Nur Atifah
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Tamarind Kernel Powder (Tamarindus Indica) Processing (Reviews on Roasting Temperature and Roasting Duration Pulungan, M. Hindun; Sukardi, Sukardi; Maryani, E. F. Sri; Atifah, Nur; Sucipto, Sucipto
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 2, No 3 (2001)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

Tamarind kernel is a kind of waste that is not yet used optimally. As natural hydrocolloid source, for it is containing starch and gum, the kernel can be changed in powder form to increase its utility. In powder processing, kernel shell must be separated. One manner to separate it is by roasting where problem of roasting Research is designated to achieve combination of the best behavior of roasting temperature and roasting duration in processing of tamarind kernel as well as the calculation of production cost. Hypothesis is made. It is estimated that the inter-relation between roasting temperature and roasting duration increases the characters of tamarind kernel powder. Experimental method is used. Group random engineering, arranged by factorial, that is, two factors and three replications is implemented. Factor I is roasting temperature such as 1400C, 1500C, 1600C, and Factor II is roasting duration such as 10 minutes, 15 minutes, and 20 minutes. Analysis result of product random on tamarind kernel powder indicates that interaction between roasting temperature and roasting duration on water level, powder degree, viscosity, gel strength, rendemens and color pleasure is observed. However, interaction between roasting temperature and roasting duration in scent pleasure is not achieved. Analysis to obtain the best alternative results in best alternative of roasting temperature treatment at 1400C for 10 minutes by water level averages to 8,717% bk, starch level to 61,18% bk, viscosity 53,82 cP, gel strength 0,0097 mm/g/seconds, color and scent pleasures and rendements to 77,17% bk, production cost in first year is Rp. 525,00 for each 1 kg.   Keywords: tamarind kernel, roasting
The Fermentation Study on Polyhydroxyalkanoates Produced by Ralstonia eutropha from Hydrolized Sago Starch as The Carbon Source Atifah, Nur; Syamsu, Khaswar; Suryani, Ani
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 8, No 3 (2007)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), microbial bioplastics, not only were similar in properties with those made of petrochemical products, they were also completely biodegradable. At the moment, the price of PHAs was still high. This research was conducted to investigate the ability of Ralstonia eutropha to produce PHAs on a sago starch-based substrate, one of the cheap and abundantly renewable resources in Indonesia, and to characterize the PHAs produced. The microorganism was grown on the hydrolyzed sago starch with an initial sugar concentration of 30 g/lIt was found that the best value of the maximum specific growth rate (µmax) was  0,188 h-1. Kinetic parameters at 96 hour-batch fermentation showed the respective final cell and PHA concentrations of 4,41 g/L and 1,44 g/L. The yields of cell biomass (Yx/s), PHAs per gram of cells (Yp/x), PHAs per gram of substrate (Yp/s) and the percentage of substrate consumption  (∆S/So) were, 0.15 g cell/g sugar; 0.35 g PHA/g cells; 0.06 g PHA/g sugar and 99%, respectively.  The PHAs produced were predominantly composed of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) as the functional groups with a melting point of 163,96 oC.Keywords : hydrolyzed sago starch, PHA, Ralstonia eutropha