. Besides at this concentration, V. harveyi population in the rearing water and the post larvae treated decreased compared to control (untreated post larvae). Histological observation indicated that there was no changing on hepatopancreas of the black tiger shrimp post larvae. Based on this result, it is suggested that the butanol extract of A. aaptos is a potential bioactive compounds source in the treatment of vibriosis which may replaced the current antibiotics application.

IN VITRO ANTAGONISTIC ACTIVITIES OF INDONESIAN MARINE SPONGE AAPTOS AAPTOS AND CALLYSPONGIA PSEUDORETICULATA EXTRACTS AND THEIR TOXICITY AGAINST Vibrio spp.

Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 6, No 2 (2011): (December 2011)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Abstract

Vibriosis is one of diseases which often results in mass mortality of Penaeus monodon larval rearing systems. It attacks shrimp of all stages in zoea, mysis and shrimp postlarva stage. This disease is caused by Vibrio spp, particularly Vibrio harveyi (a luminescent bacterium). Several kinds of antibiotics and chemical material have been used to overcome the disease but they have side effects to environment and human. The searching of bioactive compounds as an alternative treatment has been done for multi purposes. In this study diethyl eter, butanol and aqueous extract of Indonesian sponges Aaptos aaptos and Callyspongia pseudoreticulata were tested for in vitro activity against Vibrio spp. and Vibrio harveyi by using disc diffusion method. The result showed that all extracts of Aaptos aaptos gave a positive antibacterial activity towards those pathogenic bacteria. Meanwhile, only butanol extract of Callyspongia pseudoreticulata obtained to exhibit an antibacterial activity on those pathogenic bacteria. The strong anti-vibrio activity were shown by butanol and aqueous extract of Aaptos aaptos with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.313 and 0.625 mg/mL, respectively. Whilst, the butanol extract of Callyspongia pseudoreticulata indicated a low antibacterial activity with the MIC value of 10 mg/mL. Toxicity of those active extracts was evaluated by Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BST). Interestingly, butanol and aqueous extracts of Aaptos aaptos did not show any toxic effect in Artemia salina larvae up to 8 x MIC (2.504 mg/mL and 5.000 mg/mL). It is the first report for the anti-vibr io activity of both Aaptos aaptos and Callyspongia pseudoreticulata. This results suggest that Aaptos aaptos has a potential to be used as a source of alternative compound to vibriosis prevention for mariculture.